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1.
Urol J ; 17(6): 560-561, 2021 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242698

ABSTRACT

In this correspondence the authors try to show that guidelines and recommendations including what was published by EAU rapid reaction group must be further updated and tailored according to different epidemiologic data in different countries. The authors assign the countries worldwide in three categories. First category comprises countries that experience the secondary surges smoother than the first one. The second category include countries with stronger or -merging and rising-secondary surges and the third category encompasses countries with successful initial response and secondary stronger but still more controllable surges. Authors proclaim that after passing the first baffling impact we find out that postponement strategies preached in many of these scout treatises are no more suitable at least for the countries delineated in the second category and can culminate in performance of procedures in worse. The authors proffer Iranian Urology Association COVID-19 Taskforce Pamphlet(IUA-CTP) as a paragonic document mentioning it's the time we must recognise the wide variability of the situation in different regions and any advisory position must consider this huge variance in epidemiologic profile.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Urologic Surgical Procedures/standards , Appointments and Schedules , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 620, 2023 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Iran, tracking of patients and its associated data recording in private healthcare centers are poor, and thus a majority of patients suffering from Covid-19 are treated without any control on the isolation and quarantine processes. The present study aims to investigate the factors contributed to referral to private or public healthcare centers that provide Covid-19 care services. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2021 to January 2022 in Tabriz, Iran. We invited a total of 258 and 202Covid-19 patients from governmental and private healthcare centers, respectively, to participate in the study by convenient sampling method. Applying a self-administered questionnaire, we collected data on the reason of referring to the healthcare centers, patient's waiting time, quality of healthcare services received by the patients, patients' level of satisfaction, accessibility, insurance coverage, perceived severity of the disease, and the level of staff compliance from health protocols. Logistic regression model was used for data analysis by using SPSS-26 software. RESULTS: Adjusted for other variables, higher socio-economic status (AOR (Adjusted Odds Ratio) = 6.64), older age (AOR = 1.02), referral of friends and family members (AOR = 1.52), shorter waiting time (AOR = 1.02) and higher satisfaction (AOR = 1.02) were contributed to referral to private centers. Better accessibility (AOR = 0.98) and wider insurance coverage (AOR = 0.99) were also contributed to referral to governmental centers. CONCLUSION: Providing more appropriate insurance coverage by private healthcare centers, and promoting their level of accessibility seems to promote patients' referral to such centers. Moreover, establishing an accurate system for recording patients' information and follow up in private centers might promote the role of private healthcare centers in managing the overload of patients on healthcare system during such epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Facilities , Referral and Consultation
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 398, 2023 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the coronavirus outbreak, many countries have replaced traditional education with virtual education in order to prevent the disease spread, and also avoid stopping education. The aim of the present study was to assess the virtual education status at Khalkhal University of Medical Sciences during the covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of students and faculty members. METHODS: This is a descriptive-cross-sectional study that was conducted between December 2021and February 2022. The study population included faculty members and students who were selected by consensus. Data collection instruments included demographic information form and a virtual education assessment questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using independent T-test, one sample T-test, Pearson Correlation, and ANOVA test in SPSS software. RESULTS: A total of 231 students and 22 faculty members of Khalkhal University of Medical Sciences participated in the present study. The response rate was 66.57%. The mean and standard deviation of assessment scores of students (3.3 ± 0.72) were lower than those of faculty members (3.94 ± 0.64), which showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01). User access to the virtual education system (3.8 ± 0.85) and lesson presentation (4.28 ± 0.71) obtained the highest scores from the perspective of students and faculty members, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between employment status and the assessment score of faculty members (p = 0.01), and the field of study (p < 0.01), the year of university entrance (p = 0.01), and the assessment score of students. CONCLUSION: The results showed a higher than mean assessment score in both groups of faculty members and students. There was a difference between faculty members and students in terms of virtual education scores in the parts that require the creation of better processes and more complete capabilities in the systems, which seems that more detailed planning and reforms will improve the process of virtual education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Faculty , Students
4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1120694, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235987

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in air quality index (AQI) values before, during, and after lockdown, as well as to evaluate the number of hospitalizations due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases attributed to atmospheric PM2.5 pollution in Semnan, Iran in the period from 2019 to 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Daily air quality records were obtained from the global air quality index project and the US Environmental Protection Administration (EPA). In this research, the AirQ+ model was used to quantify health consequences attributed to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5). Results: The results of this study showed positive correlations between air pollution levels and reductions in pollutant levels during and after the lockdown. PM2.5 was the critical pollutant for most days of the year, as its AQI was the highest among the four investigated pollutants on most days. Mortality rates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attributed to PM2.5 in 2019-2021 were 25.18% in 2019, 22.55% in 2020, and 22.12% in 2021. Mortality rates and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases decreased during the lockdown. The results showed a significant decrease in the percentage of days with unhealthy air quality in short-term lockdowns in Semnan, Iran with moderate air pollution. Natural mortality (due to all-natural causes) and other mortalities related to COPD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer (LC), and stroke attributed to PM2.5 in 2019-2021 decreased. Conclusion: Our results support the general finding that anthropogenic activities cause significant health threats, which were paradoxically revealed during a global health crisis/challenge.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Humans , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Particulate Matter/adverse effects
5.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 936, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on healthcare services is likely to affect birth outcomes including the delivery mode. However, recent evidence has been conflicting in this regard. The study aimed to assess changes to C-section rate during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of women delivered in the maternity department of hospitals in all provinces of Iran before the COVID-19 pandemic (February-August 30, 2019) and during the pandemic (February-August 30, 2020). Data were collected through the Iranian Maternal and Neonatal Network (IMAN), a country-wide electronic health record database management system for maternal and neonatal information. A total of 1,208,671 medical records were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22. The differences in C-section rates according to the studied variables were tested using the χ2 test. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the factors associated with C-section. RESULTS: A significant rise was observed in the rates of C-section during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic (52.9% vs 50.8%; p = .001). The rates for preeclampsia (3.0% vs 1.3%), gestational diabetes (6.1% vs 3.0%), preterm birth (11.6% vs 6.9%), IUGR (1.2% vs 0.4%), LBW (11.2% vs 7.8%), and low Apgar score at first minute (4.2% vs 3.2%) were higher in women who delivered by C-section compared to those with normal delivery (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: The overall C-section rate during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic was significantly higher than the pre-pandemic period. C-section was associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Thus, preventing the overuse of C-section especially during pandemic becomes an urgent need for maternal and neonatal health in Iran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cesarean Section , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Electronic Health Records
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 359, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244120

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is one of the most critical times in a woman's life that is accompanied by a lot of worry, fear, and stress for the mother, and fear of contracting diseases and losing the children are among the most important of them. The present study investigated the relationship between the social determinants of health and fear of contracting infectious diseases in pregnant women using path analysis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 330 pregnant Iranian women in Kashan from September 21th, 2021, to May 25th, 2022, using a multi-stage method. Data were collected through demographic and obstetric details, fear of COVID-19, perceived social support, socioeconomic status, and pregnancy-related anxiety questionnaires. The collected data were then analyzed using SPSS-21 and Lisrel-8 software. RESULTS: According to the path analysis results, among the variables that have a causal relationship with fear of contracting infectious diseases through only one path, pregnancy anxiety (B = 0.21) had the highest positive relationship and social support had the highest negative relationship (B=-0.18) in the direct path. Among the variables that have a causal relationship with fear of contracting infectious diseases in both paths, socioeconomic status (B=-0.42) had the highest negative causal relationship with fear of contracting infectious diseases. CONCLUSION: According to the path analysis results, the fear of contracting infectious diseases in pregnant women in Kashan is moderate and prevalent, which indicates the necessity of screening pregnant women for such problems during epidemics. Moreover, to prevent this fear and its adverse consequences, the following strategies are recommended: helping promote mothers' and women's awareness, offering social support through healthcare providers, and taking measures to mitigate pregnancy-related anxiety in high-risk individuals and groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Pregnancy , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnant Women , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Social Determinants of Health , Fear
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 436, 2023 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the Coronavirus pandemic, many educational routines were stopped for the safety of medical staff. To achieve educational goals, we have implemented new policies in our hospitals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of such strategies. METHOD: This survey-based study uses questionnaires to assess newly implemented educational strategies. We surveyed 107 medical staff of the orthopedic department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, including faculty members, residents, and students. The survey contained three series of questionnaires for these groups. RESULTS: The maximum satisfaction for all three groups was observed in the platform and facilities for using e-classes, and the cost- and time-saving capabilities (Respectively, faculty members (FM): 81.8%, residents (R): 95.2%, students/interns (S/I): 87.0%; FM: 90.9%, R: 88.1%, S/I: 81.5%). The new policies have been shown to reduce the stress level of most trainees, increase the quality of knowledge-based education, increase the opportunity for reexamining educational content, expand discussion and research opportunities, and improve work conditions. There was a broad acceptance of the virtual journal clubs and morning reports. However, there were discrepancies between residents and faculty members on issues such as the evaluation of trainees, the new educational curriculum, and flexible shift schedules. Our strategies failed to improve skill-based education and patient treatment status. Most participants indicated that e-learning should be used with face-to-face training post-pandemic (FM: 81.8%, R: 83.3%, S/I: 75.9%). CONCLUSION: Our efforts to optimize the educational system during this crisis have generally improved trainees' work conditions and educational experience. Most participants believed that e-learning and virtual methods should be used alongside traditional training as a complementary component after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Iran/epidemiology , Educational Status
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(1): 129-134, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242325

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common nosocomial infections with different clinical and microbiological characteristics. We studied these characteristics in critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY: This research was a cross-sectional study conducted on intensive care unit (ICU) patients with CAUTI. Patients' demographic and clinical information and laboratory data, including causative microorganisms and antibiotic susceptibility tests, were recorded and analyzed. Finally, the differences between the patients who survived and died were compared. RESULTS: After reviewing 353 ICU cases, 80 patients with CAUTI were finally included in the study. The mean age was 55.9 ± 19.1 years, 43.7% were male and 56.3% were female. The mean length of infection development since hospitalisation and hospital stay were 14.7 (3-90) and 27.8 (5-98) days, respectively. The most common symptom was fever (80%). The microbiological identification showed that the most isolated microorganisms were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae (75%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8%), Gram-positive uropathogens (8.8%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (5%). Fifteen patients (18.8%) died among whom infections with A. baumannii (75%) and P. aeruginosa (57.1%) were associated with more death (p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Although A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa can be the most important pathogens for death, MDR Enterobacteriaceae are still a serious concern as causes of CAUTIs.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Cross Infection , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Critical Illness , Cross Infection/microbiology , Catheters , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
9.
Head Face Med ; 19(1): 19, 2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is evidence of the occurrence of headache after vaccination against COVID-19. However, only a few studies have examined the headache characteristics and related determinants, especially among healthcare workers with a history of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We evaluated the incidence of headaches after injection of different types of COVID-19 vaccine to determine factors relating to the incidence of headache after vaccination among the Iranian healthcare workers who had previously contracted COVID-19. A group of 334 healthcare workers with a history of COVID-19 infection were included and vaccinated (at least one month after recovery without any COVID-19 related symptoms) with different COVID-19 vaccines. The baseline information, headache characteristics and vaccine specifications were recorded. RESULTS: Overall, 39.2% reported experiencing a post-vaccination headache. Of those with a previous history of headache, 51.1% reported migraine-type, 27.4% tension-type and 21.5% other types. The mean time between vaccination and headache appearance was 26.78 ± 6.93 h, with the headache appearing less than 24 h after vaccination in most patients (83.2%). The headaches reached its peak within 8.62 ± 2.41 h. Most patients reported a compression-type headache. The prevalence of post-vaccination headaches was significantly different according to the type of vaccine used. The highest rates were reported for AstraZeneca, followed by Sputnik V. In regression analysis, the vaccine brand, female gender and initial COVID-19 severity were the main determinants for predicting post-vaccination headache. CONCLUSION: Participants commonly experienced a headache following vaccination against COVID-19. Our study results indicated that this was slightly more common in females and in those with a history of severe COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Health Personnel
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 339, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Besides impaired respiratory function and immune system, COVID-19 can affect renal function from elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) or serum creatinine (sCr) levels to acute kidney injury (AKI) and renal failure. This study aims to investigate the relationship between Cystatin C and other inflammatory factors with the consequences of COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 125 patients with confirmed Covid-19 pneumonia were recruited in this cross-sectional study from March 2021 to May 2022 at Firoozgar educational hospital in Tehran, Iran. Lymphopenia was an absolute lymphocyte count of less than 1.5 × 109/L. AKI was identified as elevated serum Cr concentration or reduced urine output. Pulmonary consequences were evaluated. Mortality was recorded in the hospital one and three months after discharge. The effect of baseline biochemical and inflammatory factors on odds of death was examined. SPSS, version 26, was used for all analyses. P-vale less than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The highest amount of co-morbidities was attributed to COPD (31%; n = 39), dyslipidemia and hypertension (27%; n = 34 for each) and diabetes (25%; n = 31). The mean baseline cystatin C level was 1.42 ± 0.93 mg/L, baseline creatinine was 1.38 ± 0.86 mg/L, and baseline NLR was 6.17 ± 4.50. Baseline cystatin C level had a direct and highly significant linear relationship with baseline creatinine level of patients (P < 0.001; r: 0.926). ). The average score of the severity of lung involvement was 31.42 ± 10.80. There is a direct and highly significant linear relationship between baseline cystatin C level and lung involvement severity score (r = 0.890, P < 0.001). Cystatin C has a higher diagnostic power in predicting the severity of lung involvement (B = 3.88 ± 1.74, p = 0.026). The mean baseline cystatin C level in patients with AKI was 2.41 ± 1.43 mg/L and significantly higher than patients without AKI (P > 0.001). 34.4% (n = 43) of patients expired in the hospital, and the mean baseline cystatin C level of this group of patients was 1.58 ± 0.90 mg/L which was significantly higher than other patients (1.35 ± 0.94 mg/L, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: cystatin C and other inflammatory factors such as ferritin, LDH and CRP can help the physician predict the consequences of COVID-19. Timely diagnosis of these factors can help reduce the complications of COVID-19 and better treat this disease. More studies on the consequences of COVID-19 and knowing the related factors will help treat the disease as well as possible.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Biomarkers , Cystatin C , Prospective Studies , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/complications , Iran/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 119: 110217, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324989

ABSTRACT

As a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the host's immune system is disrupted, and chemokines and cytokines are intensified to eliminate the virus, resulting in cytokine storm syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients with COVID-19 have been observed to have elevated levels of MCP-1, a chemokine associated with the severity of the disease. In some diseases, polymorphisms in the regulatory region of the MCP-1 gene correspond to serum levels and disease severity. An attempt was made in this study to assess the relationship between MCP-1 G-2518A and serum MCP-1 levels in Iranian COVID-19 patients and the severity of the disease. In this study, patients were randomly sampled from outpatients on the first day of diagnosis and from inpatients on the first day of their hospitalization. Patients were classified into the outpatient (without symptoms or with mild symptoms) and inpatient (with moderate, severe, and critical symptoms) groups. The serum level of MCP-1 was measured by ELISA and the frequency of MCP-1 G-2518A gene polymorphism genotypes in COVID-19 patients was checked by the RFLP-PCR method. Participants with COVID-19 infection had a higher rate of underlying diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease than the control group (P-value < 0.001). Also, the frequency of these factors in inpatients was significantly higher compared to outpatients (P-value < 0.001). Additionally, the level of MCP-1 in serum was significantly different with an average of 11.90 in comparison to 2.98 in the control group (P-value, 0.05), which is attributed to elevated serum levels among patients in hospitals with an average of 11.72 in comparison to 2.98 in the control group. Compared with outpatients, inpatients had a higher frequency of the G allele of the MCP-1-2518 polymorphism (P-value < 0.05), while a notable difference was observed in the serum level of MCP-1 in COVID-19 patients with the MCP-1-2518 AA genotype in the whole group in comparison to the control group (P-value: 0.024). Totally, the results showed that a high frequency of the G allele is related to hospitalization and poor outcome in COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemokine CCL2 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Humans , Case-Control Studies , Chemokine CCL2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 241, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 has evolved into independent new forms, variants of concern (VOCs). While epidemiological data showed increased transmissibility of VOCs, their impact on clinical outcomes is less clear. This study aimed to investigate the differences between the clinical and laboratory features of children infected with VOCs. METHODS: This study included all cases with SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from patients referred to Children's Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital, between July 2021 and March 2022. The inclusion criteria for this study included all patients, regardless of age, who had a positive test anywhere in the hospital setting. Exclusion criteria for the study included those whose data was obtained from non-hospital outpatient settings, or referred from another hospital. The SARS-CoV-2 genome area encoding the S1 domain was amplified and sequenced. The type of variant in each sample was identified based on the mutations in the S1 gene. Demographic characteristics, clinical data, and laboratory findings were collected from the patient's medical records. RESULTS: This study included 87 pediatric cases with confirmed COVID-19, with a median age of 3.5 years (IQR: 1-8.12). Data from sequencing reveals the type of variants as 5 (5.7%) alpha, 53 (60.9%) Delta, and 29 (33.3%) Omicron. The incidence of seizure was higher in patients with Alpha and Omicron infection compared to the Delta group. A higher incidence of diarrhea was reported in Alpha-infected patients, and a higher risk of disease severity, distress, and myalgia was associated with Delta infection. CONCLUSION: Laboratory parameters did not mostly differ among the patients infected with Alpha, Delta, and Omicron. However, these variants may manifest different clinical features. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to fully understand the clinical manifestations of each variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Child, Hospitalized , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation
13.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 42(1): 43, 2023 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared the outbreak of the infectious disease COVID-19 as a pandemic. The health strategies of nations lead to possible changes in lifestyle and increase poor eating habits. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare food consumption during COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary data from the Households Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) conducted annually by the Statistical Centre of Iran. Food cost data of HIES included the amount of all food items in household food baskets during the last month. Then, they were classified into six food groups to evaluate their energy intake. The consequence of food consumption was analyzed as a function of socioeconomic status (SES) variables and residence pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In total, 75,885 households (83.5% male) were included in the study. Among the population of urban and rural areas as well as in different SES categories, people tended to increase the consumption of meat (P < 0.05) and fresh foods, especially vegetable groups (P < 0.001) and decrease the consumption of fruit (P < 0.001), fat and sweets groups (P < 0.05) and also in energy intake (P < 0.05). Macronutrient changes were different in the category of SES, urban and rural. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic had different effects on food groups, energy and macronutrients consumption, which could be due to possible changes in food patterns as a result of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Male , Female , Health Expenditures , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Income , Fruit
14.
Air Med J ; 42(4): 271-275, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322887

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a severe acute respiratory infection, has spread rapidly around the world. To expand and enhance knowledge regarding virus prevention/transmission, this study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of emergency medical services (EMS) workers as a part of the health care system because of their essential role in the front lines of the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted on EMS workers to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward COVID-19. The questionnaire included 5 topics: demographic information, knowledge and attitude questions, professional behavior of employees during the epidemic, and anxiety score. RESULTS: A total of 86 EMS workers answered the questionnaire, and 55.63% of the respondents answered the knowledge questions correctly; knowledge appeared to have no correlation to their education, age, or experience. In addition, there was no apparent correlation between the infection rate and exposure to an infected or suspected patient. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study indicate that more than half of the EMS workers have good knowledge about the epidemic, and the level of knowledge was not related to their demographic characteristics. The results of professional behaviors showed a high level of compliance with the principles and guidelines by workers, and the absence of a relationship between employees' contamination and exposure to infected patients supports the awareness and legality of EMS workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Personnel
15.
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 310, 2023 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evidence on the psychological consequences of coronavirus 2019 mainly relates to general psychiatric problems, and a few studies have reported the incidence and predictors of obsessive-compulsive disorder. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and its predictors in Iranian COVID - 19 recovered individuals at 3-6 months, 6-12 months, and 12-18 months after recovery. METHOD: In this cross-sectional analytical study, 300 participants were randomly selected based on the inclusion criteria from three hospitals in three different regions of Tehran, Iran, and were assessed by the Clinical Demographic Information Questionnaire, the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS21), The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS version 26. RESULTS: The results showed that the mean score of OCD is 30.58 ± 15.22, with a prevalence of 71% (n = 213). Female gender (BF = 0.50, p = 0.01), sleep disturbance (BF = 0.02, p = 0.001), PTSD (BF = 0.009, p = 0.0001), depression (BF = 0.0001, p = 0.0001), and stress (BF = 0.0001, p = 0.001) are the strongest predictors of the presence of OCD in recovered COVID - 19 individuals. CONCLUSION: OCD-like symptoms was observed in the majority of COVID - 19 recovered individuals with mild to moderate severity. In addition, the stated prevalence, severity, and significance varied according to sociodemographic and health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Humans , Female , Iran/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology
17.
Virol J ; 20(1): 88, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased systematic pro-inflammatory cytokines is the main cause of the inflammatory conditions of the hospitalized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. In this project, serum levels of IL-29 and whole blood levels of microRNA-185-5p (miR-185-5p) were evaluated in the hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. METHODS: This project was performed on the 60 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and 60 healthy controls to evaluate IL-29 and miR185-5p expression levels. IL-29 expression was explored using enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA), while miR185-5p was evaluated using Real-Time PCR techniques. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that neither IL-29 serum levels nor relative expressions of miR-185-5p were significantly different between patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Due to the results that are presented here, systematic levels of IL-29 and miR-185-5p cannot be considered as the main risk factors for induction of inflammation in the hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , Cytokines , Iran/epidemiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285792, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Providing intensive care to acute patients is a vital part of health systems. However, the high cost of Intensive Care Units (ICU) has limited their development, especially in low-income countries. Due to the increasing need for intensive care and limited resources, ICU cost management is important. This study aimed to analyze the cost-benefit of ICU during COVID-19 in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is an economic evaluation of health interventions. The study was conducted in the COVID-19 dedicated ICU, from the provider's point of view and within one-year horizon. Costs were calculated using a top-down approach and the Activity-Based Costing technique. Benefits were extracted from the hospital's HIS system. Benefit Cost ratio (BCR) and Net Present Value (NPV) indexes were used for cost-benefit analysis (CBA). A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the dependence of the CBA results on the uncertainties in the cost data. Analysis was performed with Excel and STATA software. RESULTS: The studied ICU had 43 personnel, 14 active beds, a 77% bed occupancy rate, and 3959 occupied bed days. The total costs were $2,372,125.46 USD, of which 70.3% were direct costs. The highest direct cost was related to human resources. The total net income was $1,213,314.13 USD. NPV and BCR were obtained as $-1,158,811.32 USD and 0.511 respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite operating with a relatively high capacity, ICU has had high losses during the COVID-19. Proper management and re-planning in the structure of human resources is recommended due to its importance in the hospital economy, provision of resources based on needs assessment, improvement of drugs management, reduction of insurance deductions in order to reduce costs and improve ICU productivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2310302, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317421

ABSTRACT

Importance: The protein-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines FINLAY-FR-2 (Soberana 02) and FINLAY-FR-1A (Soberana Plus) showed good safety and immunogenicity in phase 1 and 2 trials, but the clinical efficacy of the vaccine remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 2-dose regimen of FINLAY-FR-2 (cohort 1) and a 3-dose regimen of FINLAY-FR-2 with FINLAY-FR-1A (cohort 2) in Iranian adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted at 6 cities in cohort 1 and 2 cities in cohort 2. Participants included individuals aged 18 to 80 years without uncontrolled comorbidities, coagulation disorders, pregnancy or breastfeeding, recent immunoglobulin or immunosuppressive therapy, and clinical presentation or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 on enrollment. The study was conducted from April 26 to September 25, 2021. Interventions: In cohort 1, 2 doses of FINLAY-FR-2 (n = 13 857) or placebo (n = 3462) were administered 28 days apart. In cohort 2, 2 doses of FINLAY-FR-2 plus 1 dose of FINLAY-FR-1A (n = 4340) or 3 placebo doses (n = 1081) were administered 28 days apart. Vaccinations were administered via intramuscular injection. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was polymerase chain reaction-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 infection at least 14 days after vaccination completion. Other outcomes were adverse events and severe COVID-19. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Results: In cohort 1 a total 17 319 individuals received 2 doses and in cohort 2 5521 received 3 doses of the vaccine or placebo. Cohort 1 comprised 60.1% men in the vaccine group and 59.1% men in the placebo group; cohort 2 included 59.8% men in the vaccine group and 59.9% in the placebo group. The mean (SD) age was 39.3 (11.9) years in cohort 1 and 39.7 (12.0) years in cohort 2, with no significant difference between the vaccine and placebo groups. The median follow-up time in cohort 1 was 100 (IQR, 96-106) days and, in cohort 2, 142 (137-148) days. In cohort 1, 461 (3.2%) cases of COVID-19 occurred in the vaccine group and 221 (6.1%) in the placebo group (vaccine efficacy: 49.7%; 95% CI, 40.8%-57.3%) vs 75 (1.6%) and 51 (4.3%) in cohort 2 (vaccine efficacy: 64.9%; 95% CI, 49.7%-59.5%). The incidence of serious adverse events was lower than 0.1%, with no vaccine-related deaths. Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of the efficacy and safety of FINLAY-FR-2 and FINLAY-FR-1A, 2 doses of FINLAY-FR-2 plus the third dose of FINLAY-FR-1A showed acceptable vaccine efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 as well as COVID-19-related severe infections. Vaccination was generally safe and well tolerated. Therefore, Soberana may have utility as an option for mass vaccination of the population, especially in resource-limited settings, because of its storage condition and affordable price. Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: IRCT20210303050558N1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Iran/epidemiology
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 430, 2023 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Providing services to people living with HIV (PLWH) faced many challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on providing HIV/AIDS-related services in Iran. METHODS: In this qualitative study, the participants were included by purposive sampling between November 2021 and February 2022. Virtually focused group discussion (FGD) meetings were conducted with the first group including policymakers, service providers, and researchers (n = 17), and the interviews were conducted telephonic and face-to-face using a semi-structured guide with the second group including people who received services (n = 38). Data were analyzed by content analysis using the inductive method in MAXQDA 10 software. RESULTS: Six categories were obtained, including mostly affected services, ways of the effect of COVID-19, healthcare systems reaction, effects on social inequality, opportunities created by the pandemic, and suggestions for the future. In addition, people who received services believed the COVID-19 pandemic has affected their life in several ways, including getting COVID-19, mental and emotional problems during the pandemic, financial problems, changes in the care plan, and changes in high-risk behaviors. CONCLUSION: Considering the level of community involvement with the issue of COVID-19 and the shock caused by the pandemic, as mentioned by the world health organization, it is necessary to improve health systems' resilience for better preparedness for similar conditions.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy
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