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1.
EMBO Rep ; 23(2): e54439, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780311

ABSTRACT

Posting papers on preprint servers creates patent 'prior art' and is likely to affect the patentability of any underlying invention.


Subject(s)
Inventions
2.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742569

ABSTRACT

Zinc is an essential nutrient for human health; it is involved in the catalytic, structural, and regulatory functions of the human cellular system. Different compositions of zinc, as well as its pharmaceutically acceptable salts, are available on the market. Recent studies have demonstrated the role of zinc in combating COVID-19. It has been determined that zinc prevents the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells by lowering the expression of ACE-2 receptors and inhibiting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2. Zinc also prevents the cytokine storm that takes place after the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cell, via its anti-inflammatory activity. The authors believe that no study has yet been published that has reviewed the trends, inventions, and patent literature of zinc compositions to treat/prevent COVID-19. Accordingly, this review has been written in order to fill this gap in the literature. The information about the clinical studies and the published patents/patent applications was retrieved from different databases. This review covers patent literature on zinc compositions up to 31 January 2022. Many important patents/patent applications for zinc-based compositions filed by innovative universities and industries were identified. The patent literature revealed zinc compositions in combination with zinc ionophores, antioxidants, antivirals, antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine, heparin, ivermectin, and copper. Most of these studies were supported by clinical trials. The patent literature supports the potential of zinc and its pharmaceutical compositions as possible treatments for COVID-19. The authors believe that countless zinc-based compositions are still unexplored, and there is an immense opportunity to evaluate a considerable number of the zinc-based compositions for use against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inventions , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/therapeutic use
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736916

ABSTRACT

The innovation and development practices of the pharmaceutical industry are of great importance for the continual enhancement of public health. Industrial clusters are one of the important means by which the pharmaceutical industry can be transformed and developed, but there is a lack of research on the evolutionary path and development innovation of pharmaceutical industrial clusters. As a country with a major pharmaceutical industry, the transformation and development path of traditional pharmaceutical industrial clusters in China has important reference value for the sustainable development of the global pharmaceutical industry. Through an analysis of the evolution of traditional pharmaceutical industrial clusters in Shijiazhuang, this study explores the law of the dynamic evolution of pharmaceutical industrial clusters and the associated mechanisms. Specifically, we conclude that the evolutionary path of traditional pharmaceutical industrial clusters can be divided into the government-led pharmaceutical industrial cluster start-up stage, the government-guided pharmaceutical industrial cluster development stage, and the government-served pharmaceutical industrial cluster transformation stage. The operating mechanisms include a self-organization mechanism, an innovation-driven mechanism, and an outward associated mechanism, each of which plays different roles in the different stages of the dynamic evolution of the cluster, and the synergistic operation of the three mechanisms forms an important basis for the evolution of pharmaceutical industrial clusters. We found that the innovation development of traditional pharmaceutical industrial clusters is influenced by the synergy of the self-organization, innovation-driven, and outward associated mechanisms. The self-organization mechanism is a necessary condition for pharmaceutical industrial clusters to realize the transition from disorder to order. The innovation-driven mechanism is the core driving force for the innovative development of pharmaceutical industrial clusters. Finally, the outward associated mechanism is the main means by which pharmaceutical industrial clusters integrate into the global value chain.


Subject(s)
Drug Industry , Inventions , China , Government , Pharmaceutical Preparations
4.
Stroke ; 53(3): 689-697, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673585

ABSTRACT

Digital health has long been championed as a means to expanding access to health care. Now that the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated many health systems' integration of digital tools for care, digital health may provide a path towards more accessible stroke prevention and treatment, particularly for historically disadvantaged patient populations. Stroke management is composed of multiple time points where digital health innovations have the potential to augment health access and treatment: from primary prevention, to the time-sensitive detection of ischemic stroke, administration of thrombolytic agents and consideration for endovascular interventions, to appropriate post-acute care, rehabilitation, and lifelong secondary stroke prevention-stroke care relies on a multidisciplinary and standardized approach. However, as we discuss pointedly in this Focused Update, underrepresented individuals face multilevel digital health disparities that potentially diminish the benefits of these digital advances. As such, these multilevel needs must be discussed and accounted for as health systems seek to integrate innovative and equitable digital health solutions towards stroke care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Equity , Inventions , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke , Telemedicine , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2412: 505-518, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588850

ABSTRACT

Over the past 20 years, there has been steady, year-on-year growth in the number of granted vaccine-related patents. It is therefore important that those involved in vaccine research should be aware of both the risks and opportunities that patents create. The aim of this chapter is to offer a brief introduction to how, and when, patent rights might become available to vaccine developers and to explain the potential risk of infringement of third-party patent rights and the potential consequences.This chapter begins with a brief introduction to the patent application process and the international patent systems. The advantages and drawbacks of patent protection are discussed, followed by an overview of patent infringement and the various legal safe-harbors that may be available for certain research activities. Other features of the patent system which may be of particular relevance in the vaccines context are also discussed, such as compulsory licensing, sovereign states' rights to use patented inventions and voluntary technology sharing agreements. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic and recent developments in the field of vaccine patents that have arisen as part of the international response.


Subject(s)
Intellectual Property , Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Inventions , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(6): 1695-1697, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455580
8.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(8): 627, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434131
10.
PLoS Biol ; 19(8): e3001349, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416850

ABSTRACT

The purpose of biomedicine is to serve society, yet its hierarchical and closed structure excludes many citizens from the process of innovation. We propose a collection of reforms to better integrate citizens within the research community, reimagining biomedicine as more participatory, inclusive, and responsive to societal needs.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Citizen Science , Inventions
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346531

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, governments launch open government data (OGD) portals that provide data that can be accessed and used by everyone for their own needs. Although the potential economic value of open (government) data is assessed in millions and billions, not all open data are reused. Moreover, the open (government) data initiative as well as users' intent for open (government) data are changing continuously and today, in line with IoT and smart city trends, real-time data and sensor-generated data have higher interest for users. These "smarter" open (government) data are also considered to be one of the crucial drivers for the sustainable economy, and might have an impact on information and communication technology (ICT) innovation and become a creativity bridge in developing a new ecosystem in Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0. The paper inspects OGD portals of 60 countries in order to understand the correspondence of their content to the Society 5.0 expectations. The paper provides a report on how much countries provide these data, focusing on some open (government) data success facilitating factors for both the portal in general and data sets of interest in particular. The presence of "smarter" data, their level of accessibility, availability, currency and timeliness, as well as support for users, are analyzed. The list of most competitive countries by data category are provided. This makes it possible to understand which OGD portals react to users' needs, Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0 request the opening and updating of data for their further potential reuse, which is essential in the digital data-driven world.


Subject(s)
Communication , Ecosystem , Cities , Government , Inventions
14.
Natl Med J India ; 33(6): 366-371, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332192

ABSTRACT

Manual ventilation by compressing self-inflating bags is a life-saving option for respiratory support in many resource-limited settings. Previous efforts to automate manual ventilation using mechatronic systems were unsuccessful. The Covid-19 pandemic stimulated re-exploration of automating manual ventilation as an economically viable alternative to address the anticipated shortage of mechanical ventilators. Many devices have been developed and displayed in the lay press and social media platforms. However, most are unsuitable for clinical use for a variety of reasons. These include failure to understand the clinical needs, complex ventilatory requirements in Covid-19 patients, lack of technical specifications to guide innovators, technical challenges in delivering ventilation parameters in a physiological manner, absence of guidelines for bench testing of innovative devices and lack of clinical validation in patients. The insights gained during the design, development, laboratory testing and clinical validation of a novel device designated the 'Artificial Breathing Capability Device' are shared here to assist innovators in developing clinically usable devices. A detailed set of clinical requirements from such devices, technical specifications to meet these requirements and framework for bench testing are presented. In addition, regulatory and certification issues, as well as concerns related to the protection of intellectual property, are highlighted. These insights are designed to foster an innovation ecosystem whereby clinically useful automated manual ventilation devices can be developed and deployed to meet the needs associated with the Covid-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Equipment Design , Inventions , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Ventilators, Mechanical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/economics , Ventilators, Mechanical/economics
16.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 401-410, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319040

ABSTRACT

The twenty-first century has already recorded more than ten major epidemic or pandemic virus emergence events, including the ongoing and devastating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As viral disease emergence is expected to accelerate, these data dictate a need for proactive approaches to develop broadly active family-specific and cross-family therapeutics for use in future disease outbreaks. Emphasis should focus not only on the development of broad-spectrum small-molecule and antibody direct-acting antivirals, but also on host-factor therapeutics, including repurposing previously approved or in-pipeline drugs. Another new class of therapeutics with great antiviral therapeutic potential is RNA-based therapeutics. Rather than only focusing on known risks, dedicated efforts must be made toward pre-emptive research focused on outbreak-prone virus families, ultimately offering a strategy to shorten the gap between outbreak and response. Emphasis should also focus on orally available drugs for outpatient use, if possible, and on identifying combination therapies that combat viral and immune-mediated pathologies, extend the effectiveness of therapeutic windows and reduce drug resistance. While such an undertaking will require new vision, dedicated funding and private, federal and academic partnerships, this approach offers hope that global populations need never experience future pandemics such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/therapy , Therapies, Investigational , Virus Diseases/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Development/methods , Drug Development/trends , Drug Repositioning , History, 21st Century , Humans , Inventions/trends , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Therapies, Investigational/trends
17.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 21(9): 1191-1192, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309179
18.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(2): 181-192, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303281

ABSTRACT

Innovations in surgical education follow advancing clinical technology. New surgical methods have prompted demand for systematic methods to leverage computing power and internet tools to achieve proficiency-based training goals. Virtual reality, high-fidelity patient simulation, web-based resources to facilitate performance assessment, and telementoring have become mainstream practices, although patient outcomes benefits are not well studied. Remote virtual meeting and mentoring have had transformative effects on resident experiences, the full effects of which remain to be seen.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Educational Technology , General Surgery/education , Inventions , Simulation Training/methods , Educational Measurement , Humans , Mentoring/methods , United States , Virtual Reality
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