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Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261202


The therapeutic efficacy of topically administered drugs, however powerful, is largely affected by their bioavailability and, thus, ultimately, on their aqueous solubility and stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ionic liquids (ILs) as functional excipients to solubilise, stabilise, and prolong the ocular residence time of diacerein (DIA) in eye drop formulations. DIA is a poorly soluble and unstable anthraquinone prodrug, rapidly hydrolysed to rhein (Rhe), for the treatment of osteoarthritis. DIA has recently been evaluated as an antimicrobial agent for bacterial keratitis. Two ILs based on natural zwitterionic compounds were investigated: L-carnitine C6 alkyl ester bromide (Carn6), and betaine C6 alkyl ester bromide (Bet6). The stabilising, solubilising, and mucoadhesive properties of ILs were investigated, as well as their cytotoxicity to the murine fibroblast BALB/3T3 clone A31 cell line. Two IL-DIA-based eye drop formulations were prepared, and their efficacy against both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. Finally, the eye drops were administered in vivo on New Zealand albino rabbits, testing their tolerability as well as their elimination and degradation kinetics. Both Bet6 and Carn6 have good potential as functional excipients, showing solubilising, stabilising, mucoadhesive, and antimicrobial properties; their in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo ocular tolerability pave the way for their future use in ophthalmic applications.

Anti-Infective Agents , Ionic Liquids , Mice , Animals , Excipients , Betaine/pharmacology , Ionic Liquids/pharmacology , Carnitine , Ophthalmic Solutions/pharmacology , Bromides , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Esters
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233278


Witnessed by the ongoing spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria as well as the recent global pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the development of new disinfection strategies is of great importance, and novel substance classes as effective antimicrobials and virucides are urgently needed. Ionic liquids (ILs), low-melting salts, have been already recognized as efficient antimicrobial agents with prospects for antiviral potential. In this study, we examined the antiviral activity of 12 morpholinium based herbicidal ionic liquids with a tripartite test system, including enzyme inhibition tests, virucidal activity determination against five model viruses and activity against five bacterial species. The antimicrobial and enzymatic tests confirmed that the inhibiting activity of ILs corresponds with the number of long alkyl side chains and that [Dec2Mor]+ based ILs are promising candidates as novel antimicrobials. The virucidal tests showed that ILs antiviral activity depends on the type and structure of the virus, revealing enveloped Phi6 phage as highly susceptible to the ILs action, while the non-enveloped phages PRD1 and MS2 proved completely resistant to ionic liquids. Furthermore, a comparison of results obtained for P100 and P001 phages demonstrated for the first time that the susceptibility of viruses to ionic liquids can be dependent on differences in the phage tail structure.

Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Ionic Liquids , Humans , Ionic Liquids/pharmacology , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria