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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572659

ABSTRACT

Large variability in COVID-19 clinical progression urges the need to find the most relevant biomarkers to predict patients' outcomes. We evaluated iron metabolism and immune response in 303 patients admitted to the main hospital of the northern region of Portugal with variable clinical pictures, from September to November 2020. One hundred and twenty-seven tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 176 tested negative. Iron-related laboratory parameters and cytokines were determined in blood samples collected soon after admission. Demographic data, comorbidities and clinical outcomes were recorded. Patients were assigned into five groups according to severity. Serum iron and transferrin levels at admission were lower in COVID-19-positive than in COVID-19-negative patients. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were increased in COVID-19-positive patients. The lowest serum iron and transferrin levels at diagnosis were associated with the worst outcomes. Iron levels negatively correlated with IL-6 and higher levels of this cytokine were associated with a worse prognosis. Serum ferritin levels at diagnosis were higher in COVID-19-positive than in COVID-19-negative patients. Serum iron is the simplest laboratory test to be implemented as a predictor of disease progression in COVID-19-positive patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Iron/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/blood , Female , Ferritins , Hepcidins , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Mycoses ; 65(1): 120-127, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether dysregulated iron metabolism is associated with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) remains unknown. Herein, we compare the serum iron indices in COVID-19 subjects with and without mucormycosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study enrolling COVID-19 participants with and without mucormycosis. We compared the baseline serum iron indices (iron, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron-binding capacity and percentage transferrin saturation) between CAM cases and COVID-19 controls. Additionally, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess whether any iron indices are associated with CAM. RESULTS: We enrolled 28 CAM cases (mean age 53.6 years old; 78.6% men) and 26 controls (mean age 57.2 years old; 73.1% men). Rhino-orbital (±cerebral) mucormycosis (85.7%) was the most clinical presentation. Diabetes mellitus was more frequent in the cases than controls (75% vs. 42.3%; p = .015). Hypoxaemia during COVID-19 illness was more common in controls than cases. The mean serum iron values (33 vs. 45 µg/dl, p = .03) and TIBC (166.6 vs. 201.6 µg/dl, p = .003) were significantly lower in CAM cases than controls. On multivariate analysis, we found a lower TIBC (odds ratio [OR] 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99) and diabetes mellitus (OR 5.23; 95% CI, 1.21-22.68) to be independently associated with CAM after adjusting for serum iron, ferritin and glucocorticoid therapy. The case fatality rate of CAM was 73.9%. The iron indices were not significantly different between CAM survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The CAM is associated with lower TIBC levels than COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis, suggesting dysregulated iron metabolism in its pathogenesis. Further studies are required to confirm our preliminary observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ferritins/blood , Iron/blood , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/epidemiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19618, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450293

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology and the factors determining disease severity in COVID-19 are not yet clear, with current data indicating a possible role of altered iron metabolism. Previous studies of iron parameters in COVID-19 are cross-sectional and have not studied catalytic iron, the biologically most active form of iron. The study was done to determine the role of catalytic iron in the adverse outcomes in COVID-19. We enrolled adult patients hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 and measured serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, hepcidin and serum catalytic iron daily. Primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, and kidney replacement therapy. Associations between longitudinal iron parameter measurements and time-to-event outcomes were examined using a joint model. We enrolled 120 patients (70 males) with median age 50 years. The primary composite outcome was observed in 25 (20.8%) patients-mechanical ventilation was needed in 21 (17.5%) patients and in-hospital mortality occurred in 21 (17.5%) patients. Baseline levels of ferritin and hepcidin were significantly associated with the primary composite outcome. The joint model analysis showed that ferritin levels were significantly associated with primary composite outcome [HR (95% CI) = 2.63 (1.62, 4.24) after adjusting for age and gender]. Both ferritin and serum catalytic iron levels were positively associated with in-hospital mortality [HR (95% CI) = 3.22 (2.05, 5.07) and 1.73 (1.21, 2.47), respectively], after adjusting for age and gender. The study shows an association of ferritin and catalytic iron with adverse outcomes in COVID-19. This suggests new pathophysiologic pathways in this disease, also raising the possibility of considering iron chelation therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Iron/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ferritins/blood , Ferritins/metabolism , Hepcidins/blood , Hepcidins/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iron/chemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Transferrin/chemistry , Transferrin/metabolism
6.
Metallomics ; 13(6)2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387958

ABSTRACT

This report provides perspectives concerning dual roles of serum ferritin as a measure of both iron status and inflammation. We suggest benefits of a lower range of serum ferritin as has occurred for total serum cholesterol and fasting blood glucose levels. Observations during a prospective randomized study using phlebotomy in patients with peripheral arterial disease offered unique insights into dual roles of serum ferritin both as an iron status marker and acute phase reactant. Robust positive associations between serum ferritin, interleukin 6 [IL-6], tissue necrosis factor-alpha, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were discovered. Elevated serum ferritin and IL-6 levels associated with increased mortality and with reduced mortality at ferritin levels <100 ng mL-1. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate similar outcomes. Extremely elevated ferritin and IL-6 levels also occur in individuals with high mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Disordered iron metabolism reflected by a high range of serum ferritin level signals disease severity and outcomes. Based upon experimental and epidemiologic data, we suggest testing the hypotheses that optimal ferritin levels for cardiovascular mortality reduction range from 20 to 100 ng mL-1 with % transferrin levels from 20 to 50%, to ensure adequate iron status and that ferritin levels above 194 ng mL-1 associate with all-cause mortality in population cohorts.


Subject(s)
Ferritins/blood , Inflammation/blood , Iron/blood , Peripheral Arterial Disease/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phlebotomy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transferrin/analysis
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13431, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286474

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that leads to severe respiratory failure (RF). It is known that host exposure to viral infection triggers an iron-lowering response to mitigate pathogenic load and tissue damage. However, the association between host iron-lowering response and COVID-19 severity is not clear. This two-center observational study of 136 adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients analyzed the association between disease severity and initial serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels. Serum iron levels were significantly lower in patients with mild RF than in the non-RF group; however, there were no significant differences in iron levels between the non-RF and severe RF groups, depicting a U-shaped association between serum iron levels and disease severity. TIBC levels decreased significantly with increasing severity; consequently, TSAT was significantly higher in patients with severe RF than in other patients. Multivariate analysis including only patients with RF adjusted for age and sex demonstrated that higher serum iron and TSAT levels were independently associated with the development of severe RF, indicating that inadequate response to lower serum iron might be an exacerbating factor for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Iron/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Transferrin/analysis
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3772-3790, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264762

ABSTRACT

Multiple epidemiological studies have suggested that industrialization and progressive urbanization should be considered one of the main factors responsible for the rising of atherosclerosis in the developing world. In this scenario, the role of trace metals in the insurgence and progression of atherosclerosis has not been clarified yet. In this paper, the specific role of selected trace elements (magnesium, zinc, selenium, iron, copper, phosphorus, and calcium) is described by focusing on the atherosclerotic prevention and pathogenesis plaque. For each element, the following data are reported: daily intake, serum levels, intra/extracellular distribution, major roles in physiology, main effects of high and low levels, specific roles in atherosclerosis, possible interactions with other trace elements, and possible influences on plaque development. For each trace element, the correlations between its levels and clinical severity and outcome of COVID-19 are discussed. Moreover, the role of matrix metalloproteinases, a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, as a new medical therapeutical approach to atherosclerosis is discussed. Data suggest that trace element status may influence both atherosclerosis insurgence and plaque evolution toward a stable or an unstable status. However, significant variability in the action of these traces is evident: some - including magnesium, zinc, and selenium - may have a protective role, whereas others, including iron and copper, probably have a multi-faceted and more complex role in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic plaque. Finally, calcium and phosphorus are implicated in the calcification of atherosclerotic plaques and in the progression of the plaque toward rupture and severe clinical complications. In particular, the role of calcium is debated. Focusing on the COVID-19 pandemia, optimized magnesium and zinc levels are indicated as important protective tools against a severe clinical course of the disease, often related to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to cause a systemic inflammatory response, able to transform a stable plaque into an unstable one, with severe clinical complications.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/pathology , Trace Elements/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calcium/blood , Calcium/metabolism , Copper/blood , Copper/metabolism , Humans , Iron/blood , Iron/metabolism , Magnesium/blood , Magnesium/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Phosphorus/blood , Phosphorus/metabolism , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selenium/blood , Selenium/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Trace Elements/blood , Zinc/blood , Zinc/metabolism
10.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218624

ABSTRACT

Cancer is often accompanied by worsening of the patient's iron profile, and the resulting anemia could be a factor that negatively impacts antineoplastic treatment efficacy and patient survival. The first line of therapy is usually based on oral or intravenous iron supplementation; however, many patients remain anemic and do not respond. The key might lie in the pathogenesis of the anemia itself. Cancer-related anemia (CRA) is characterized by a decreased circulating serum iron concentration and transferrin saturation despite ample iron stores, pointing to a more complex problem related to iron homeostatic regulation and additional factors such as chronic inflammatory status. This review explores our current understanding of iron homeostasis in cancer, shedding light on the modulatory role of hepcidin in intestinal iron absorption, iron recycling, mobilization from liver deposits, and inducible regulators by infections and inflammation. The underlying relationship between CRA and systemic low-grade inflammation will be discussed, and an integrated multitarget approach based on nutrition and exercise to improve iron utilization by reducing low-grade inflammation, modulating the immune response, and supporting antioxidant mechanisms will also be proposed. Indeed, a Mediterranean-based diet, nutritional supplements and exercise are suggested as potential individualized strategies and as a complementary approach to conventional CRA therapy.


Subject(s)
Anemia/complications , Iron/blood , Life Style , Neoplasms/complications , Anemia/blood , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/blood , Animals , COVID-19 , Diet , Food, Fortified , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hepcidins/blood , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Liver/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal
12.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 79, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Sars-CoV-2 can cause severe pneumonia with multiorgan disease; thus, the identification of clinical and laboratory predictors of the progression towards severe and fatal forms of this illness is needed. Here, we retrospectively evaluated and integrated laboratory parameters of 45 elderly subjects from a long-term care facility with Sars-CoV-2 outbreak and spread, to identify potential common patterns of systemic response able to better stratify patients' clinical course and outcome. METHODS: Baseline white blood cells, granulocytes', lymphocytes', and platelets' counts, hemoglobin, total iron, ferritin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 concentration were used to generate a principal component analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by using R statistical package version 4.0. RESULTS: We identified 3 laboratory patterns of response, renamed as low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk, strongly associated with patients' survival (p < 0.01). D-dimer, iron status, lymphocyte/monocyte count represented the main markers discriminating high- and low-risk groups. Patients belonging to the high-risk group presented a significantly longer time to ferritin decrease (p: 0.047). Iron-to-ferritin-ratio (IFR) significantly segregated recovered and dead patients in the intermediate-risk group (p: 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that a combination of few laboratory parameters, i.e. iron status, D-dimer and lymphocyte/monocyte count at admission and during the hospital stay, can predict clinical progression in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Iron/blood , Lymphocytes/pathology , Monocytes/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Long-Term Care , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
13.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43 Suppl 1: 142-151, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069396

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that iron metabolism is affected by coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), which has spread worldwide and has become a global health problem. Our study aimed to evaluate the relationship between COVID-19 and serum erythropoietin (EPO), hepcidin, and haptoglobin (Hpt) levels with disease severity, and other biochemical values. METHODS: Fifty nine COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) and wards in our hospital between March and June 2020 and 19 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Participants were divided into mild, severe, and critical disease severity groups. Group mean values were analyzed with SPSS according to disease severity, mortality, and intubation status. RESULTS: Hemoglobin (Hb) levels were significantly lower in the critical patient group (P < .0001) and deceased group (P < .0001). The red blood cell distribution width-coefficient of variation (RDW-CV) and ferritin values were significantly higher in the intubated (P = .001, P = .005) and deceased (P = .014, P = .003) groups. Ferritin values were positively correlated with disease severity (P < .0001). Serum iron levels were lower in the patient group compared with the reference range. (P < .0001). It was found that the transferrin saturation (TfSat) was lower in the patient group compared with the control group (P < .0001). It was found that the mean EPO of the deceased was lower than the control group and the survived patient group (P = .035). Hepcidin levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group (P < .0001). Hpt values were found to be significantly lower in the intubated group (P = .004) and the deceased group (P = .042). CONCLUSION: In our study, while serum iron and hepcidin levels decreased in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, we found that EPO and Hpt levels were significantly lower in critical and deceased patient groups. Our study is the first study examining EPO and Hpt levels in patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Erythropoietin/blood , Haptoglobins/analysis , Hepcidins/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hemoglobins/analysis , Homeostasis , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Iron/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Transferrin/analysis
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 136: 111228, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033016

ABSTRACT

Iron overload is increasingly implicated as a contributor to the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Indeed, several of the manifestations of COVID-19, such as inflammation, hypercoagulation, hyperferritinemia, and immune dysfunction are also reminiscent of iron overload. Although iron is essential for all living cells, free unbound iron, resulting from iron dysregulation and overload, is very reactive and potentially toxic due to its role in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS react with and damage cellular lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins, with consequent activation of either acute or chronic inflammatory processes implicated in multiple clinical conditions. Moreover, iron-catalyzed lipid damage exerts a direct causative effect on the newly discovered nonapoptotic cell death known as ferroptosis. Unlike apoptosis, ferroptosis is immunogenic and not only leads to amplified cell death but also promotes a series of reactions associated with inflammation. Iron chelators are generally safe and are proven to protect patients in clinical conditions characterized by iron overload. There is also an abundance of evidence that iron chelators possess antiviral activities. Furthermore, the naturally occurring iron chelator lactoferrin (Lf) exerts immunomodulatory as well as anti-inflammatory effects and can bind to several receptors used by coronaviruses thereby blocking their entry into host cells. Iron chelators may consequently be of high therapeutic value during the present COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Iron Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Iron Overload/drug therapy , Iron/metabolism , Lactoferrin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Iron/blood , Iron/chemistry , Lactoferrin/pharmacology
16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(8): 763-773, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725658

ABSTRACT

Iron metabolism and anemia may play an important role in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate biomarkers of anemia and iron metabolism (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor, hepcidin, haptoglobin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, erythropoietin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrine, and erythrocyte indices) in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and explored their prognostic value. Six bibliographic databases were searched up to August 3rd 2020. We included 189 unique studies, with data from 57,563 COVID-19 patients. Pooled mean hemoglobin and ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients across all ages were 129.7 g/L (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 128.51; 130.88) and 777.33 ng/mL (95% CI, 701.33; 852.77), respectively. Hemoglobin levels were lower with older age, higher percentage of subjects with diabetes, hypertension and overall comorbidities, and admitted to intensive care. Ferritin level increased with older age, increasing proportion of hypertensive study participants, and increasing proportion of mortality. Compared to moderate cases, severe COVID-19 cases had lower hemoglobin [weighted mean difference (WMD), - 4.08 g/L (95% CI - 5.12; - 3.05)] and red blood cell count [WMD, - 0.16 × 1012 /L (95% CI - 0.31; - 0.014)], and higher ferritin [WMD, - 473.25 ng/mL (95% CI 382.52; 563.98)] and red cell distribution width [WMD, 1.82% (95% CI 0.10; 3.55)]. A significant difference in mean ferritin levels of 606.37 ng/mL (95% CI 461.86; 750.88) was found between survivors and non-survivors, but not in hemoglobin levels. Future studies should explore the impact of iron metabolism and anemia in the pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anemia/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Erythropoietin , Ferritins/blood , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hepcidins/blood , Hepcidins/metabolism , Humans , Iron/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Receptors, Transferrin/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Transferrin/analysis , Transferrin/metabolism
17.
Immunol Res ; 68(4): 213-224, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651271

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by a protean clinical picture that can range from asymptomatic patients to life-threatening conditions. Severe COVID-19 patients often display a severe pulmonary involvement and develop neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and strikingly elevated levels of IL-6. There is an over-exuberant cytokine release with hyperferritinemia leading to the idea that COVID-19 is part of the hyperferritinemic syndrome spectrum. Indeed, very high levels of ferritin can occur in other diseases including hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, macrophage activation syndrome, adult-onset Still's disease, catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome and septic shock. Numerous studies have demonstrated the immunomodulatory effects of ferritin and its association with mortality and sustained inflammatory process. High levels of free iron are harmful in tissues, especially through the redox damage that can lead to fibrosis. Iron chelation represents a pillar in the treatment of iron overload. In addition, it was proven to have an anti-viral and anti-fibrotic activity. Herein, we analyse the pathogenic role of ferritin and iron during SARS-CoV-2 infection and propose iron depletion therapy as a novel therapeutic approach in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections , Ferritins/blood , Iron Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Iron Overload , Iron/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Iron Overload/blood , Iron Overload/drug therapy , Iron Overload/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 303-305, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459066

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is viciously spreading through the continents with rapidly increasing mortality rates. Current management of COVID-19 is based on the premise that respiratory failure is the leading cause of mortality. However, mounting evidence links accelerated pathogenesis in gravely ill COVID-19 patients to a hyper-inflammatory state involving a cytokine storm. Several components of the heightened inflammatory state were addressed as therapeutic targets. Another key component of the heightened inflammatory state is hyper-ferritinemia which reportedly identifies patients with increased mortality risk. In spite of its strong association with mortality, it is not yet clear if hyper-ferritinemia in COVID-19 patients is merely a systemic marker of disease progression, or a key modulator in disease pathogenesis. Here we address implications of a possible role for hyper-ferritinemia, and altered iron homeostasis in COVID-19 pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic targets in this regard.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Iron Overload/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Ferroptosis , Hepcidins/physiology , Humans , Inflammation , Iron/blood , Mitochondria/pathology , Mitochondria/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
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