Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 12.089
Filter
1.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 42(1): 8, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, specifically cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancers, respiratory diseases, and diabetes are the main reason for more than two-thirds of global deaths, in which the unhealthy diet is one of the primary risk factors. The golden solution to reducing obesity and CVD linked to an unhealthy diet is to reduce calories, salt, sugar, and fat intake. Besides, activities highlighting lifestyles that contain healthy diets usually focus on reducing salt, sugar, and saturated fat consumption. As a result, the researchers aimed to study the gaps and economic barriers to recommended consumption of salt, sugar, and fat in Iran, based on WHO recommendations. METHODS: This is a qualitative study. We conducted semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 30 stakeholders, including academics, experts, and key informants in different sectors from December 2018 until August 2019 in Tehran, Iran. We used a purposeful and snowball sampling method to select participants. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using MAXQDA 11. RESULTS: Economic problems and inflation in Iran caused people to eat more unhealthy foods, while a healthy diet consumption was reduced due to higher prices. Unfair political sanctions imposed on the country caused economic pressure and adversely affected family nutrition. Worse still, despite legal bans, advertising unhealthy foods via media, mainly to generate revenue, encouraged more consumption of unhealthy food. The lack of targeted subsidies and failure in tax legislation and implementation related to the unhealthy products deteriorated the conditions. CONCLUSION: Some economic barriers have hampered plans to reduce salt, fat, and sugar consumption in Iran. Fundamental reforms in the tax and subsidy system are required to improve people's eating habits. In particular, citizens' income that has been continuously shrinking due to economic conditions, imposed sanctions, and the inevitably high inflation needs to be addressed urgently. Unless the government of Iran deals with the economic barriers to healthy nutrition, the pathway for implementing the national action plan for prevention and control of NCDs toward a 30% mortality reduction due to NCDs by 2030 looks unlikely to reach.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Sugars , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Food , Diet , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control
2.
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(1): 6-14, 2023 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710609

ABSTRACT

Background: Since November 2014, the pentavalent (Diptheria+Tetanus+Pertussis and Hepatitis B and Hib or DTP-HBHib) vaccine has been integrated into the Iranian national vaccination programme. Aims: We conducted a prospective study in Zahedan in the southeast of the Islamic Republic of Iran to determine the incidence of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with the pentavalent vaccine in children aged under one year. Methods: Using cluster sampling, 1119 children aged 2-10 months at 15 public health clinics were invited, through their parents, to participate in the study. The parents were trained to register and report any AEFIs in a questionnaire. They were instructed to return the child to the clinic for further examination by a physician if they observed any complications within 3 days of vaccination. Results: The most commonly reported AEFIs were fever (50.94%), mild (41.46%) and severe (1.70%) injection site complications, persistent crying for 3 hours or more (1.88%), hypotonic hyporesponsive episode (0.36%), vomiting (1.88%), diarrhoea (2.95%), and sterile abscess (0.62%). There were no cases of convulsion, purulent abscess or rash. The work experience of vaccinators (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.4-2.46) showed a significant statistical association with the incidence of mild local complications at the injection site. Those with a history of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) lymphadenitis (OR = 3.89; 95% CI:1.04-14.49) had a higher risk of severe local complications at the injection site. Conclusions: The observed incidence of serious AEFIs following pentavalent vaccine injection in the study population was within the expected range. However, some of the relationships observed in this study require further research.


Subject(s)
Haemophilus Vaccines , Haemophilus influenzae type b , Child , Humans , Infant , Vaccines, Combined/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Abscess/chemically induced , Iran/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunization , Vaccination/adverse effects , Haemophilus Vaccines/adverse effects
3.
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(1): 3-5, 2023 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710608

ABSTRACT

Countries in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) are currently experiencing a resurgence of cholera. As of 31 December 2022, 8 of the 22 Member States in the region - Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen - were grappling with outbreaks of cholera and acute watery diarrhoea (AWD). More than 1 000 000 suspected AWD/cholera cases, more than 7500 laboratory-confirmed cases, and 375 cholera-associated deaths were reported across the region in 2022.


Subject(s)
Cholera , Humans , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera/prevention & control , Iran/epidemiology , Syria , Lebanon , Mediterranean Region/epidemiology
4.
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(1): 24-32, 2023 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710611

ABSTRACT

Background: Drug use disorders are significant social and public health concerns in the Islamic Republic of Iran; however, little is known about drug-related mortality. Aims: We quantified the spatial and age distribution of direct illicit-drug-related mortality in the Islamic Republic of Iran, to inform harm reduction policies and interventions. Methods: We modelled and mapped registered illicit-drug-related deaths from March 2016 to March 2017. Data were obtained from the Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization. Besag-York-Mollie models were fitted using Bayesian spatial analysis to estimate the relative risk of illicit-drug-related mortality across different provinces and age groups. Results: There were 2203 registered illicit-drug-related deaths during the study period, 1289 (58.5%) occurred in people aged 20-39 years and among men (n = 2013; 91.4%). The overall relative risk (95% credible interval) of illicit-drug-related mortality in the provinces of Hamadan (3.37; 2.88-3.91), Kermanshah (1.90; 1.55-2.28), Tehran (1.80; 1.67-1.94), Lorestan (1.71; 1.37-2.09), Isfahan (1.40; 1.21-1.60), and Razavi Khorasan (1.18; 1.04-1.33) was significantly higher than in the rest of the country. Conclusion: We found evidence of age differences and spatial variations in illicit-drug-related mortality across different provinces in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Our findings highlight the urgent need to revisit existing drug-use treatment and harm reduction policies and ensure that overdose prevention programmes are adequately available for different age groups and settings.


Subject(s)
Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders , Male , Humans , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Iran/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Spatial Analysis
5.
BMC Emerg Med ; 23(1): 9, 2023 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in many changes in pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMS), including wearing full-body protective suits and well-fitted face masks, which can influence time indices in the course of service delivery. The present study aimed to compare the time indices of pre-hospital EMS missions before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study used census sampling to select 17,860 emergency calls that caused patient transfer to medical facilities from March 2018 to March 2021 and then examined the time indices of pre-hospital EMS missions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data collection tool was a two-part checklist: patients' individual characteristics and pre-hospital EMS mission time indices. The data were further analyzed using the SPSS16 and independent samples t-test. RESULTS: Out of the patients transferred by the EMS, 11,773 cases (65.9%) were male and 6,087 (34.1%) were female. The most common reason for the emergency calls was accidents (28.0%). Moreover, response time (P < 0.001), on-scene time (P < 0.001), transfer time (P < 0.001), total run time (P < 0.001), and round trip time (P < 0.001) increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the EMS time indices elevated following the COVID-19 pandemic. Updating pre-hospital information management systems, ambulances and medical equipment, as well as holding training courses for pre-hospital EMS personnel could effectively enhance the time indices of pre-hospital EMS missions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hospitals
6.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 23(1): 38, 2023 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707798

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of myopia and hyperopia and their associated demographic and ocular factors in people 60 years of age and above. METHODS: The sampling was performed using a multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method. The complete demographic and case history information were collected through an interview. Then, all participants underwent optometric examinations including measurement of uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity, objective, and subjective refraction. Myopia and hyperopia were defined as a spherical equivalent (SE) refraction worse than -0.50 diopters (D) and + 0.50 D, respectively. RESULTS: Three thousand three hundred ten of 3791 invitees participated, and the data of 3263 individuals were analyzed for this report. The mean age of participants was 68.25 ± 6.53 (60 to 97) years, and 1895 (58.1%) of them were female (number of male/female participants = 1368/1895). The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was 31.65% (95% CI: 29.68 -33.61) and 45.36% (95% CI: 43.36 -47.37), respectively. The prevalence of severe myopia and hyperopia was 1.14% (95% CI: 0.73 -1.55) and 2.27% (95% CI: 1.57 -2.97), respectively. Based on the results of multiple logistic regression, the prevalence of myopia had a statistically significant direct relationship with age (OR: 1.04; p < 0.001), history of glaucoma surgery (OR:2.75; p < 0.001), pseudophakia (OR: 2.27; p < 0.001), axial length (OR:3.05; p < 0.001), and mean keratometry (OR:1.61; p < 0.001). The education level was significantly inversely related to the myopia prevalence. Moreover, a history of glaucoma surgery (OR:0.44; p < 0.001), pseudophakia (OR = 0.15; p < 0.001), axial length (OR:35; p < 0.001) and mean keratometry (OR:0.62; p < 0.001) were significantly inversely related to the prevalence of hyperopia. 19% and 40.02% of myopic and hyperopic patients had complete visual acuity after correction of refractive error, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of refractive errors was high in the Iranian elderly population. A large percentage of the elderly still did not have complete visual acuity after the correction of refractive errors indicating the necessity for attention to other ocular diseases in this age group. The history of cataract and glaucoma surgery could be associated with a myopic shift of refractive error.


Subject(s)
Glaucoma , Hyperopia , Myopia , Refractive Errors , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , Middle Aged , Hyperopia/epidemiology , Public Health , Prevalence , Iran/epidemiology , Pseudophakia , Refractive Errors/epidemiology , Myopia/epidemiology , Cornea
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1085861, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703837

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, information dissemination has increased rapidly. Promoting health literacy is currently crucial to prepare people to respond quickly to situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the importance of health literacy in this critical situation, we are looking for a questionnaire to measure COVID-19 health literacy. The COVID-19 Germany Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLS-COVID-Q22) is an excellent tool, so the study aimed to create a cultural validity of this questionnaire for the Iranian population. Methods: In this validation study, 880 samples were enrolled using a convenient sampling method. The questionnaire was translated through a backward forwarding procedure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were employed for Persian version validity. McDonald's omega (Ω), Cronbach's alpha, and average inter-item correlation (AIC) coefficients were assessed for reliability. Results: Using EFA on the random half sample (n = 440), the EFA indicated that the scale had four factors: accessing, understanding, appraising, and applying health-related information in the COVID-19 pandemic context, which explained 59.3% of the total variance. CFA was used for the sample's second part (n = 440) to evaluate the goodness of fit of the four-factor solution. CFA showed the model fit. All indices RMSEA = 0.067, CFI = 0.934, IFI = 0.934, PCFI = 0.772, PNFI = 0.747, and CMIN/DF = 2.972 confirmed the model fit. The convergent validity of the HLS-COVID-Q22 was confirmed. McDonald's omega and Cronbach's alpha were very good (α and Ω >0.80). Conclusion: The Persian version of the HLS-COVID-Q22 had acceptable psychometric properties and is applicable to measure COVID-19 health literacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
8.
Optom Vis Sci ; 100(1): 74-81, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705717

ABSTRACT

SIGNIFICANCE: The anterior chamber depth in hyperopic eyes is significantly deeper than that in myopic eyes, and this finding is independent of the axial length. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between and refractive errors and ocular biometric components in a geriatric population 60 years and older. METHODS: The present population-based cross-sectional study was performed using a multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran. After selecting the samples, visual acuity measurement, autorefraction, subjective refraction, and slit-lamp examination were performed for all participants. Ocular biometric indices were measured with Pentacam AXL (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). RESULTS: The correlation coefficients of spherical equivalent with axial length, corneal radius of curvature, axial length/corneal radius of curvature ratio, and anterior chamber depth were -0.40, 0.14, -0.63, and -0.18, respectively, after controlling the effects of age, sex, and nuclear cataract. The axial length (24.84 vs. 21.21 mm), the anterior chamber depth (2.74 vs. 2.34 mm), the ratio of the axial length to the corneal radius of curvature (3.35 vs. 2.71), and the anterior chamber volume (138.59 and 105.54 mm 3 ) were the highest and lowest in myopic and hyperopic individuals, respectively (all P < .001). In the first model, axial length and nuclear cataract were significantly inversely related to the spherical equivalent. However, corneal radius of curvature, anterior chamber depth, central corneal thickness, and corneal diameter had a significant direct relationship with the spherical equivalent. In the second model, the axial length/corneal radius of curvature ratio and cataract showed an inverse relationship with the spherical equivalent, whereas anterior chamber depth and corneal diameter had a direct relationship with the spherical equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Among the biometric components, the axial length/corneal radius of curvature ratio has the strongest relationship with refractive errors. The anterior chamber depth is lower in myopes compared with hyperopes after controlling the effect of axial length.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Hyperopia , Myopia , Refractive Errors , Aged , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Refractive Errors/epidemiology , Refraction, Ocular , Anterior Chamber , Biometry/methods
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1554, 2023 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707690

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and blastocystosis are among the most important parasitic diseases common between humans and cats. In addition, there are concerns about the possible transmission of zoonotic parasites from infected cats to humans. Hence, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Blastocystis sp. in stray and household cats and cat owners. Our study was performed on 132, 33, and 33 fecal samples of stray and household cats, as well as cat owners in Tehran, Iran. Cryptosporidium spp. was identified using a nested PCR targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA) and sequencing the internal amplified fragments. Furthermore, to perform multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis, the ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes were amplified to assess the DNA of G. duodenalis in the fecal samples of cats and cat owners. In addition, Blastocystis was detected by targeting the SSU rRNA gene, and the subtypes of Blastocystis were determined via the sequencing of amplicons. Cryptosporidium felis and Cryptosporidium canis were detected in seven stray cats (5.3%) and one household cat (3%). The bg gene of G. duodenalis was amplified and successfully sequenced in two (1.5%) stray cats and revealed assemblages F and B of G. duodenalis. Sequencing and phylogenic analysis of SSU rRNA gene nucleotide sequences of Blastocystis detected ST5 and ST10 in stray cats (1.5%), ST1 in household cats (9.1%), and ST1, ST2, ST3, and ST7 in owners (30.3%). The low prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Blastocystis in cats and the presence of species/assemblages/subtypes with limited zoonotic potential indicate that cats had a minor role in their owners' infection in the investigated population. However, the presence of zoonotic protozoa in cats suggests the necessity of special attention to high-risk individuals during close contact with cats. Therefore, it is recommended that veterinarians, physicians, and urban managers plan to prevent, control, or treat these parasites to help the urban community live healthily alongside cats.


Subject(s)
Blastocystis , Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardiasis , Humans , Animals , Cats , Giardiasis/epidemiology , Giardiasis/veterinary , Giardiasis/parasitology , Giardia/genetics , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Blastocystis/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Feces/parasitology , Prevalence , Genotype
10.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 7(1)2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Injuries are increasing global public health problems, causing disability and death among children. This has considerable financial, emotional and social effects on families and society. This study aimed to investigate the behavioural and environmental factors leading to unintentional home injuries and attempts to highlight the pivotal role of mothers' behaviour and performance to provide a safe place for children at home. METHODS: The current research is a qualitative study of a directed content analysis type. The data were gathered through semistructured interviews conducted in participants' workplaces, namely universities, research centres and health centres. In some cases, telephone interviews were conducted within 3 months, from February 2021 to May 2021 in Tehran, Iran. The participants were selected through non-probability and purposive sampling. All the recorded interviews and notes were accurately evaluated, and data analysis was performed based on the content analysis. There were 29 interviews in total: 12 interviews with mothers, 9 with treatment and prevention specialists, and 8 with researchers. RESULTS: A total of 66 factors, 6 subcategories and 2 main categories were extracted after analysing the interviews. The main categories included environmental and behavioural factors. The subcategories included house infrastructure, house equipment/furniture, children's equipment/furniture, provision of precarious conditions, access to hazardous substances and appliances, and unsafe arrangement of furniture. CONCLUSION: Despite the existing obstacles such as the long-term implementation, financial difficulties and overcomplicated policy-making process, health interventions can make it possible for mothers of children under the age of seven to adopt preventive measures through appropriately designed instructions and optimal use of existing facilities.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Mothers , Child , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology , Risk Factors
11.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 176, 2023 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have evaluated the association between patterns of beverage consumption with different components of quality of life separately, the findings are controversial. In addition, none have examined all components of quality of life together in relation to patterns of beverage consumption. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between healthy beverage index (HBI) and quality of life among overweight and obese women. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, 210 obese and overweight women were recruited from health centers in Tehran, Iran. Using reliable and verified standard protocols, data on beverage intake, socio-demographic, physical activity, and anthropometric variables were assessed. Based on past studies, the predetermined HBI was estimated. Serum samples were used to determine biochemical characteristics, and quality of life was assessed using SF-36 questionnaires. RESULTS: There was a significant association between total QoL score with T2 tertile of HBI in the adjusted model (ß: 13.11, 95% CI: 1.52, 24.69, p-value = 0.027). General health had a significant negative association with T2 (ß: -5.83; 95% CI: - 11.48, - 0.18; p-value = 0.043) and T3 (ß: -6.20; 95% CI: - 12.37, - 0.03; p-value = 0.049). Women with greater adherence to the HBI had a higher physical functioning score, and there was a significant upward trend from the second to the third tertile (7.74 vs 0.62) (-trend = 0.036). There was a significant positive association between mental health with T3 of HBI (ß: 4.26; 95% CI: 1.51, 5.98; p-value = 0.015) and a significant increasing trend was observed with increasing tertiles (P-trend = 0.045). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there is a significant association between total QoL score, and its components, with HBI among overweight and obese women. However, additional well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Quality of Life , Humans , Female , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Body Mass Index , Iran/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/psychology , Beverages , Health Status
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1312, 2023 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693867

ABSTRACT

Information on the pattern of acute poisonings in hospitals of Birjand city, Iran, is limited. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap by examining the admissions in a major poisoning center in eastern Iran. This cross-sectional study included patients admitted to the Imam Reza Hospital in Birjand over 12 months. Medical records of the poisoned patients were reviewed, and the study variables were used for data analysis. During the study period, 534 cases of acute poisonings were evaluated. The patient's ages ranged from 12 to 84 years, with a high rate of poisonings between 15 and 35 years. The female predominance in poisoning cases was 52.1%. Most cases of poisonings occurred in spring, and the common route of exposure was oral (93.1%). The incidence of poisoning in married couples, uneducated patients, and residents of urban areas was 56.5%, 90.1%, and 74.6%, respectively. Patients with a previous medical history experienced addiction and psychiatric disorders. Intentional poisoning accounted for 23.4% of acute poisoning cases referred to the hospital in the current study. The main groups of toxicants were pharmaceutical products (48.1%), narcotics (25.8%), chemical products (10.1%), envenomation (7.1%), and alcohol (1.7%). The mean hospital stay was 2.5 ± 3.0 days, and the final treatment outcome was complete recovery, except for one patient intoxicated by warfarin and alprazolam. Our results indicate that the high toxicity cases were related to pharmaceutical product and opioids abuse, especially methadone (8.4%), alprazolam (7.9%), clonazepam (7.5%), and acetaminophen (9.9%) taken orally and more commonly happened at home. Due to the high rate of deliberate poisonings, especially among young adults and students, monitoring drug distribution and exceptional attention to mental health should be seriously considered by national health authorities to prevent suicide attempts.


Subject(s)
Inpatients , Poisoning , Young Adult , Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alprazolam , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Poisoning/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
13.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 161, 2023 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are conditions that affect the usual function of the brain, causing a huge burden on societies. The causes are often unclear, but previous research has pointed out, as is the case with many other diseases, that nutrition could have a major role in it. Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are the main precursor of neurotransmitters (the chemical messengers in the brain) malfunction of which is heavily associated with a wide range of brain disorders. METHODS: We assumed different sources of dietary protein could have different impacts on mental well-being. Hence, we decided to collect the nutritional data (with a validated and reliable semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire) from a sample of 489 Iranian women and investigate the association between animal and plant protein sources and the risk of depression, anxiety, and stress. Symptoms of these mental disorders were assessed using a validated Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaire with 21 items. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, it was shown that women in the highest tertile of animal protein intake were more likely to show symptoms of depression (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.45, 4.71; P = 0.001), anxiety (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.22; P = 0.03), and stress (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 2.06, 6.50; p < 0.001). While no significant association was seen between plant protein and any of the studied mental disorders. CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings suggest that a diet high in animal protein could predispose individuals to mental illnesses.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Animals , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Iran/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders , Diet , Plant Proteins , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 49(5): 9-15, sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-214761

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Allergic diseases could play a role of a predisposing factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to investigate allergic comorbidity and its association in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory reports, and radiologic findings, together with underlying comorbidity of patients, were studies. Allergic diseases were identified by using the standard GA2LEN questionnaire. The severity of COVID-19 was assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS) and an intensive care unit (ICU) report. Results: Out of 400 COVID-19 patients admitted in the hospital, 158 (39.5%) presented with different allergic diseases, and a reverse association was observed between having allergic comorbidity and severity of COVID-19 infection (P = 0.005, relative risk = 0.96; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.77–1.19). The respective frequency of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria, and food or drug allergy was 7.3%, 16%, 1.8%, 5%, 10% and 13.3%. Significantly, only AR was reversely associated with the severity of COVID-19 (P = 0.02, relative risk = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.77–1.19). Additionally, 43% of the patients presented hypoxemia, and 93.5% had chest CT scan involvement. Interestingly, patients with allergic diseases had significantly lower hypoxemia and chest CT involvement as compared with non-allergic patients (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion: The results of this study established that allergic diseases were not determined to be a predisposing factor for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) due to coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Significantly, AR patients developed mild clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and admitted to ICU as compared to non-AR patients (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity/complications , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , Comorbidity , Iran/epidemiology
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 958899, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684929

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Along with the challenges of COVID-19 vaccine supply in low-income countries, vaccine hesitancy was another problem for the health system. The aim of this study was to deeply understand the challenges of vaccine acceptance, the vaccination process, and to compare the affecting vaccine acceptance in the high and low points of the epidemic in Iran. Methods: In the qualitative part of this mixed-methods study, content analysis was used to investigate experiences and perceptions about COVID-19 vaccination in four groups. In the quantitative study, in March 2021 (low point), and on August 1, 2021 (high point), two population-based cross-sectional studies were performed in Tehran and its rural, with sample sizes of 1,200 and 1,872 people aged over 18 years, respectively. Multinomial (polytomous) logistic regression was used to determine the factors affecting hesitation and unwillingness to receive the vaccine. Results: Disbelief in vaccine safety, vaccine distrust, ignorance and confusion, and inadequate facilities were the common reasons extracted in the two qualitative studies. At the low and high points of the epidemic, vaccine acceptance was 83.6% (95% CI: 81.3-85.9) and 65.8% (95% CI: 65.8-71.0), respectively. Residence in rural areas, (Odds Ratio: 0.44, p = 0.001), being a student (Odds Ratio: 0.41, p = 0.011), housewives (Odds Ratio: 0.63, p = 0.033), illiteracy (Odds Ratio: 4.44, p = 0.001), and having an underlying disease (Odds Ratio: 4.44, p = 0.001) were factors affecting on vaccine acceptance. Discussion: Counter-intuitively, acceptance did not increase at the peak of epidemic. The presence of obstacles, such as increased distrust in the effectiveness of vaccines due to the occurrence of multiple peaks in different vaccinated countries, as well as the influence of the media, anti-vaccine campaigns, and lack of proper communication about risks caused more hesitation. More investigation to understand how people accept or reject vaccine and its long term consequences is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Iran/epidemiology , Vaccination Hesitancy , Cross-Sectional Studies
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1010735, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684931

ABSTRACT

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the presence of several metabolic risk factors. The traditional MetS criteria have been considered insufficient for evaluating individuals at risk. MetS has always been categorized using binary criteria, which deny that the risk associated with MetS is likely to exist as a continuum. Also, MetS may present differently depending on age, sex, race, or ethnicity. We aimed to derive age-sex-specific equations for MetS severity scores within a southern Iranian population. Methods: This study used first-phase data from the Bandare-Kong Non-Communicable Diseases (BKNCD) Cohort Study as part of the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN). After exclusion of the pregnant women, diabetic patients, and individuals taking antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic medications, 2,735 individuals aged 35 to 70 years were selected for analysis. The diagnosis of MetS was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria for the Iranian population. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to formulate MetS severity scores. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to validate MetS severity score equations for age-sex-specific categories. Results: Triglyceride had the highest factor loading range in all age-sex categories for determining the MetS severity score. Conversely, systolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) exhibited the lowest factor loadings across all age-sex groups. In both sexes, when age was considered, systolic blood pressure and FPG factor loadings were less significant among subjects aged ≥45 and 35-44 years, respectively. Conclusion: MetS severity scores might be more applicable than the current criteria of MetS. Prospective population-based studies should be conducted to assess the accuracy and validity of the MetS severity score for predicting cardiometabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Syndrome , Pregnancy , Male , Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , Female , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Prospective Studies
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1036219, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684955

ABSTRACT

Background: Insufficient physical activity (IPA) is a significant risk factor for various non-communicable diseases. The Iran action plan is a 20% reduction in IPA. Therefore, we aimed to describe the age and sex pattern of physical activity domains, IPA, the intensity of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and their associates at Iran's national and provincial levels in 2021. Methods: This study used the data of the STEPwise Approach to NCD Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS) 2021 in Iran. The STEPS study used the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) version two developed by WHO for the assessment of physical activity, which included work, transport, and recreational activities domains. We showed and compared demographic and clinical characteristics of participants between males and females, using t-test and Chi-square test. A logistic regression model adjusted for residential areas, years of schooling, wealth index, age, marital status, and occupation has also been implemented. The results were presented as percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: We included 27,874 participants with a mean (SD) age of 45.69 (15.91), among whom 12,479 (44.77%) were male. The mean prevalence of IPA for the whole population for all ages was 51.3% (50.62-51.98%). By sex, 41.93% (40.88-42.98%) and 57.87% (56.99-58.75%) of men and women had IPA, respectively. According to the physical activity domains, the age-standardized prevalence of no recreational activity was 79.40% (78.80-79.99%), no activity at work was 66.66% (65.99-67.32%), and no activity at transport was 49.40% (48.68-50.11%) for both sexes combined. Also, the overall age-standardized prevalence of sedentary behaviors was 50.82% (50.11-51.53%). Yazd province represented the highest prevalence of IPA (63.45%), while West Azerbaijan province represented the lowest prevalence (39.53%). Among both sexes, living in the urban area vs. rural area [adjusted OR: 1.44; (1.31-1.58)], married vs. single status [adjusted OR: 1.33; (1.16-1.53)], and wealth index of class 3 vs. class 1 [adjusted OR: 1.15; (1.01-1.30)] were significantly associated with a higher rate of IPA. Conclusion: The prevalence of IPA was considerably high in Iran. To achieve the predefined goal of reducing IPA, the health system should prioritize increasing physical activity, especially in urban areas and among females.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Sedentary Behavior , Humans , Male , Female , Iran/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors
18.
Iran J Med Sci ; 48(1): 77-84, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688188

ABSTRACT

Background: Azoospermia is a risk factor for infertility affecting approximately 1% of the male population. Genetic factors are associated with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Pygo2 and PRDM9 genes are involved in the spermatogenesis process. The present study aimed to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Pygo2 (rs61758740 and rs61758741) and PRDM9 (rs2973631 and rs1874165) genes with idiopathic azoospermia (IA). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2018 to August 2019 at Rooya Infertility Centre (Qom, Iran). A total of 100 infertile patients with NOA and 100 men with normal fertility were enrolled in the study. Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR method was used to detect SNPs rs61758740, rs61758741, and rs2973631. The restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used for SNP rs1874165. In addition, luteinizing, follicle-stimulating, and testosterone hormone levels were measured. Results: The results showed a significant increase in luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in the patient group (P<0.001), but a non-significant difference in testosterone levels in both groups. SNP rs61758740 (T>C) was associated with the increased risk of azoospermia (OR: 2.359, 95% Cl: 1.192-4.666, P=0.012). SNP rs2973631 showed a significant difference in genotype frequency between the patient and control groups in the dominant, recessive, and codominant models. However, in the case of SNP rs1874165, the difference was significant in the dominant, codominant, and overdominant models. Conclusion: There is an association between azoospermia and SNPs in Pygo2 and PRDM9 genes in Iranian infertile male patients with IA. SNPs can be considered a risk factor for male infertility. It should be noted that this article was published in preprint form on the website of europepmc (https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr416800).


Subject(s)
Azoospermia , Humans , Male , Azoospermia/epidemiology , Azoospermia/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Testosterone , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics
19.
Iran J Med Sci ; 48(1): 49-56, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688202

ABSTRACT

Background: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a spontaneous pneumothorax without underlying lung disease. The main goals of this study were to compare the outcomes of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and open thoracotomy in patients with PSP. Methods: The current study is a retrospective cohort study of patients who were admitted to the emergency department or general surgery ward at Dr. Masih Daneshvari Hospital (Tehran, Iran) with the diagnosis of PSP and underwent surgery by open or VATS approach from 2006 to 2012. The groups were compared in terms of the length of operation, the length of hospitalization, recurrence, and postoperative complications. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0, and Student's t test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi square, and Fisher's exact test were employed. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: PSP was diagnosed in 90 patients who underwent surgery. Open thoracotomy and VATS procedures were performed in 65 (72.2%) and 25 (27.8%) patients, respectively. VATS was converted to open in seven cases (7.7%). Recurrent pneumothorax was the most common surgical indication for PSP. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean age, sex, smoking, side of the involved lung, previous pneumothorax history, mean length of hospitalization for recurrence, post-operation bleeding, and failure of lung expansion. However, the length of surgery (P=0.011) and air leakage (P=0.048) significantly differed between the two groups. Conclusion: When compared to open thoracotomy, VATS could be the primary treatment option in the surgical treatment of PSP due to the shorter length of surgery and decreased complications such as air leakage.


Subject(s)
Pneumothorax , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Humans , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted/adverse effects , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted/methods , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/surgery , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Thoracotomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Length of Stay , Recurrence , Iran/epidemiology
20.
Iran J Med Sci ; 48(1): 26-34, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688191

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the eleventh leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of NHL. Up to winter 2021-2022, the death toll caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has exceeded 5.6 million worldwide. Possible molecular mechanisms involved in the systemic inflammation, and cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients are still not fully understood. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) plays a role in the post-transcriptional gene regulation of hematopoiesis, oncogenesis, and inflammation. The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of miR-155 in patients with DLBCL and/or COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to December 2020 in Tehran (Iran) to evaluate the expression of miR-155 in adult patients diagnosed with DLBCL and/or COVID-19. The real-time polymerase chain reaction technique was used to evaluate the expression of miR-155 in the sera of 92 adults who were either healthy or suffering from DLBCL and/or COVID-19. Relative quantification of gene expression was calculated in terms of cycle threshold (Ct) value. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The expression of miR-155 was not associated with the sex or age of the participants. In comparison with healthy individuals (-ΔCt -1.92±0.25), the expression of miR-155 increased in patients with COVID-19 (1.95±0.14), DLBCL (2.25±0.16), or both (4.33±0.65). Conclusion: The expression of miR-155 increased in patients with DLBCL and/or COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , MicroRNAs , Adult , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , MicroRNAs/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/complications , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/genetics , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/diagnosis , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/genetics , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL