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1.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 126-134, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863437

ABSTRACT

The authors report hybrid treatment of a patient with angina pectoris class II, multiple previous reconstructive interventions on the aortofemoral segment and chronic ischemia of the left lower limb stage IV and concomitant COVID-19. Coronary angiography was performed after regression of infectious disease under antiviral therapy. Occlusion of the left anterior descending artery was observed that required LAD stenting. On the next day, hybrid revascularization of the lower extremities was implemented: thrombectomy and endarterectomy from the branch of the aorto-femoral bypass graft and deep femoral artery at the first stage, stenting of the orifice of proximal branch of aorto-femoral bypass graft at the second stage, endarterectomy from superficial femoral artery, recanalization and stenting of superficial femoral artery and popliteal artery at the third stage and prosthetic- femoral bypass with autologous vein at the fourth stage. Postoperative angiography revealed patent stents and no residual stenoses. The choice in favor of these procedures and step-by-step approach has been substantiated. The authors emphasized effectiveness and safety of this treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19 , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Femoral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Femoral Artery/surgery , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Popliteal Artery/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Patency
3.
Surgery ; 171(5): 1422-1426, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of COVID-19 infection in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia, mainly the limb salvage estimates rate and the overall survival. METHODS: This was a retrospective, consecutive cohort study of chronic limb-threatening ischemia in patients with COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Overall, 35 patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia and COVID-19 infection were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 72.51 years, and most of them were male (60%), with arterial hypertension (85.7%), followed by diabetes mellitus (80%) and tobacco user (71.4%). There was a higher prevalence of wound, ischemia and foot infection (WIfI) classification 4 with 58.8% and Rutherford grade 5 (74.3%). The factors related to overall mortality rate were: D-dimer >1,000 mg/dL (hazard ratio = 22.7, P < .001, confidence interval = 10.49-26.52), respiratory symptoms (hazard ratio = 16.6, P < .001, confidence interval = 9.87-20.90), chest computed tomography compromising higher than 50% of the pulmonary tract (hazard ratio = 16,0, P < .001, confidence interval = 10.41-20.55), acute kidney failure (hazard ratio = 21.58, P < .001, confidence interval = 16.5-30.5), chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio = 4.4, P = .036, confidence interval = 1.45-10.1), therapeutic anticoagulation (hazard ratio = 8.37, P = .004, confidence interval = 1.35-8.45), and WIfI classification (hazard ratio = 5.28, P = .022, confidence interval = 1.34-10.01). The following were related to limb loss: D-dimer >1,000 mg/mL (hazard ratio = 5.47, P = .02, confidence interval = 1.94-10.52), respiratory symptoms (hazard ratio = 5.42, P = .02, confidence interval = 1.87-10.90), and WIfI classification (hazard ratio = 4.44, P = .035, confidence interval = 1.34-8.01). CONCLUSION: This study concluded that COVID-19 has a catastrophic impact among patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia. The main factors related to overall mortality were D-dimer >1,000 mg/dL, respiratory symptoms, chest computed tomography compromising higher than 50% of the pulmonary tract, acute kidney failure, chronic kidney disease, therapeutic anticoagulation, and WIfI classification. The factors related to limb loss were WIfI classification, D-dimer >1,000 mg/mL and respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Wound Infection , Aged , Amputation , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Ischemia/surgery , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Limb Salvage , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing , Wound Infection/diagnosis , Wound Infection/surgery
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 135, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808379

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In addition to attacking the respiratory system, the coronavirus disease may attack the gastrointestinal tract in various ways, one of which is by creating a coagulopathy that may lead to acute ischemia of the bowel, increasing morbidity and mortality rates in these patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of a white 72-year-old European male, who was admitted to the intensive care unit after developing COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. On the third week, despite a favorable evolution of his respiratory symptoms, the patient became clinically septic; laboratory findings showed an augmentation of his D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels. Imaging showed signs of ischemia of the right colon. The patient was taken to the operating room; only the right side of his colon was ischemic, with a well demarcated cut-off. A laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with a terminal ileostomy was performed. The patient was able to go home 2 weeks after surgery. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Ischemic colitis is an uncommon pathology in the general population, and is rare in COVID-19 patients. Most cases of ischemic colitis in COVID-19 patients in the literature were limited to the left colon, with < 10 cases involving the right colon. Accurate and quick diagnosis with appropriate management is the key to avoid any mortality in those patients who are already weakened by the coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ischemic , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Colectomy , Colitis, Ischemic/diagnosis , Colitis, Ischemic/etiology , Colitis, Ischemic/surgery , Humans , Ischemia/surgery , Male
5.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 47(5): 1565-1602, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a less common but devastating complication of COVID-19 disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the most common CT imaging features of AMI in COVID-19 and also provide an updated review of the literature on symptoms, treatment, histopathological and operative findings, and follow-up of these patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search of four databases: Pubmed, EMBASE, WHO database, and Google Scholar, was performed to identify all the articles which described abdominal CT imaging findings of AMI in COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies comprising 75 patients were included in the final review. Small bowel ischemia (46.67%) was the most prevalent abdominal CT finding, followed by ischemic colitis (37.3%). Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI; 67.9%) indicating microvascular involvement was the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Bowel wall thickening/edema (50.9%) was more common than bowel hypoperfusion (20.7%). While ileum and colon both were equally involved bowel segments (32.07% each), SMA (24.9%), SMV (14.3%), and the spleen (12.5%) were the most commonly involved artery, vein, and solid organ, respectively. 50% of the patients receiving conservative/medical management died, highlighting high mortality without surgery. Findings on laparotomy and histopathology corroborated strikingly with CT imaging findings. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients with AMI, small bowel ischemia is the most prevalent imaging diagnosis and NOMI is the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Contrast-enhanced CT is a powerful decision-making tool for prompt diagnosis of AMI in COVID-19, thereby potentially improving time to treat as well as clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenteric Ischemia , Abdomen , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemia/complications , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779331

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old woman presented with severe abdominal pain and per rectal bleed, 13 days after receiving the first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine. Blood tests showed remarkably low platelet count, unmeasurable D-dimer levels and low fibrinogen levels, consistent with a diagnosis of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopaenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. CT mesenteric angiogram revealed massive portosplenic mesenteric vein thrombosis. CT head also noted non-occlusive thrombosis at several sites. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins, plasma exchange, anticoagulants and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. Following a prolonged inpatient stay, she was discharged with subsequent short bowel syndrome and long-term parenteral nutrition. This particular clinical scenario aims to highlight the importance for clinicians to remain vigilant for rare complications associated with the AstraZeneca vaccine and the subsequent management involved, at a time where it is vital to vaccinate globally in order to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Edema , Female , Humans , Ischemia , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Vaccines/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
7.
Diabetes Care ; 45(5): 1132-1140, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between admission blood glucose levels and risk of in-hospital cardiovascular and renal complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this multicenter prospective study of 36,269 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 between 6 February 2020 and 16 March 2021 (N = 143,266), logistic regression models were used to explore associations between admission glucose level (mmol/L and mg/dL) and odds of in-hospital complications, including heart failure, arrhythmia, cardiac ischemia, cardiac arrest, coagulation complications, stroke, and renal injury. Nonlinearity was investigated using restricted cubic splines. Interaction models explored whether associations between glucose levels and complications were modified by clinically relevant factors. RESULTS: Cardiovascular and renal complications occurred in 10,421 (28.7%) patients; median admission glucose level was 6.7 mmol/L (interquartile range 5.8-8.7) (120.6 mg/dL [104.4-156.6]). While accounting for confounders, for all complications except cardiac ischemia and stroke, there was a nonlinear association between glucose and cardiovascular and renal complications. For example, odds of heart failure, arrhythmia, coagulation complications, and renal injury decreased to a nadir at 6.4 mmol/L (115 mg/dL), 4.9 mmol/L (88.2 mg/dL), 4.7 mmol/L (84.6 mg/dL), and 5.8 mmol/L (104.4 mg/dL), respectively, and increased thereafter until 26.0 mmol/L (468 mg/dL), 50.0 mmol/L (900 mg/dL), 8.5 mmol/L (153 mg/dL), and 32.4 mmol/L (583.2 mg/dL). Compared with 5 mmol/L (90 mg/dL), odds ratios at these glucose levels were 1.28 (95% CI 0.96, 1.69) for heart failure, 2.23 (1.03, 4.81) for arrhythmia, 1.59 (1.36, 1.86) for coagulation complications, and 2.42 (2.01, 2.92) for renal injury. For most complications, a modifying effect of age was observed, with higher odds of complications at higher glucose levels for patients age <69 years. Preexisting diabetes status had a similar modifying effect on odds of complications, but evidence was strongest for renal injury, cardiac ischemia, and any cardiovascular/renal complication. CONCLUSIONS: Increased odds of cardiovascular or renal complications were observed for admission glucose levels indicative of both hypo- and hyperglycemia. Admission glucose could be used as a marker for risk stratification of high-risk patients. Further research should evaluate interventions to optimize admission glucose on improving COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Stroke , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ischemia , Kidney , Prospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology
8.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 21(5): 1822-1829, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723294

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a systemic disease characterized by vascular damage, increased inflammation, and hypercoagulability. Acral ischemic lesions occur as a result of increased inflammation and cutaneous thrombosis. Skin lesions can sometimes be the only symptom of COVID-19. In this respect, recognizing acro-ischemic lesions, which are skin lesions, may help in the early diagnosis of the disease and in predicting the prognosis. In patients with skin lesions without typical symptoms, the diagnosis of COVID-19 should be kept in mind. Herein, we describe five patients affected by COVID-19 which developed acro-ischemic lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/etiology , Skin/pathology , Skin Diseases/pathology
10.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e935264, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a tremendous impact on the respiratory tract. In severe COVID-19 infections, patients may experience shock and multiple organ failure. We described 4 cases of severe arterial thrombosis induced by COVID-19 with and without other stressors and their responses to treatment measures. CASE REPORT In Case 1, a 61-year-old man was hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia 2 weeks prior to the presentation of acute upper-limb ischemia after intravenous forearm line insertion. He was classified as IIB and thus underwent emergency thrombectomy followed by 3 months of enoxaparin. Case 2 was a 41-year-old female patient with granulomatosis who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit due to COVID-19 pneumonia and developed acute upper-limb ischemia. A medical approach using therapeutic heparin was used. Case 3 was a 65-year-old man who was admitted due to COVID-19-related pneumonia and was otherwise medically and surgically free. We assessed and managed a new onset of the lower-limb IIB acute limb ischemia (ALI). Case 4 was a patient with the first COVID-19 presentation of ALI, which was managed accordingly. CONCLUSIONS The development of a thrombotic event in patients with COVID-19 was previously reported. Moreover, different management options and outcomes have been reported in the literature. Therefore, careful planning is needed for procedures such as cannulation or central line insertion to prevent such events. In addition, short-term anticoagulation therapy might be of clinical benefit when planning a procedure or if the patient exhibits minor arterial complications.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Enoxaparin , Female , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673377

ABSTRACT

Oxaliplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used in a variety of malignancies such as colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. It is a platinum derivative that results in direct cell cytotoxicity with resultant cell death. The most common side effects often noted are neurotoxicity, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, hepatotoxicity and myelosuppression. Oxaliplatin induced digital ischaemia and necrosis is a rare side effect that was observed in our patient. In general, digital ischaemia is a rare vascular disorder that is often associated with autoimmune disease. A patient with digital ischaemia due to oxaliplatin will be described in this case report.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Colorectal Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Ischemia/chemically induced , Necrosis/chemically induced , Organoplatinum Compounds/adverse effects , Oxaliplatin/adverse effects
12.
Hemodial Int ; 26(2): 183-190, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583557

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis have unique risk factors that render them prone to ischemia. To what extent coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases this risk is unknown. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included incident patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis from one city in Turkey. A comparison was made between those who developed COVID-19 and those who did not for clinical variables. Independent predictors of acute ischemic complications in the total cohort were assessed using the logistic regression analysis. FINDINGS: By the start of the pandemic in Turkey, 33 of 154 (21.4%) patients developed COVID-19. During the 15 months of median follow-up after the start of the pandemic, 16 (10.4%) patients developed acute ischemic complications. These included acute myocardial infarction (n = 10), acute ischemic stroke (n = 4), acute peripheral artery thrombosis (n = 1), and pulmonary thromboembolism (n = 1). Overall, acute ischemic events occurred more commonly in those who experienced COVID-19 (24.2% vs. 6.6%, p = 0.007). Ischemia-free survival was significantly shorter in the COVID-19 group (p = 0.001). In the eight patients with COVID-19, ischemic complications emerged at a median 185 (range 21-306) days after the diagnosis of COVID-19. While age, dialysis vintage, and experience of COVID-19 were found as factors significantly associated with the development of acute ischemic events in univariate analysis, the association between COVID-19 and acute ischemia remained significant in the multivariate regression model (odds ratio 3.99, 95% CI [1.3, 12.13], p = 0.016). During the pandemic, 23 (14.9%) patients died. Overall survival was significantly shorter among those who developed acute ischemic event (p < 0.001). The hazard ratio of acute ischemic event for death was 6.76 (95% CI [2.92, 15.66], p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: A considerable number of patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis developed acute ischemic complications weeks to months after the resolution of COVID-19. Hemodialysis patients appear to require specific interventions in order to prevent subsequent acute ischemic events after the resolution of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Ischemic Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Int J Low Extrem Wounds ; 21(2): 197-200, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582582

ABSTRACT

An 84-year-old male patient with no known comorbidity was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of dyspnea and respiratory distress. The patient was referred to the COVID outpatient clinic, laboratory and radiology tests were performed. Thoracic CT scan of the patient showed large peripheral patchy ground glass densities observed in the lower lobes of both lungs. CT imaging findings were evaluated by an experienced radiologist and reported as COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient, who was self-isolated at home for 5 days, presented to the emergency department again on the fifth day with complaints of respiratory distress, fever, bruising with cough, and loss of peripheral pulse in the left lower extremity. Necessary tests were performed on the patient. An above-knee amputation was performed when a diagnosis of limb ischemic necrosis was made and no revascularization attempt was considered by the CVS department. This case study describes the coexistence of sudden lower extremity thrombosis and Covid-19 in our case without a known chronic disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Limb Salvage , Lower Extremity/surgery , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 563, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has a broad clinical spectrum, from asymptomatic to multi-organ dysfunction. Acute cerebrovascular events associated with coronavirus disease 2019 are mainly due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-induced prothrombotic state. Bilateral basal ganglia ischemia is rarely reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 64-year-old Asian (Pakistani) gentleman who presented initially with fever, cough, and shortness of breath, likely due to respiratory involvement by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Later, he developed bilateral lower limb pain, followed by confusion and decreased level of consciousness. Accentuated large hypodense opacities were seen in the left and right basal ganglia, with mass effects on the left frontal horn. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of neuroimaging in the effective management of patients with neurological signs associated with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Basal Ganglia , Fever , Humans , Ischemia , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 285-288, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525691

ABSTRACT

The arterial revascularization procedure is still a challenging issue in Covid-19 associated limb ischemia. Herein we aimed to present a case of a 64 year-old woman with acute ischemic signs in upper extremity who was diagnosed as a probable Covid-19 case incidentally after admission. Although late admission and failed recurrent embolectomies lead to an eventful course, intra-arterial thrombolysis seemed to present a benefitable treatment option for our patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Embolectomy , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Middle Aged , Regional Blood Flow , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
17.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 289-292, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525692

ABSTRACT

To describe the case of a young female patient, affected by Systemic Lupus Erythematous, hospitalized for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pneumonia and presenting a treatment-resistant acute upper limb ischemia. Two days after hospital admission, the patient suffered sudden right upper limb pain associated with mild functional impairment. At physical examination, radial and ulnar pulses were absent, and no flow signal was detected at duplex ultrasound scan. Therefore, an acute limb ischemia diagnoses was posed. Despite several surgical and endovascular revascularization attempts, the patient underwent an above the elbow amputation in 10th postoperative day from first surgical embolectomy, and she died for respiratory failure 25 days after hospitalization. Our case of acute upper limb ischemia seems to confirm that clinical manifestation and fate of thrombotic disorder in COVID-19 patients could be precipitated by concomitant autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Embolectomy , Endovascular Procedures , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522933

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulable and proinflammatory states induced by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) lead to thrombotic and embolic events. In this case report, the authors describe how they successfully managed acute critical limb ischaemia in a patient of COVID-19 illness with severe pulmonary disease and high thrombus burden in the infrapopliteal arteries.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy
19.
Am Surg ; 87(12): 1893-1900, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a deadly multisystemic disease, and bowel ischemia, the most consequential gastrointestinal manifestation, remains poorly described. Our goal is to describe our institution's surgical experience with management of bowel ischemia due to COVID-19 infection over a one-year period. METHODS: All patients admitted to our institution between March 2020 and March 2021 for treatment of COVID-19 infection and who underwent exploratory laparotomy with intra-operative confirmation of bowel ischemia were included. Data from the medical records were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included. Eighty percent had a new or increasing vasopressor requirement, 70% had abdominal distension, and 50% had increased gastric residuals. Intra-operatively, ischemia affected the large bowel in 80% of cases, the small bowel in 60%, and both in 40%. Sixty five percent had an initial damage control laparotomy. Most of the resected bowel specimens had a characteristic appearance at the time of surgery, with a yellow discoloration, small areas of antimesenteric necrosis, and very sharp borders. Histologically, the bowel specimens frequently have fibrin thrombi in the small submucosal and mucosal blood vessels in areas of mucosal necrosis. Overall mortality in this cohort was 33%. Forty percent of patients had a thromboembolic complication overall with 88% of these developing a thromboembolic phenomenon despite being on prophylactic pre-operative anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Bowel ischemia is a potentially lethal complication of COVID-19 infection with typical gross and histologic characteristics. Suspicious clinical features that should trigger surgical evaluation include a new or increasing vasopressor requirement, abdominal distension, and intolerance of gastric feeds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intestinal Diseases/surgery , Intestinal Diseases/virology , Ischemia/surgery , Ischemia/virology , Female , Humans , Laparotomy , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 47(5): 1565-1602, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a less common but devastating complication of COVID-19 disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the most common CT imaging features of AMI in COVID-19 and also provide an updated review of the literature on symptoms, treatment, histopathological and operative findings, and follow-up of these patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search of four databases: Pubmed, EMBASE, WHO database, and Google Scholar, was performed to identify all the articles which described abdominal CT imaging findings of AMI in COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies comprising 75 patients were included in the final review. Small bowel ischemia (46.67%) was the most prevalent abdominal CT finding, followed by ischemic colitis (37.3%). Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI; 67.9%) indicating microvascular involvement was the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Bowel wall thickening/edema (50.9%) was more common than bowel hypoperfusion (20.7%). While ileum and colon both were equally involved bowel segments (32.07% each), SMA (24.9%), SMV (14.3%), and the spleen (12.5%) were the most commonly involved artery, vein, and solid organ, respectively. 50% of the patients receiving conservative/medical management died, highlighting high mortality without surgery. Findings on laparotomy and histopathology corroborated strikingly with CT imaging findings. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients with AMI, small bowel ischemia is the most prevalent imaging diagnosis and NOMI is the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Contrast-enhanced CT is a powerful decision-making tool for prompt diagnosis of AMI in COVID-19, thereby potentially improving time to treat as well as clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenteric Ischemia , Abdomen , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemia/complications , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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