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1.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 11(1): e760, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections with fungi, such as Aspergillus species, have been found as common complications of viral pneumonia. This study aims to determine the risk factors of fungal superinfections in viral pneumonia patients using meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the risk factors of fungal infection s in viral pneumonia patients using meta-analysis. METHODS: We reviewed primary literature about fungal infection in viral pneumonia patients published between January 1, 2010 and September 30, 2020, in the Chinese Biomedical Literature, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang (China), Cochrane Central Library, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. These studies were subjected to an array of statistical analyses, including risk of bias and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: In this study, we found a statistically significant difference in the incidence of fungal infections in viral pneumonia patients that received corticosteroid treatment as compared to those without corticosteroid treatment (p < .00001). Additionally, regarding the severity of fungal infections, we observed significant higher incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores (p < .001), tumors (p = .005), or immunocompromised patients (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows that corticosteroid treatment was an important risk factor for the development of fungal infection in patients with viral pneumonia. High APACHE II scores, tumors, and immunocompromised condition are also important risk factors of developing IPA. The diagnosis of fungal infection in viral pneumonia patients can be facilitated by early serum galactomannan (GM) testing, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid Aspergillus antigen testing, culture, and biopsy.


Subject(s)
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Neoplasms , Superinfection , Humans , Superinfection/complications , Sensitivity and Specificity , Aspergillus , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Risk Factors
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e057746, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020034

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing numbers of patients with non-haematological diseases are infected with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), with a high mortality reported which is mainly due to delayed diagnosis. The diagnostic capability of mycological tests for IPA including galactomannan test, (1,3)-ß-D-glucan test, lateral flow assay, lateral flow device and PCR for the non-haematological patients remains unknown. This protocol aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of mycological tests to facilitate the early diagnosis and treatments of IPA in non-haematological diseases. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Database including PubMed, CENTRAL and EMBASE will be searched from 2002 until the publication of results. Cohort or cross-sectional studies that assessing the diagnostic capability of mycological tests for IPA in patients with non-haematological diseases will be included. The true-positive, false-positive, true-negative and false-negative of each test will be extracted and pooled in bivariate random-effects model, by which the sensitivity and specificity will be calculated with 95% CI. The second outcomes will include positive (negative) likelihood ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and diagnostic OR will also be computed in the bivariate model. When applicable, subgroup analysis will be performed with several prespecified covariates to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Factors that may impact the diagnostic effects of mycological tests will be examined by sensitivity analysis. The risk of bias will be appraised by the Quality Assessment tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is not involved with ethics approval, and the results will be peer-reviewed and disseminated on a recognised journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021241820.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , Hematology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Likelihood Functions , Odds Ratio , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Systematic Reviews as Topic/methods
3.
Mycoses ; 65(10): 960-968, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay (GM-EIA) is proved to be a cornerstone in the diagnosis of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), its use is limited in middle and low-income countries, where the application of simple and rapid test, including Galactomannan Lateral Flow Assay (GM-LFA), is highly appreciated. Despite such merits, limited studies directly compared GM-LFA with GM-EIA. Herein we compared the diagnostic features of GM-LFA, GM-EIA and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) culture for CAPA diagnosis in Iran, a developing country. MATERIALS/METHODS: Diagnostic performances of GM-LFA and GM-EIA in BAL (GM indexes ≥1) and serum (GM indexes >0.5), i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and areas under the curve (AUC), were evaluated using BAL (n = 105) and serum (n = 101) samples from mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients in intensive care units. Patients were classified based on the presence of host factors, radiological findings and mycological evidences according to 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria for CAPA diagnosis. RESULTS: The Aspergillus GM-LFA for serum and BAL samples showed a sensitivity of 56.3% and 60.6%, specificity of 94.2% and 88.9%, PPV of 81.8% and 71.4%, NPV of 82.3% and 83.1%, when compared with BAL culture, respectively. GM-EIA showed sensitivities of 46.9% and 54.5%, specificities of 100% and 91.7%, PPVs of 100% and 75%, NPVs of 80.2% and 81.5% for serum and BAL samples, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study found GM-LFA as a reliable simple and rapid diagnostic tool, which could circumvent the shortcomings of culture and GM-EIA and be pivotal in timely initiation of antifungal treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Antifungal Agents , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Mannans , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Mycoses ; 65(8): 824-833, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of lung biopsy, there are various algorithms for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in critically ill patients that rely on clinical signs, underlying conditions, radiological features and mycology. The aim of the present study was to compare four diagnostic algorithms in their ability to differentiate between probable IPA (i.e., requiring treatment) and colonisation. METHODS: For this diagnostic accuracy study, we included a mixed ICU population with a positive Aspergillus culture from respiratory secretions and applied four different diagnostic algorithms to them. We compared agreement among the four algorithms. In a subgroup of patients with lung tissue histopathology available, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of the single algorithms. RESULTS: A total number of 684 critically ill patients (69% medical/31% surgical) were included between 2005 and 2020. Overall, 79% (n = 543) of patients fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to at least one diagnostic algorithm. Only 4% of patients (n = 29) fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to all four algorithms. Agreement among the four diagnostic criteria was low (Cohen's kappa 0.07-0.29). From 85 patients with histopathological examination of lung tissue, 40% (n = 34) had confirmed IPA. The new EORTC/MSGERC ICU working group criteria had high specificity (0.59 [0.41-0.75]) and sensitivity (0.73 [0.59-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of mixed ICU patients, the agreement among four algorithms for the diagnosis of IPA was low. Although improved by the latest diagnostic criteria, the discrimination of invasive fungal infection from Aspergillus colonisation in critically ill patients remains challenging and requires further optimization.


Subject(s)
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
J Mycol Med ; 32(3): 101290, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804912

ABSTRACT

It is now well known that patients with severe COVID-19 are at risk for developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Nevertheless, the symptomatology of IPA is often atypical in mechanically ventilated patients and the radiological aspects of SARS CoV-2 pneumonia and IPA are difficult to differentiate. In this context, the significance of the presence of Aspergillus in respiratory tract samples (detected by culture, galactomannan antigen, or specific PCR) is not yet fully understood. Here we report two cases of intubated and mechanically ventilated ICU patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, in whom Aspergillus was detected in respiratory samples, who had a favorable outcome in the absence of antifungal treatment. These two cases highlight the difficulty of using the new definitions of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis for routine management of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0238825, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Superinfections, including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), are well-known complications of critically ill patients with severe viral pneumonia. Aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors and outcome of IPA in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively screened 32 critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia for a time period of 28 days using a standardized study protocol for oberservation of developement of COVID-19 associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We collected laboratory, microbiological, virological and clinical parameters at defined timepoints in combination with galactomannan-antigen-detection from nondirected bronchial lavage (NBL). We used logistic regression analyses to assess if COVID-19 was independently associated with IPA and compared it with matched controls. FINDINGS: CAPA was diagnosed at a median of 4 days after ICU admission in 11/32 (34%) of critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia as compared to 8% in the control cohort. In the COVID-19 cohort, mean age, APACHE II score and ICU mortality were higher in patients with CAPA than in patients without CAPA (36% versus 9.5%; p<0.001). ICU stay (21 versus 17 days; p = 0.340) and days of mechanical ventilation (20 versus 15 days; p = 0.570) were not different between both groups. In regression analysis COVID-19 and APACHE II score were independently associated with IPA. INTERPRETATION: CAPA is highly prevalent and associated with a high mortality rate. COVID-19 is independently associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. A standardized screening and diagnostic approach as presented in our study can help to identify affected patients at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/virology , Male , Mannans/metabolism , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Superinfection/etiology , Superinfection/microbiology
7.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 38(1): 16-18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe viral pneumonia are likely to receive high-dose immunomodulatory drugs to prevent clinical worsening. Aspergillus species have been described as frequent secondary pneumonia agents in severely ill influenza patients receiving steroids. COVID-19 patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are receiving steroids as part of their treatment and they share clinical characteristics with other patients with severe viral pneumonias. COVID-19 patients receiving steroids should be considered a putative risk group of invasive aspergillosis. CASE REPORT: We are reporting a SARS-CoV-2/Aspergillus section Fumigati coinfection in an elderly intubated patient with a history of pulmonary embolism treated with corticosteroids. The diagnosis was made following the ad hoc definitions described for patients admitted to ICU with severe influenza, including clinical criteria (fever for 3 days refractory to the appropriate antibiotic therapy, dyspnea, pleural friction rub, worsening of respiratory status despite antibiotic therapy and need of ventilator support), a radiological criterion (pulmonary infiltrate) and a mycological criterion (several positive galactomannan tests on serum with ratio ≥0.5). In addition, Aspergillus section Fumigati DNA was found in serum and blood samples. These tests were positive 4 weeks after the patient was admitted to the ICU. The patient received voriconazole and after two month in ICU his respiratory status improved; he was discharged after 6 weeks of antifungal treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Severely ill COVID-19 patients would be considered a new aspergillosis risk group. Galactomannan and Aspergillus DNA detection would be useful methods for Aspergillus infection diagnosis as they allow avoiding the biosafety issues related to these patients.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , Immunocompetence , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/therapy , Coinfection/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy, Combination , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Male , Mannans/blood , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiration, Artificial , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Trachea/microbiology
8.
Mycoses ; 64(2): 144-151, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the global coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) spreads across the world, new clinical challenges emerge in the hospital landscape. Among these challenges, the increased risk of coinfections is a major threat to the patients. Although still in a low number, due to the short time of the pandemic, studies that identified a significant number of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who developed secondary fungal infections that led to serious complications and even death have been published. OBJECTIVES: In this scenario, we aim to determine the prevalence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and describe possible associated risk factors in patients admitted due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. PATIENTS/METHODS: We designed an open prospective observational study at the Rey Juan Carlos University Hospital (Mostoles, Spain), during the period from February 1 to April 30, 2020. RESULTS: In this article, we reported seven patients with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) who had a poor prognosis. Severely ill patients represent a high-risk group; therefore, we must actively investigate the possibility of aspergillosis in all of these patients. Larger cohort studies are needed to unravel the role of COVID-19 immunosuppressive therapy as a risk factor for aspergillosis. CONCLUSIONS: As the pandemic continues to spread across the world, further reports are needed to assess the frequency of emergent and highly resistant reemergent fungal infections during severe COVID-19. These coinfections are leading a significant number of patients with COVID-19 to death due to complications following the primary viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intermediate Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain
9.
Mycoses ; 64(2): 132-143, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934033

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Information on the recently COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) entity is scarce. We describe eight CAPA patients, compare them to colonised ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and review the published literature from Western countries. METHODS: Prospective study (March to May, 2020) that included all COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary hospital. Modified AspICU and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria were used. RESULTS: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed in eight patients (3.3% of 239 ICU patients), mostly affected non-immunocompromised patients (75%) with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving corticosteroids. Diagnosis was established after a median of 15 days under mechanical ventilation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in two patients with positive Aspergillus fumigatus cultures and galactomannan (GM) index. Serum GM was positive in 4/8 (50%). Thoracic CT scan findings fulfilled EORTC/MSG criteria in one case. Isavuconazole was used in 4/8 cases. CAPA-related mortality was 100% (8/8). Compared with colonised patients, CAPA subjects were administered tocilizumab more often (100% vs. 40%, p = .04), underwent longer courses of antibacterial therapy (13 vs. 5 days, p = .008), and had a higher all-cause mortality (100% vs. 40%, p = .04). We reviewed 96 similar cases from recent publications: 59 probable CAPA (also putative according modified AspICU), 56 putative cases and 13 colonisations according AspICU algorithm; according EORTC/MSG six proven and two probable. Overall, mortality in the reviewed series was 56.3%. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis must be considered a serious and potentially life-threatening complication in patients with severe COVID-19 receiving immunosuppressive treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Mycoses ; 63(12): 1368-1372, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-787896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are at the theoretical risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) due to known risk factors. PATIENTS/METHODS: We aimed to describe the clinical features of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis at a single centre in New York City. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with COVID-19 with Aspergillus isolated from respiratory cultures. RESULTS: A total of seven patients with COVID-19 who had one or more positive respiratory cultures for Aspergillus fumigatus were identified, all of whom were mechanically ventilated in the ICU. Four patients were classified as putative IPA. The median age was 79 years, and all patients were male. The patients had been mechanically ventilated for a mean of 6.8 days (range: 1-14 days) before Aspergillus isolation. Serum galactomannan level was positive for only one patient. The majority of our cases received much higher doses of glucocorticoids than the dosage with a proven mortality benefit. All four patients died. CONCLUSIONS: Vigilance for secondary fungal infections will be needed to reduce adverse outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(2): e13470, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781039
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