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1.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604969, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199635

ABSTRACT

Objectives: With the application of a systems thinking lens, we aimed to assess the national COVID-19 response across health systems components in Switzerland, Spain, Iran, and Pakistan. Methods: We conducted four case studies on the policy response of national health systems to the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Selected countries include different health system typologies. We collected data prospectively for the period of January-July 2020 on 17 measures of the COVID-19 response recommended by the WHO that encompassed all health systems domains (governance, financing, health workforce, information, medicine and technology and service delivery). We further monitored contextual factors influencing their adoption or deployment. Results: The policies enacted coincided with a decrease in the COVID-19 transmission. However, there was inadequate communication and a perception that the measures were adverse to the economy, weakening political support for their continuation and leading to a rapid resurgence in transmission. Conclusion: Social pressure, religious beliefs, governance structure and level of administrative decentralization or global economic sanctions played a major role in how countries' health systems could respond to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Spain , Switzerland/epidemiology
2.
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 681, 2022 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smartphone use has increased significantly, especially during the period of global pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV2 coronavirus (COVID-19). Concurrently, smartphone addiction is a growing social problem in children and adolescents with the consequence of adverse health outcomes. This study assessed the prevalence of smartphone addiction, patterns of use, and the experienced body-region discomfort among Iranian school students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with students from grades 1-9 recruited n = 585 participants (mean age = 14.49 (2.26 years); female = 65.8%). Data were collected from parents and students through the online 'Smartphone addiction scale-short version' (SAS-SV), self-reported demographic questionnaires, and extracts of the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of smartphone addiction (53.3%) was relatively high in the overall sample. Participants spent 6.85 (4.62) hours per day on their smartphones, which had increased 53.86% relative to the pre-pandemic period. The primary smartphone uses were for social networking (77.9%), web-surfing (53.3%), and camera activities (50.9%). There was a positive correlation between smartphone addiction as assessed with the SAS-SV and daily use time (r = 0.34, p < 0.001), and the percentage of change relative to the pre-pandemic period (r = 0.26, p < 0.001). Discomfort related to smartphone use was mostly reported as present in the eyes (39.7%) and neck (39.1%). A positive correlation was found (p < 0.001) between smartphone addiction and discomfort in the eyes, neck, wrists, shoulders, and upper-back. CONCLUSION: The more frequent usage of smartphones by students during the Covid-19 pandemic were associated predominantly with discomfort to the eyes and neck. Parents should consider the complications of musculoskeletal and postural changes during the child's future years and pay particular attention to the individual's patterns of smartphone use with an emphasis on posture and usage that reduces discomfort to the eyes and the musculoskeletal system, particularly the neck.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal System , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Female , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 874426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141856

ABSTRACT

Background: Several reports suggested that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a relatively common occurrence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, but its prevalence is inconsistently reported across different populations. Moreover, it is unknown whether AKI results from a direct infection of the kidney by SARS-CoV-2 or it is a consequence of the physiologic disturbances and therapies used to treat COVID-19. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of AKI since it varies by geographical settings, time periods, and populations studied and to investigate whether clinical information and laboratory findings collected at hospital admission might influence AKI incidence (and mortality) in a particular point in time during hospitalization for COVID-19. Methods: Herein we conducted a prospective longitudinal study investigating the prevalence of AKI and associated factors in 997 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Baqiyatallah general hospital of Tehran (Iran), collecting both clinical information and several dates (of: birth; hospital admission; AKI onset; ICU admission; hospital discharge; death). In order to examine how the clinical factors influenced AKI incidence and all-cause mortality during hospitalization, survival analysis using the Cox proportional-hazard models was adopted. Two separate multiple Cox regression models were fitted for each outcome (AKI and death). Results: In this group of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the prevalence of AKI was 28.5% and the mortality rate was 19.3%. AKI incidence was significantly enhanced by diabetes, hyperkalemia, higher levels of WBC count, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). COVID-19 patients more likely to die over the course of their hospitalization were those presenting a joint association between ICU admission with either severe COVID-19 or even mild/moderate COVID-19, hypokalemia, and higher levels of BUN, WBC, and LDH measured at hospital admission. Diabetes and comorbidities did not increase the mortality risk among these hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Since the majority of patients developed AKI after ICU referral and 40% of them were admitted to ICU within 2 days since hospital admission, these patients may have been already in critical clinical conditions at admission, despite being affected by a mild/moderate form of COVID-19, suggesting the need of early monitoring of these patients for the onset of eventual systemic complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 432, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has changed the pattern of some diseases in the world, especially in pediatrics. Despite data suggesting that the pediatric population is less affected by coronavirus disease-19 infection, new concerns have been raised owing to reported cases with hyperinflammatory conditions such as Kawasaki disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report herein the case of a pediatric patient diagnosed and treated for classic Kawasaki disease in the setting of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 infection. She was an 8-year-old, previously healthy, and fully immunized Iranian girl who initially presented to the pediatric emergency department with 5 days of intermittent fever, followed by abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. She was admitted for fever and abdominal pain to the surgery service of Akbar Hospital with suspected appendicitis. CONCLUSIONS: This case report may serve as a useful reference to other clinicians caring for pediatric patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 infection. Standard therapeutic interventions for Kawasaki disease must be performed to prevent critical coronary aneurysm-related complications in the coronavirus disease 2019 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Aneurysm , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Female , Child , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Iran , Coronary Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Aneurysm/etiology , Fever/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05048, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115665

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 presents as a mild and less severe respiratory disease among children. However, it is still lethal and could lead to death in paediatric cases. The current study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of children and young people hospitalized due to COVID-19 in Qazvin-Iran. We also investigated the risk factors of death due to COVID-19 in paediatric cases. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 645 children and young people (ages 0-17) hospitalized since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The cases were confirmed with positive results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were retrieved from an electronic database of demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics. Results: The median age of the admitted patients was 4.0 years, 33.6% were under 12 months old, and 53.0% were female. Fever, cough, nausea/vomiting, dyspnoea, and myalgia were the most common symptoms presented by 50.5%, 47.6%, 24.2%, and 23.0% of the patients, respectively. Overall, we observed 16 cases of death and the in-hospital fatality rate was 2.5%. We also found comorbidity as an independent risk factor of death (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-12.1, P-value = 0.022). Finally, we observed an increased risk of death in patients with dyspnoea (OR = 11.0, 95% CI = 2.8-43.7). Conclusion: In-hospital mortality was relatively high in paediatric patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 in Iran. The risk of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death was higher among children with younger ages, underlying causes, and dyspnoea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Child , Child, Preschool , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Iran/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Comorbidity , Dyspnea
7.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 5988976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113116

ABSTRACT

Several studies have discovered a relationship between specific blood types, genetic variations of the ABO gene, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ABO rs657152 polymorphisms and ABO blood groups with COVID-19 mortality. The tetraprimer amplification refractory mutation system, polymerase chain reaction method, was used for ABO rs657152 polymorphism genotyping in 1,211 dead and 1,442 improved patients. In the current study, the frequency of ABO rs657152 AA than CC genotypes was significantly higher in dead patients than in improved patients. Our findings indicated that blood type A was associated with the highest risk of COVID-19 mortality compared to other blood groups, and patients with blood type O have a lower risk of infection, suggesting that blood type O may be a protective factor against COVID-19 mortality. Multivariate logistic regression test indicated that higher COVID-19 mortality rates were linked with alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, high density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, uric acid, creatinine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, real-time PCR Ct values, ABO blood groups, and ABO rs657152 AA genotype. In conclusion, the AA genotype of ABO rs657152 and blood type A were associated with a considerably increased frequency of COVID-19 mortality. Further research is necessary to validate the obtained results.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Humans , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , Polymorphism, Genetic
8.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(10): 719-724, 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111424

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare inequity has widely affected marginalized and immigrant communities globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aims: This study assessed the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on health care delivery to immigrant populations in Isfahan Province, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: All 67 hospitals across Isfahan Province were included in this study conducted from 1 March to 31 May 2020. Data on clinical manifestations, comorbidities, patient management, and outcomes of patients during hospital admission were extracted from medical records and analysed using SPSS for chi-square and odds ratio (OR). Results: One hundred and sixty-eight (3.3%) of 5128 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases during the study period were immigrants and were included in the study. There were no differences in sex, clinical presentation, comorbidities, and length of hospital stay between the non-immigrant and immigrant groups. Immigrant patients were significantly younger and had poorer outcomes, including tracheal intubation [OR = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-3.1); P = 0.009] and in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Adverse health outcomes among immigrant communities may be an indication of health inequity and should be addressed by the relevant policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Humans , Pandemics , Iran/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care
9.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 21(5): 594-599, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111241

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects millions of people worldwide. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to severe viral pneumonia. CVID patients with COVID-19 infection are not adequately studied. In some studies, CVID patients had higher mortality rates, although other studies showed that CVID patients might have an uncomplicated COVID-19 infection. We describe 14 cases of COVID-19 infection in Iranian CVID patients in this study, including clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and treatment strategies. There were 29% of patients with mild disease, 43% with moderate disease, and 29% with severe disease in this study. A critical case and a death occurred in none of our patients. There were six cases of infection more than two weeks after receiving the second dose of Sinopharm BIBP COVID-19 vaccine; all had mild to moderate disease. Among these patients, Remdesivir was the most frequently prescribed medication. According to this study, most of our patients presented with an uncomplicated disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/diagnosis , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Iran/epidemiology
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40346-40354, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115893

ABSTRACT

There is mixed evidence surrounding the relationship between tobacco use and COVID-19 infection/progression. The current study investigates beliefs and tobacco use behaviors and COVID-19 infection among a sample of smokers and never-smokers. Data were collected using an online survey distributed through Telegram, a cloud-based social media networking application in Iran from April 1 to May 31, 2020. The study participants included never-smokers (n = 511), current (past-month) waterpipe smokers (n = 89), current cigarette smokers (n = 158), and ex-smokers (n = 172). Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare tobacco use groups with never- smokers on beliefs, controlling for potential confounders. The study participants (n = 944) was mostly male (64%), had > high school education (76%), and lived in an urban area (91%), with mean ± SD age of 35.3 ± 10.8. Key findings of this study are that compared with never-smokers: (1) cigarette smokers were less likely to believe that smoking cigarette can lead to spreading COVID-19; (2) waterpipe smokers were more likely to believe that smoking waterpipe at home was a safe practice, that waterpipe protects against COVID-19, and smoking waterpipe may lead to a more rapid recovery from COVID-19; (3) both waterpipe and cigarette smokers believed that using e-cigarettes in public places was a safe practice during the COVID-19 pandemic; and (4) more than half of the ex-smokers stopped smoking due to COVID-19 and most of them planned to continue abstaining from smoking after the pandemic. Our findings underscore the need to raise awareness about the unsupported claims of a lower hazard of using tobacco products or possible protective effects against COVID-19 and to promote cessation programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 164-168, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113576

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The relationship between immunity and trace elements levels is well known. We aimed to estimate the association of serum trace elements with severity and outcomes in the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: In this single-centered, prospective, observational study, we enrolled 114 patients admitted to severe intensive care units (ICUs) and corresponding 112 sex and aged-matched non-ICU ward patients. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were all collected. We analyzed serum levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in both severity groups. RESULTS: The serum levels of Cu, Se, and Mn in both groups were within the normal range while Zn serum levels were lower than normal values. Based on these findings, Zn, Cu, Se, and Mn serum levels were not associated with disease severity (P > 0.05), while we found Zn serum levels were strongly associated with patient outcomes (P = 0.005). Our results indicated lower Mn serum levels were associated with age more than 55 years (P= 0.006). Our results were not in favor of a causal relationship between serum trace elements levels and disease severity. CONCLUSION: We found Zn level to be a strong indicator for patients' outcomes that can be considered for monitoring patient prognosis. Nutritional measures or supplementation can help reduce poor outcomes caused by low Zn levels in Iranian COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trace Elements , Aged , Copper/analysis , Humans , Iran , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 250, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of research suggesting that psychological flexibility (PF) is an important psychological construct related to psychological health and human performance. The Psychological Flexibility in Sport Scale (PFSS) is the first general scale to assess sport-related PF. So far, the PFSS has not yet been validated in other contexts than Sweden. Therefore, the current study sought to investigate a Persian version of the PFSS (P-PFSS) and extend the investigation of the psychometric properties of the PFSS in Iranian athletes. METHODS: A total of 302 athletes from both team and individual sports (average age of 20.7 years, SD ± 7.5, 62.3% were female) were involved in the current study. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to test validity and reliability. The validity of the P-PFSS was tested through face and content validity, construct validity, criterion validity, and known-groups validity. The reliability of P-PFSS was verified through internal consistency and temporal stability of the scale. RESULTS: Results revealed that validity of the P-PFSS was satisfactory. The instrument was determined to have strong face and content validity. With modifications, the confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the scale's unidimensionality. The convergent validity of the P-PFSS was found to be acceptable (average variance extracted = 0.66) and satisfactory results were also found in the correlation matrix for the assessment of construct validity. The P-PFSS showed good criterion validity related to generic psychological flexibility and athletic-related variables. Also, the P-PFSS was able to differentiate PF between known groups. The P-PFSS was found to be reliable, with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92; composite reliability = 0.92) and temporal stability on retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the Persian version of the PFSS showed good psychometric qualities in Iranian athletes. The current study provides additional support for the PFSS and extends the context-specific utility for practitioners and researchers in assessing sport-related PF.


Subject(s)
Sports , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Iran
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e36424, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The distribution of population-level real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values as a proxy of viral load may be a useful indicator for predicting COVID-19 dynamics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the daily trend of average Ct values and COVID-19 dynamics, calculated as the daily number of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, daily number of new positive tests, daily number of COVID-19 deaths, and number of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 by age. We further sought to determine the lag between these data series. METHODS: The samples included in this study were collected from March 21, 2021, to December 1, 2021. Daily Ct values of all patients who were referred to the Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory of Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran, for RT-PCR tests were recorded. The daily number of positive tests and the number of hospitalized patients by age group were extracted from the COVID-19 patient information registration system in Tehran province, Iran. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was constructed for the time series of variables. Cross-correlation analysis was then performed to determine the best lag and correlations between the average daily Ct value and other COVID-19 dynamics-related variables. Finally, the best-selected lag of Ct identified through cross-correlation was incorporated as a covariate into the autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) model to calculate the coefficients. RESULTS: Daily average Ct values showed a significant negative correlation (23-day time delay) with the daily number of newly hospitalized patients (P=.02), 30-day time delay with the daily number of new positive tests (P=.02), and daily number of COVID-19 deaths (P=.02). The daily average Ct value with a 30-day delay could impact the daily number of positive tests for COVID-19 (ß=-16.87, P<.001) and the daily number of deaths from COVID-19 (ß=-1.52, P=.03). There was a significant association between Ct lag (23 days) and the number of COVID-19 hospitalizations (ß=-24.12, P=.005). Cross-correlation analysis showed significant time delays in the average Ct values and daily hospitalized patients between 18-59 years (23-day time delay, P=.02) and in patients over 60 years old (23-day time delay, P<.001). No statistically significant relation was detected in the number of daily hospitalized patients under 5 years old (9-day time delay, P=.27) and aged 5-17 years (13-day time delay, P=.39). CONCLUSIONS: It is important for surveillance of COVID-19 to find a good indicator that can predict epidemic surges in the community. Our results suggest that the average daily Ct value with a 30-day delay can predict increases in the number of positive confirmed COVID-19 cases, which may be a useful indicator for the health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Middle Aged , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Hospitalization
14.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 233, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease with many presentations, and many of its effects on the human body are still unknown. Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor that may occur sporadically or be a manifestation of a hereditary disease line multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we report a case of an Iranian patient infected with coronavirus disease 2019, causing unusual presentations of pheochromocytoma, including myocarditis and cerebrovascular involvement. CONCLUSIONS: We discovered a case of pheochromocytoma as an unusual presentation of COVID-19. In further investigations we also discovered thyroid medullary carcinoma and at the end MEN 2 syndrome was diagnosed. After proper treatment many symptoms were eliminated.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a , Pheochromocytoma , Thyroid Neoplasms , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Iran , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a/diagnosis , Pheochromocytoma/complications , Pheochromocytoma/diagnosis , Pheochromocytoma/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18918, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106468

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the death proportion and death risk of COVID-19 hospitalized patients over time and in different surges of COVID-19. This multi-center observational study was conducted from March 21, 2021 to October 3, 2021 which included the alpha and delta SARS-CoV-2 surges occurred in April and August in Tehran, respectively. The risk of COVID-19 death was compared in different months of admission. A total of 270,624 patients with COVID-19, of whom 6.9% died, were admitted to hospitals in Tehran province. Compared to patients admitted in March, a higher risk of COVID-19 death was observed among patients admitted to the hospital in July (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.17, 1.40), August (HR 1.40; 95% CI 1.28, 1.52), September (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.25, 1.50) and October (HR 4.63; 95% CI 2.77, 7.74). The ICU death proportion was 36.8% (95% CI: 35.5, 38.1) in alpha surge and increased significantly to 39.8 (95% CI 38.6, 41.1) in delta surge. The risk of COVID-19 death was significantly higher in delta surge compared to alpha surge (HR 1.22; 95% CI 1.17, 1.27). Delta surge was associated with a higher risk of death compared to alpha surge. High number of hospitalizations, a shortage of hospital beds, ICU spaces and medical supplies, poor nutritional status of hospitalized patients, and lack of the intensivist physicians or specialized nurses in the ICU were factors that contributed to the high mortality rate in the delta surge in Iran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospital Mortality , Retrospective Studies
17.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(6): 577-587, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100904

ABSTRACT

Background: Transplanted patients receiving immunosuppressive agents are at a higher risk of Coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19), and their polypharmacy state makes the choice of treatment challenging. This study aimed to assess the drug-related problems (DRP) and clinical pharmacists' interventions to manage transplanted patients and candidates for transplantation with COVID-19. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the COVID-19 intensive care unit of Shiraz Organ Transplantation Center (Iran), from March 2020 to April 2021. Patients were admitted to the COVID-19 intensive care unit based on clinical symptoms or positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The clinical pharmacist reviewed all medications and physicians' orders on a daily basis and evaluated DRPs in accordance with the pharmaceutical care network of Europe (PCNE) classification (V 8.01). The treatment team was informed of the DRPs, and the acceptance or rejection of the intervention was also documented. Data were analyzed using SPSS (Version 25.0). In order to determine the proportion and determinants of drug-related problems, descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied, respectively. Results: A clinical pharmacist reviewed 631 individuals with 11770 medication orders, and 639 DRPs were found in 69% of them with an average of 1.01±1 per patient. The most commonly reported DRPs were treatment efficacy issues followed by adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A total of 982 interventions were provided at prescriber, patient, and drug levels, of which 801 were accepted, and 659 (82.27%) were fully implemented. Conclusion: There have been considerable drug-related issues in managing transplanted patients with COVID-19. DRPs are more common in people with polypharmacy, more than three comorbidities, and hydroxychloroquine regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Iran/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation
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