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1.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(6): 754-760, 2021 12.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus spp. fungal coinfections have been described in critically ill COVID-19 patients. AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and evolution of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with COVID-19, who present with COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in a single public hospital. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical records during 12 months in patients diagnosed with CAPA by cultures of respiratory samples or determination of galactomannan (GM). RESULTS: Probable CAPA was diagnosed in 11 patients (average APACHE II score of 11.7). Respiratory samples were obtained in 73% of cases by bronchoalveolar lavage and in 27% by tracheal aspirate. A. fumigatus was isolated in 4 cultures, A. niger, A. terreus and Aspergillus spp on one occasion each and the cultures were negative in 4 samples. Respiratory sample GM was performed in 7 patients, median: 3.6 (IQR: 1.71 - 4.4). In 10 patients, serum GM was performed, median: 0.5 (IQR: 0.265 - 0.9 75) with 50% of them > 0.5. Two patients showed classic findings suggestive of CAPA on computed tomography. All received antifungal therapy with voriconazole, mean time 14 days. Four patients died. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CAPA should be a diagnosis to be considered in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Chile/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(18): e134, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by secondary infections, such as invasive aspergillosis. In this study, risk factors for developing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and their clinical outcomes were evaluated. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients from July 2020 through March 2021. Critically ill patients were defined as patients requiring high-flow respiratory support or mechanical ventilation. CAPA was defined based on the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Factors associated with CAPA were analyzed, and their clinical outcomes were adjusted by a propensity score-matched model. RESULTS: Among 187 eligible patients, 17 (9.1%) developed CAPA, which is equal to 33.10 per 10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients received voriconazole-based antifungal treatment. In addition, 82.4% and 53.5% of patients with CAPA and without CAPA, respectively, received early high-dose corticosteroids (P = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, initial 10-day cumulative steroid dose > 60 mg of dexamethasone or dexamethasone equivalent dose) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-13.79) and chronic pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.26-14.02) were independently associated with CAPA. Tendencies of higher 90-day overall mortality (54.3% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.346) and lower respiratory support-free rate were observed in patients with CAPA (76.3% vs. 54.9%, P = 0.089). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the dose of corticosteroid use might be a risk factor for CAPA development and the possibility of CAPA contributing to adverse outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Mycoses ; 65(5): 541-550, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a major complication of critically ill COVID-19 patients, with a high mortality rate and potentially preventable. Thus, identifying patients at high risk of CAPA would be of great interest. We intended to develop a clinical prediction score capable of stratifying patients according to the risk for CAPA at ICU admission. METHODS: Single centre retrospective case-control study. A case was defined as a patient diagnosed with CAPA according to 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria. 2 controls were selected for each case among critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: 28 CAPA patients and 56-matched controls were included. Factors associated with CAPA included old age (68 years vs. 62, p = .033), active smoking (17.9% vs. 1.8%, p = .014), chronic respiratory diseases (48.1% vs. 26.3%, p = .043), chronic renal failure (25.0% vs. 3.6%, p = .005), chronic corticosteroid treatment (28.6% vs. 1.8%, p < .001), tocilizumab therapy (92.9% vs. 66.1%, p = .008) and high APACHE II at ICU admission (median 13 vs. 10 points, p = .026). A score was created including these variables, which showed an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.854 (95% CI 0.77-0.92). A punctuation below 6 had a negative predictive value of 99.6%. A punctuation of 10 or higher had a positive predictive value of 27.9%. CONCLUSION: We present a clinical prediction score that allowed to stratify critically ill COVID-19 patients according to the risk for developing CAPA. This CAPA score would allow to target preventive measures. Further evaluation of the score, as well as the utility of these targeted preventive measures, is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 69(1): 48-53, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626227

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 who are admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk of developing secondary infections, including invasive fungal infections such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The main purpose was to analyse the putative COVID-19 Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA) patients in our setting. In these patients, we performed mycological culture in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for isolation of Aspergillus sp. We followed the AspICU algorithm to diagnose putative IPA. Moreover, we considered relevant the positivity of Galactomannan in BAL. We diagnosed putative IPA in 3 patients. The common features of these 3 patients were: more than 21 days of stay in ICU, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and treatment with steroids (1 mg/kg per day). Therefore, CAPA has to be systematically considered although a new algorithm to diagnose it is needed to treat patients in early stages in order to avoid catastrophic outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 222-227, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and risk of fungal co-infection, pulmonary aspergillosis in particular. However, COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) cases remain limited due to the difficulty in diagnosis. METHODS: We describe presumptive invasive aspergillosis in eight patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in a single center in Shenzhen, China. Data collected include underlying conditions, mycological findings, immunodetection results, therapies and outcomes. RESULTS: Four of the eight patients had tested positive for Aspergillus by either culture or Next-generation sequencing analysis of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), while the rest of patients had only positive results in antigen or antibody detection. Although all patients received antifungal therapies, six of these eight patients (66.7%) died. CONCLUSION: Due to the high mortality rate of CAPA, clinical care in patients with CAPA deserves more attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(2): 163-169, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606008

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) can affect patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but many questions remain open about its very variable incidence across the world, the actual link between the viral infection and the fungal superinfection, the significance of Aspergillus recovery in a respiratory sample, and the management of such cases. This review addresses these questions and aims at providing some clues for the practical diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in a clinical perspective. RECENT FINDINGS: Definitions have been proposed for possible/probable/proven CAPA, but distinction between colonization and invasive fungal infection is difficult and not possible in most cases in the absence of histopathological proof or positive galactomannan in serum. Most importantly, the recovery of an Aspergillus by a direct (culture, PCR) or indirect (galactomannan) test in a respiratory sample is an indicator of worse outcome, which justifies a screening for early detection and initiation of preemptive antifungal therapy in such cases. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased our awareness of IPA among ICU patients. Although current recommendations are mainly based on experts' opinions, prospective studies are needed to get more evidence-based support for the diagnostic approach and management of CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096211063332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603889

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 56-year-old woman who was diagnosed with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome who was intubated for 19 days. She recovered from COVID-19 after a month. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest, after a month, showed improved infiltrates with a small residual cavity within the lingula. A CT angiogram showed a more confluent density in the lingular portion on follow-up 2 months later. She developed intermittent hemoptysis after 3 months in December 2020, which persisted for almost 6 months, and CT of the chest showed the lingular nodular with resolution of the cavitation. She underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, confirming Aspergillus fumigatus by galactomannan assay and histology showing branching hyphae. Once she started treatment with itraconazole, her hemoptysis resolved. The follow-up CT of the chest after 2 months of treatment did not show a cavity or a nodule in the lingula. Our patient developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) as a sequela of severe COVID-19 infection. COVID-19-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is an underrecognized complication that needs to be investigated on whether prophylactic treatment is required. Our case also demonstrates that the diagnosis of IPA needs to be considered months after COVID-19 infection when a superimposed fungal infection can occur after a viral infection if the patient continues to have persistent symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus fumigatus , Female , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Intern Med J ; 51(12): 2129-2132, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583530

ABSTRACT

We report four cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillus co-infection in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus were isolated, with early infection onset following ICU admission. Clinicians should be aware of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in ICU patients with COVID-19 infection, particularly those receiving dexamethasone. We propose screening of these high-risk patients with twice-weekly fungal culture from tracheal aspirate and, if feasible, Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction. Diagnosis is challenging and antifungal treatment should be considered in critically ill patients who have new or worsening pulmonary changes on chest imaging and mycological evidence of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Mycoses ; 65(1): 57-64, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Though invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a well known complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, indolent forms of aspergillosis have been rarely described. METHODS: We prospectively collected the clinico-radio-microbiological data of 10 patients of subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (SAIA), who presented to our hospital with recent history of COVID-19 pneumonia along with cavitary lung disease, positive IgG (against Aspergillus) with or without positive respiratory samples for Aspergillus spp. RESULT: The mean age of presentation of SAIA was 50.7 ± 11.8 years. All the patients had recently recovered from severe COVID-19 illness with a mean duration of 29.2 ± 12 days from COVID-19 positivity. Cough was the predominant symptom seen in 8/10 (80%) patients followed by haemoptysis. 7/10 (70%) patients were known diabetic. While serum galactomannan was positive in 5/9 patients (55.5%), fungal culture was positive in 2/7 patients (28.5%) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Aspergillus was positive in three patients. Eight (80%) patients presented with a single cavitary lesion; pseudoaneurysm of pulmonary artery was seen in two patients and post-COVID-19 changes were seen in all patients. All patients were treated with voriconazole, out of which four (40%) patients died during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: SAIA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cavitating lung lesions in patients with recent history of COVID-19 in the background of steroid use with or without pre-existing diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Antibodies, Fungal/blood , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Voriconazole
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1634-e1644, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fungal coinfection is a recognized complication of respiratory virus infections, increasing morbidity and mortality, but can be readily treated if diagnosed early. An increasing number of small studies describing aspergillosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe respiratory distress are being reported, but comprehensive data are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and impact of invasive fungal disease in adult COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory distress. METHODS: An evaluation of a national, multicenter, prospective cohort evaluation of an enhanced testing strategy to diagnose invasive fungal disease in COVID-19 intensive care patients. Results were used to generate a mechanism to define aspergillosis in future COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: One-hundred and thirty-five adults (median age: 57, M/F: 2.2/1) were screened. The incidence was 26.7% (14.1% aspergillosis, 12.6% yeast infections). The overall mortality rate was 38%; 53% and 31% in patients with and without fungal disease, respectively (P = .0387). The mortality rate was reduced by the use of antifungal therapy (mortality: 38.5% in patients receiving therapy vs 90% in patients not receiving therapy (P = .008). The use of corticosteroids (P = .007) and history of chronic respiratory disease (P = .05) increased the likelihood of aspergillosis. CONCLUSIONS: Fungal disease occurs frequently in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. The survival benefit observed in patients receiving antifungal therapy implies that the proposed diagnostic and defining criteria are appropriate. Screening using a strategic diagnostic approach and antifungal prophylaxis of patients with risk factors will likely enhance the management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Mycoses , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Infection ; 50(1): 43-56, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439795

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis has been increasingly recognized in COVID-19 patients, termed COVID-19-associate pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Our meta-analysis aims to assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients diagnosed with CAPA compared to those without CAPA. METHODS: We searched the Pubmed, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases for studies published between January 1, 2020 and August 1, 2021, containing comparative data of patients diagnosed with CAPA and those without CAPA. RESULTS: Eight cohort studies involving 729 critically ill COVID-19 patients with comparative data were included. CAPA patients were older (mean age 66.58 vs. 59.25 years; P = 0.007) and had underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (13.7 vs. 6.1%; OR 2.75; P = 0.05). No differences in gender, body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities of diabetes and cancer were observed. CAPA patients were more likely to receive long-term corticosteroid treatment (15.0 vs. 5.3%; OR 3.53; P = 0.03). CAPA patients had greater severity of illness based on sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score with a higher all-cause in-hospital mortality rate (42.6 vs. 26.5%; OR 3.39; P < 0.001) and earlier ICU admission from illness onset (mean 11.00 vs. 12.00 days; P = 0.003). ICU length of stay (LOS), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) duration, the requirement of inotropic support and renal replacement therapy were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: CAPA patients are typically older with underlying COPD and received long-term corticosteroid treatment. Furthermore, CAPA is associated with higher SOFA scores, mortality, and earlier onset of ICU admission from illness onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 580-587, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) -associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has emerged as a complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The objectives of this multinational study were to determine the prevalence of CAPA in patients with COVID-19 in intensive care units (ICU) and to investigate risk factors for CAPA as well as outcome. METHODS: The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) conducted a multinational study including 20 centres from nine countries to assess epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of CAPA. CAPA was defined according to the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus definitions. RESULTS: A total of 592 patients were included in this study, including 11 (1.9%) patients with histologically proven CAPA, 80 (13.5%) with probable CAPA, 18 (3%) with possible CAPA and 483 (81.6%) without CAPA. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 8 days (range 0-31 days) after ICU admission predominantly in older patients (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.04 per year; 95% CI 1.02-1.06) with any form of invasive respiratory support (HR 3.4; 95% CI 1.84-6.25) and receiving tocilizumab (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.41-4.25). Median prevalence of CAPA per centre was 10.7% (range 1.7%-26.8%). CAPA was associated with significantly lower 90-day ICU survival rate (29% in patients with CAPA versus 57% in patients without CAPA; Mantel-Byar p < 0.001) and remained an independent negative prognostic variable after adjusting for other predictors of survival (HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.59-2.87, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of CAPA varied between centres. CAPA was significantly more prevalent among older patients, patients receiving invasive ventilation and patients receiving tocilizumab, and was an independent strong predictor of ICU mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Mycology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 58(4): 106409, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330851

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been concern about the concomitant rise of antimicrobial resistance. While bacterial co-infections seem rare in COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital wards and intensive care units (ICUs), an increase in empirical antibiotic use has been described. In the ICU setting, where antibiotics are already abundantly-and often inappropriately-prescribed, the need for an ICU-specific antimicrobial stewardship programme is widely advocated. Apart from essentially warning against the use of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of a viral infection, other aspects of ICU antimicrobial stewardship need to be considered in view of the clinical course and characteristics of COVID-19. First, the distinction between infectious and non-infectious (inflammatory) causes of respiratory deterioration during an ICU stay is difficult, and the much-debated relevance of fungal and viral co-infections adds to the complexity of empirical antimicrobial prescribing. Biomarkers such as procalcitonin for the decision to start antibacterial therapy for ICU nosocomial infections seem to be more promising in COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 patients. In COVID-19 patients, cytomegalovirus reactivation is an important factor to consider when assessing patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 as it may have a role in modulating the patient immune response. The diagnosis of COVID-19-associated invasive aspergillosis is challenging because of the lack of sensitivity and specificity of the available tests. Furthermore, altered pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties need to be taken into account when prescribing antimicrobial therapy. Future research should now further explore the 'known unknowns', ideally with robust prospective study designs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , COVID-19 , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antimicrobial Stewardship/organization & administration , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Virus Activation/drug effects
18.
Mycoses ; 64(9): 980-988, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273123

ABSTRACT

It is now well known that patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted in ICU and mechanically ventilated are at risk of developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Nevertheless, symptomatology of IPA is often atypical in mechanically ventilated patients, and radiological aspects in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and IPA are difficult to differentiate. In this context, the significance of the presence of Aspergillus in airway specimens (detected by culture, galactomannan antigen or specific PCR) remains to be fully understood. To decipher the relevance of the detection of Aspergillus, we performed a comprehensive review of all published cases of respiratory Aspergillus colonisation and IPA in COVID-19 patients. The comparison of patients receiving or not antifungal treatment allowed us to highlight the most important criteria for the decision to treat. The comparison of surviving and non-surviving patients made it possible to unveil criteria associated with mortality that should be taken into account in the treatment decision.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Cause of Death , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Mycoses ; 64(9): 1015-1027, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247256

ABSTRACT

Reports of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) are rising, but the associated mortality and factors affecting it are not well-characterised. We performed a systematic review including 20 peer-reviewed English language studies reporting mortality in CAPA published till 18 February 2021from PubMed, Ovid SP, Web of Science, Embase and CINHAL. The pooled mortality in CAPA was 51.2% (95% CI: 43.1-61.1, I2  = 38%). The leave one out sensitivity analysis and influential case diagnostics revealed one outlier and its exclusion resulted in a mortality estimate of 54% (95% CI: 45-62). Higher odds of mortality: 2.83 (95% CI: 1.8-4.5) were seen in CAPA compared to controls. No significant difference in various subgroups according to the country of study, the continent of study, income category of country and quality of the included study was seen. None of the host risk factors, mycological test results, therapy for COVID-19 and antifungal therapy affected mortality. Thus, patients with CAPA have a high probability of mortality and early diagnosis with prompt therapy must be ensured to optimally manage these patients. However, more prospective studies with global and multi-centre coordination may help to address CAPA in a better way.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/microbiology , Cause of Death , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(2)2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183944

ABSTRACT

Dear Editor, A 55-year-female, house wife, non-smoker, morbidly obese (BMI>35) with no other co-morbidities or pre-existing lung disease presented to the emergency room with complaints of highgrade fever, cough with minimal sputum, progressive breathlessness, streaky haemoptysis, and anorexia for the past 5 days. She was admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) for severe COVID-19 pneumonia three months back and had successfully recovered after 24 days of hospitalization....


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
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