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1.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 62: 21-27, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240510

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in critically ill patients with viral pneumonitis has increasingly been reported in recent years. Influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) and COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) are the two most common forms of this fungal infection. These diseases cause high mortality in patients, most of whom were previously immunocompetent. The pathogenesis of IAPA and CAPA is still not fully understood, but involves viral, fungal and host factors. In this article, we discuss several aspects regarding IAPA and CAPA, including their possible pathogenesis, the use of immunotherapy, and future challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Influenza, Human/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunotherapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/immunology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/pathology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology
2.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(4): 383-386, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159611

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a well-known complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome, the most serious manifestation of COVID-19. Four recent studies have reported its incidence among ICU COVID-19 patients. However, they do not share the same case definition, and have provided conflicting results. In this paper we have aimed at reported the incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis for COVID-19 patients in our ICU, and at comparing the different definitions in order to assess their respective relevance. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 requiring ICU management between 1st March and 30th April 2020. RESULTS: Our results showed significantly lower incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (1.8%;1/53), compared to three out of four previous studies, and wide variation in the numbers of cases with regard to the different definitions. CONCLUSION: Large-scale studies are needed for a better definition and a more accurate estimation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis coinfection during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Aged , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Incidence , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0238825, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Superinfections, including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), are well-known complications of critically ill patients with severe viral pneumonia. Aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors and outcome of IPA in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively screened 32 critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia for a time period of 28 days using a standardized study protocol for oberservation of developement of COVID-19 associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We collected laboratory, microbiological, virological and clinical parameters at defined timepoints in combination with galactomannan-antigen-detection from nondirected bronchial lavage (NBL). We used logistic regression analyses to assess if COVID-19 was independently associated with IPA and compared it with matched controls. FINDINGS: CAPA was diagnosed at a median of 4 days after ICU admission in 11/32 (34%) of critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia as compared to 8% in the control cohort. In the COVID-19 cohort, mean age, APACHE II score and ICU mortality were higher in patients with CAPA than in patients without CAPA (36% versus 9.5%; p<0.001). ICU stay (21 versus 17 days; p = 0.340) and days of mechanical ventilation (20 versus 15 days; p = 0.570) were not different between both groups. In regression analysis COVID-19 and APACHE II score were independently associated with IPA. INTERPRETATION: CAPA is highly prevalent and associated with a high mortality rate. COVID-19 is independently associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. A standardized screening and diagnostic approach as presented in our study can help to identify affected patients at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/virology , Male , Mannans/metabolism , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Superinfection/etiology , Superinfection/microbiology
4.
Med Mycol ; 59(8): 828-833, 2021 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135873

ABSTRACT

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a severe infection caused by aspergillus sp. that usually develops in patients with severe immunosuppression. IPA has been recently described in critically ill COVID-19 patients (termed as COVID-associated pulmonary aspergillosis, or CAPA) that are otherwise immunocompetent. In order to describe the characteristics of patients with CAPA, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in a tertiary care center in Mexico City. We included all patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit that had serum or bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan measurements. We used the criteria proposed by Koehler et al. to establish the diagnosis of CAPA. Main outcomes were the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and in-hospital mortality. Out of a total of 83 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the ICU, 16 (19.3%) met the criteria for CAPA. All patients diagnosed with CAPA required IMV whereas only 84% of the patients in the non-IPA group needed this intervention (P = 0.09). In the IPA group, 31% (n = 5) of the patients died, compared to 13% (n = 9) in the non-CAPA group (P = 0.08). We conclude that CAPA is a frequent co-infection in critically ill COVID-19 patients and is associated with a high mortality rate. The timely diagnosis and treatment of IPA in these patients is likely to improve their outcome. LAY SUMMARY: We studied the characteristics of patients with COVID-19-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Patients with CAPA tended to need invasive mechanical ventilation more frequently and to have a higher mortality rate. Adequate resources for its management can improve their outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Med Mycol ; 59(1): 110-114, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066375

ABSTRACT

Occurrence of putative invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was screened in 153 consecutive adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients with respiratory samples addressed for mycological diagnosis during a 6-week period at the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was observed for 106 patients (69.3%). Nineteen of them (17.9%) with positive Aspergillus results were considered as having putative invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. These observations underline the risk of pulmonary aspergillosis in COVID-19 patients, even in patients not previously known to be immunosuppressed, advocating active search for Aspergillus infection and prompt antifungal treatment. Standardized surveillance protocols and updated definitions for ICU putative invasive pulmonary aspergillosis are needed. LAY ABSTRACT: Adult ICU patients with respiratory samples addressed for mycological diagnosis were screened during the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic. Positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR was observed for 106 patients, nineteen of them (17.9%) having aspergillosis. This underlines the risk of aspergillosis in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Mycopathologia ; 185(6): 1077-1084, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064562

ABSTRACT

Although patients with severe immunodeficiency and hematological malignancies has been considered at highest risk for invasive fungal infection, patients with severe pneumonia due to influenza, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) are also at a higher risk of developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Recently, reports of IPA have also emerged among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Here, we report a fatal case of probable IPA in an acute myeloid leukemia patient co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Probable IPA is supported by multiple pulmonary nodules with ground glass opacities which indicate halo sign and positive serum galactomannan results. Screening studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence of IPA in immunocompromised patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Consequently, testing for the presence of Aspergillus in lower respiratory secretions and galactomannan in consecutive serum samples of COVID-19 patients with timely and targeted antifungal therapy based on early clinical suspicion of IPA are highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Fatal Outcome , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Iran , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/blood , Mannans/blood
7.
Mycoses ; 64(2): 144-151, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the global coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) spreads across the world, new clinical challenges emerge in the hospital landscape. Among these challenges, the increased risk of coinfections is a major threat to the patients. Although still in a low number, due to the short time of the pandemic, studies that identified a significant number of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who developed secondary fungal infections that led to serious complications and even death have been published. OBJECTIVES: In this scenario, we aim to determine the prevalence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and describe possible associated risk factors in patients admitted due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. PATIENTS/METHODS: We designed an open prospective observational study at the Rey Juan Carlos University Hospital (Mostoles, Spain), during the period from February 1 to April 30, 2020. RESULTS: In this article, we reported seven patients with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) who had a poor prognosis. Severely ill patients represent a high-risk group; therefore, we must actively investigate the possibility of aspergillosis in all of these patients. Larger cohort studies are needed to unravel the role of COVID-19 immunosuppressive therapy as a risk factor for aspergillosis. CONCLUSIONS: As the pandemic continues to spread across the world, further reports are needed to assess the frequency of emergent and highly resistant reemergent fungal infections during severe COVID-19. These coinfections are leading a significant number of patients with COVID-19 to death due to complications following the primary viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intermediate Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain
8.
Mycoses ; 64(2): 132-143, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934033

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Information on the recently COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) entity is scarce. We describe eight CAPA patients, compare them to colonised ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and review the published literature from Western countries. METHODS: Prospective study (March to May, 2020) that included all COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary hospital. Modified AspICU and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria were used. RESULTS: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed in eight patients (3.3% of 239 ICU patients), mostly affected non-immunocompromised patients (75%) with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving corticosteroids. Diagnosis was established after a median of 15 days under mechanical ventilation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in two patients with positive Aspergillus fumigatus cultures and galactomannan (GM) index. Serum GM was positive in 4/8 (50%). Thoracic CT scan findings fulfilled EORTC/MSG criteria in one case. Isavuconazole was used in 4/8 cases. CAPA-related mortality was 100% (8/8). Compared with colonised patients, CAPA subjects were administered tocilizumab more often (100% vs. 40%, p = .04), underwent longer courses of antibacterial therapy (13 vs. 5 days, p = .008), and had a higher all-cause mortality (100% vs. 40%, p = .04). We reviewed 96 similar cases from recent publications: 59 probable CAPA (also putative according modified AspICU), 56 putative cases and 13 colonisations according AspICU algorithm; according EORTC/MSG six proven and two probable. Overall, mortality in the reviewed series was 56.3%. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis must be considered a serious and potentially life-threatening complication in patients with severe COVID-19 receiving immunosuppressive treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620966475, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873890

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection (SARS-CoV-2), commonly known as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019), began in the Wuhan District of Hubei Province, China. It is regarded as one of the worst pandemics, which has consumed both human lives and the world economy. COVID-19 infection mainly affects the lungs triggering severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, also providing a nidus for superimposed bacterial and fungal infections. We report the case of a 73-year-old male who presented with progressive dyspnea; diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2-related severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and complicated with lung cavitations growing Aspergillus sp. COVID-19, to our knowledge, has rarely been associated with subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with aspergillomas. Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis as a superimposed infection in patients with SARS-CoV-2 is a rare entity. By reporting this case, we would like to make the readers aware of this association.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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