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2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261835, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622345

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the reaction of stock markets to the Covid-19 pandemic and the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 (GFC) and compares their influence in terms of risk exposures. The empirical investigation is conducted using the modified ICSS test, DCC-GARCH, and Diebold-Yilmaz connectedness analysis to examine financial contagion and volatility spillovers. To further reveal the impact of these two crises, the statistical features of tranquil and crisis periods under different time intervals are also compared. The test results show that although the outbreak's origin was in China, the US stock market is the source of financial contagion and volatility spillovers during the pandemic, just as it was during the GFC. The propagation of shocks is considerably higher between developed economies compared to emerging markets. Additionally, the results show that the COVID-19 pandemic induced a more severe contagious effect and risk transmission than the GFC. The study provides an extensive examination of the COVID-19 pandemic and the GFC in terms of financial contagion and volatility spillovers. The results suggest the presence of strong co-movements of world stock markets with the US equity market, especially in periods of financial turmoil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Investments , COVID-19/economics , China , Commerce/economics , Humans , Investments/economics , Pandemics/economics , United States
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259308, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505876

ABSTRACT

The risk spillover among financial markets has been noticeably investigated in a burgeoning number of literature. Given those doctrines, we scrutinize the impact persistence of volatility spillover and illiquidity spillover of Chinese commodity markets in this paper. Based on the sample from 2010 to 2020, we reveal that there is a cross-market spillover of volatility and illiquidity in China and also, interactions between volatility and illiquidity in different financial markets are pronounced. More importantly, we demonstrate that different commodity markets have different responsiveness to stock market shocks, which embeds their market characteristics. Specifically, we discover that the majority of the traders in gold market might be hedger and therefore gold market is more sensitive to stock market illiquidity shock and thus the shock impact in persistent. On the other hand, agricultural markets like corn and soybean markets might be dominated by investors and thus those markets respond to the stock market volatility shocks and the shock impact in persistent over 10 periods given the first period of risk shock happening. In fact, different Chinese commodity markets' responsiveness towards Chinese stock market risk shocks indicates the stock market risk impact persistence in Chinese commodity markets. This result can help policymakers to understand the policy propagation effect according to this risk spillover channel and risk impact persistence mechanism in China.


Subject(s)
Agriculture/economics , Commerce/economics , Investments/economics , Marketing/economics , Metals/supply & distribution , Policy , China , Humans , Models, Statistical , Risk Factors
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 661482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389256

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the effects of pandemic uncertainty on socially responsible investments. We use the overall corporate sustainability performance index in the Global-100 Most Sustainable Corporations in the World dataset to measure socially responsible investments. The global pandemic uncertainty is also measured by the World Pandemic Uncertainty Index. We focus on the panel dataset from 2012 to 2020, and the results show that the World Pandemic Uncertainty Index is positively related to socially responsible investments. The main findings remain significant when we utilize various panel estimation techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Investments/economics , Investments/statistics & numerical data , Models, Economic , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Social Responsibility , Uncertainty , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(42): 60019-60031, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274913

ABSTRACT

This research looked at the effects of COVID-19 on a number of the world's most important stock exchanges, as well as the empirical relation between the COVID-19 wave and stock market volatility. In order to plan proper portfolio diversification in international financial markets, researchers must examine COVID-19 anxiety in relation to stock market volatility. The stock market volatility connected with the COVID-19 pandemic was measured using AR(1)-GARCH(1,1). COVID-19 fear, according to our research, is the ultimate driver of public attention and stock market volatility. The findings show that throughout the pandemic, stock market performance and GDP growth both declined significantly due to average increases. Furthermore, a 1% increase in COVID-19 causes a 0.8% and 0.56% decline in stock return and GDP, respectively. The stock market, on the other hand, showed a slight movement in GDP growth. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic reported cases index, death index, and global panic index all influenced public perceptions of purchasing and selling. As a result, rather than investing in stocks, it is recommended that you invest in gold. The research also makes policy recommendations for important stakeholders. We look to examine how stock returns respond dynamically to unanticipated changes in the COVID-19 scenarios, as well as the uncertainty that comes with a pandemic. Using daily data from Canada and the USA, we conclude that a spike in COVID-19 instances has a negative impact on the stock market in general. Furthermore, in both the increase and decline scenarios in Canada, the stock return reactions are asymmetric. The disparity is due to the unfavorable impact of the pandemic's unpredictability. We also discovered that uncertainty had a negative impact on the US stock market. The magnitude, however, is insignificant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Investments/economics , Pandemics/economics , Humans , Uncertainty
7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251752, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243845

ABSTRACT

During periods of market stress, risk-averse investors reallocate their investments from stocks to gold in a bid to hedge risks. Market participants interpret the induced gold price increase as an indication of safe-haven purchases and a signal of increased uncertainty in the general economic and financial conditions, thereby causing higher gold price volatility. The aim of this paper is to analyze whether this flight to safety effect can be observed during the COVID-19 crisis, which is considered to be a one-of-a-kind crisis and obviously of different origin compared to previous (financial) crises. By examining the interactions between the (option-implied) volatilities of the stock market (VIX) and of the gold (GVZ) and oil (OVX) markets, the main findings indicate that there is a granger causality in general between the equity market and the gold as well as the oil market. During the COVID-19 crisis, a stronger influence of the equity market on the oil market can be observed. Based on symmetric causality tests that are typically employed in the literature, this cannot be observed for the gold market. However, once we control for asymmetric causal interactions, we find that positive shocks in VIX cause positive shocks in GVZ. Hence, the typical flight to safety effect, similar to the one observed during other (financial) crises can also be identified for the COVID-19 crisis. The causality between the equity and oil market is triggered by political factors as well as the economic impact of the crisis which induces a sharp drop in demand for oil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Commerce/economics , Investments/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250846, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238760

ABSTRACT

We explore the use of implied volatility indices as a tool for estimate changes in the synchronization of stock markets. Specifically, we assess the implied stock market's volatility indices' predictive power on synchronizing global equity indices returns. We built the correlation network of 26 stock indices and implemented in-sample and out-of-sample tests to evaluate the predictive power of VIX, VSTOXX, and VXJ implied volatility indices. To measure markets' synchronization, we use the Minimum Spanning Tree length and the length of the Planar Maximally Filtered Graph. Our results indicate a high predictive power of all the volatility indices, both individually and together, though the VIX predominates over the evaluated options. We find that an increase in the markets' volatility expectations, captured by the implied volatility indices, is a good Granger predictor of an increase in the synchronization of returns in the following month. Estimating, monitoring, and predicting returns' synchronization is essential for investment decision-making, especially for diversification strategies and regulating financial systems.


Subject(s)
Forecasting/methods , Investments/trends , Humans , Investments/economics , Models, Economic
9.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250938, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236585

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic seems to be the most important phenomenon observed from March 2020 in virtually all countries of the world. The necessity to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and keep health care systems efficient resulted in the forced, drastic limitation of economic activity. Many service sectors were hit particularly hard with this but industry and agriculture were also affected. In particular, the pandemic substantially influenced financial markets and we can observe that some markets or instruments vary in stability since they have been affected in the different degree. In the paper, we present the problem of stability of stock markets during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the low number of works related to CEE countries during the pandemic, we analyze the Warsaw Stock Exchange, which is one of the most important markets in the CEE. Our main goal was to find how various industries represented by stock market indices have reacted to the COVID-19 shock and consequently which sectors turned out to keep stability and remained resistant to the pandemic. In our investigation, we use two clustering methods: the K-means and the Ward techniques with the criterion of maximizing the silhouette coefficient and six indicators describing stability in terms of profitability, volume, overbought/oversold conditions and volatility. The results of the research present that during the pandemic it was possible to identify 5 clusters of sector indices in the short term and 4 in the medium term. We found that the composition of the clusters is quite stable over time and that none of the obtained clusters can be univocally considered the most or the least stable taking into account all the analyzed indicators. However, we showed that the obtained clusters have different stability origins, i.e. they vary from each other in terms of the investigated indicators of stability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Commerce/economics , Investments/economics , Pandemics/economics , Humans , Models, Economic
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(4)2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038240

ABSTRACT

We analyze how investor expectations about economic growth and stock returns changed during the February-March 2020 stock market crash induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as during the subsequent partial stock market recovery. We surveyed retail investors who are clients of Vanguard at three points in time: 1) on February 11-12, around the all-time stock market high, 2) on March 11-12, after the stock market had collapsed by over 20%, and 3) on April 16-17, after the market had rallied 25% from its lowest point. Following the crash, the average investor turned more pessimistic about the short-run performance of both the stock market and the real economy. Investors also perceived higher probabilities of both further extreme stock market declines and large declines in short-run real economic activity. In contrast, investor expectations about long-run (10-y) economic and stock market outcomes remained largely unchanged, and, if anything, improved. Disagreement among investors about economic and stock market outcomes also increased substantially following the stock market crash, with the disagreement persisting through the partial market recovery. Those respondents who were the most optimistic in February saw the largest decline in expectations and sold the most equity. Those respondents who were the most pessimistic in February largely left their portfolios unchanged during and after the crash.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Investments/economics , Pandemics/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Economic Development , Humans , Investments/trends , Marketing/economics , Models, Economic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(4): 408-415, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831238
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