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2.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 285-288, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525691

ABSTRACT

The arterial revascularization procedure is still a challenging issue in Covid-19 associated limb ischemia. Herein we aimed to present a case of a 64 year-old woman with acute ischemic signs in upper extremity who was diagnosed as a probable Covid-19 case incidentally after admission. Although late admission and failed recurrent embolectomies lead to an eventful course, intra-arterial thrombolysis seemed to present a benefitable treatment option for our patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Embolectomy , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Middle Aged , Regional Blood Flow , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 289-292, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525692

ABSTRACT

To describe the case of a young female patient, affected by Systemic Lupus Erythematous, hospitalized for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pneumonia and presenting a treatment-resistant acute upper limb ischemia. Two days after hospital admission, the patient suffered sudden right upper limb pain associated with mild functional impairment. At physical examination, radial and ulnar pulses were absent, and no flow signal was detected at duplex ultrasound scan. Therefore, an acute limb ischemia diagnoses was posed. Despite several surgical and endovascular revascularization attempts, the patient underwent an above the elbow amputation in 10th postoperative day from first surgical embolectomy, and she died for respiratory failure 25 days after hospitalization. Our case of acute upper limb ischemia seems to confirm that clinical manifestation and fate of thrombotic disorder in COVID-19 patients could be precipitated by concomitant autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Embolectomy , Endovascular Procedures , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
4.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 56(2): 201-207, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443761

ABSTRACT

We present a 74-year-old gentleman, who presented with foot ischaemia requiring bilateral amputation in the absence of radiological signs of occlusive peripheral arterial disease. He was found to have COVID-19 pneumonitis and concurrent arterial and venous thromboemboli despite no initial respiratory symptoms or signs, nor pre-existing risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Patients who present with foot ischaemia with or without respiratory symptoms or signs warrant a high index of suspicion for COVID-19 infection, particularly in those with no predisposing risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Venous Thromboembolism , Aged , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/etiology , Lower Extremity , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Toes , Treatment Outcome
5.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 34(3): 96-100, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434170

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to report our institutional experience with patients with COVID-19 who developed acute limb ischemia during hospitalization and to determine the characteristics and clinical outcomes. Between March 2020 and January 2021, we treated 3 patients who were COVID-19-positive and developed acute limb ischemia after they received thromboprophylaxis. We performed an embolectomy by exposing the popliteal artery below the knee to treat an occlusion of the popliteal and tibial arteries. An infusion of unfractionated heparin was initiated immediately after surgery, maintaining a partial thromboplastin time ratio > 2.5 times the normal value and transferred the patients to the intensive care unit. However, after these patients developed recurrent acute limb ischemia in the same leg, we decided to perform an embolectomy of popliteal and tibial arteries at the ankle and created an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with tibial veins using polypropylene 7-0. The first patient died from pneumonia after 3 weeks in the intensive care unit; at that time, the foot was viable with triphasic flow in the distal posterior tibial artery and the AVF was patent. The second and third patients are doing well, they can walk without any problems, and the tibial arteries and AFV were patent on duplex ultrasound after 6 months. The AVF allowed part of the flow of tibial arteries to divert into the small veins of the foot that have a low resistance to maintain patency of tibial vessels, despite a hypercoagulable state and extensive thrombotic microangiopathy in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Fistula , COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , Heparin , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 140-143, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340555

ABSTRACT

The incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients is significant. The vast majority of COVID-19 patients spend their quarantine at home in a self-isolation condition. The occurrence of Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a dangerous event that needs prompt diagnosis and management with time-dependent recanalization outcomes. We present a case series of three COVID-19 patients who suffered from ALI that occurred during home self-isolation, and that were diagnosed and treated with a significant time-delay due to COVID-19 social implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Embolectomy , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
8.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 285-288, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305205

ABSTRACT

The arterial revascularization procedure is still a challenging issue in Covid-19 associated limb ischemia. Herein we aimed to present a case of a 64 year-old woman with acute ischemic signs in upper extremity who was diagnosed as a probable Covid-19 case incidentally after admission. Although late admission and failed recurrent embolectomies lead to an eventful course, intra-arterial thrombolysis seemed to present a benefitable treatment option for our patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Embolectomy , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Middle Aged , Regional Blood Flow , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
9.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 140-143, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245849

ABSTRACT

The incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients is significant. The vast majority of COVID-19 patients spend their quarantine at home in a self-isolation condition. The occurrence of Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a dangerous event that needs prompt diagnosis and management with time-dependent recanalization outcomes. We present a case series of three COVID-19 patients who suffered from ALI that occurred during home self-isolation, and that were diagnosed and treated with a significant time-delay due to COVID-19 social implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Embolectomy , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
10.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 55(7): 781-786, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181066

ABSTRACT

The optimal management strategy of acute limb ischemia in non-ventilated patients with COVID-19 is uncertain. We propose that non-ventilated patients who develop COVID-19 related spontaneous arterial thrombosis with associated limb threat may be best suited with percutnaeous revascularization to achieve limb salvage. Herein we describe 5 cases of patients who had severely threatened limbs with complete thrombosis of all 3 tibial arteries who were treated with percutaneous revascularization. All 5 patients were felt to be facing inevitable amputation without revascularization should they survive their COVID hospitalization. We were able to achieve limb salvage in all 5 patients selected for therapy, although 2 ultimately succumbed to respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty, Balloon , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Thrombosis/therapy , Aged , Amputation , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/etiology , Limb Salvage , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 74: 88-94, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a multisystemic disorder. Hematologic and cardiovascular involvement of COVID-19 causes thromboembolic events across multiple organs which mainly manifest as venous thromboembolism, and rarely, peripheral arterial thromboembolic events. In-situ thrombosis of a healthy, non-atherosclerotic native artery is rare, and COVID-19 has been reported to be a cause of this phenomenon. We aimed to report our institutional experience with COVID-19 patients who developed acute limb ischemia (ALI) during hospitalization or after discharge. METHODS: This was a single-center cross-sectional study. Records of all patients ≥18 years of age admitted to a tertiary center with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection between September 1 and December 31, 2020 were retrospectively examined. Data regarding patient demographics, co-morbidities and outcomes were collected. Patients were followed-up during index hospitalization and for 30 days postdischarge. Acute limb ischemia was diagnosed by means of duplex ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in the presence of a clinical suspicion. RESULTS: A total of 681 consecutive patients (38.5% women) were hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 during the study period. Median age was 63 years (IQR, 52-74). In-hospital mortality occurred in 94 (13.8%) patients. Ninety (13.2%) patients required intensive care unit admission at some point of their hospital stay. Six (0.9%) patients (one woman) with a median age of 62 years experienced ALI (IQR, 59-64.3). All patients were receiving low molecular weight heparin when they developed ALI. The median of duration between COVID-19 diagnosis and ALI symptom onset was 13 days (IQR, 11.3-14). Three patients underwent emergent surgical thrombectomy combined with systemic anticoagulation, and 3 received systemic anticoagulation alone. Two patients with ALI did not survive to hospital discharge. Among survivors, 1 patient underwent bilateral major amputations, and another underwent a minor amputation within 1 month of hospital discharge. Symptoms of ALI completely resolved in 2 patients without sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is a multisystemic disorder with involvement of hematologic and cardiovascular systems. Despite widespread use of thromboprophylaxis, hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of ALI, and subsequent limb loss or even death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Ischemia/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/mortality , Ischemia/therapy , Limb Salvage , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 55(2): 196-199, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024339

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has to date affected over 5 million people worldwide and caused in excess of 300000 deaths. One of the principal finding is that of a thrombotic tendency within the lungs leading to high mortality. There have been increasing number of reports of peripheral arterial thrombosis as well. Most cases of arterial thrombosis is noted in patient in intensive care setting. Here-in we report a case of acute bilateral lower limb arterial thrombosis in a patient recovering at home with mild COVID-19 symptoms, highlighting that patients with milder symptoms may also suffer from prothrombotic state resulting in acute arterial occlusions. Arterial thrombosis should be suspected in these patients despite the absence of predisposing factors.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/virology , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Thrombosis/virology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/therapy
15.
Clin Imaging ; 73: 86-95, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data is available addressing gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We reviewed the clinical and radiologic features of GI ischemia and its related complications in thirty-one COVID-19 patients reported in literature. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using a search strategy on all studies published from January 1, 2020, to June 13, 2020, and updated on September 6, 2020, on databases from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Every study with at least one presentation of COVID-19-related GI ischemia complication and one GI imaging finding was included. RESULTS: In total, twenty-two studies and thirty-one patients with the mean age of 59 ± 12.7 (age range: 28-80) years old were included, of which 23 (74.2%) patients were male, 7 (22.5%) female, and one unknown gender. The significant GI imaging findings include mesenteric arterial or venous thromboembolism, followed by small bowel ischemia. Nine patients (29%) presented with arterial compromise due to superior mesenteric thromboembolism, resulting in bowel ischemia. Also, 6 patients (19.3%) demonstrated occlusive thrombosis of the portal system and superior mesenteric vein. More than two-thirds of patients (20, 64.5%) required laparotomy and bowel resection. Eventually, five (16.1%) patients were discharged, of whom four cases (12.9%) readmitted. Five (16.1%) patients remained ICU hospitalized at the report time and 12 (38.7%) patients died. CONCLUSION: Macrovascular arterial/venous thrombosis is identified in almost half of COVID-19 patients with bowel ischemia. Overall mortality in COVID-19 patients with GI ischemia and radiologically evident mesenteric thrombotic occlusion was 38.7% and 40%, retrospectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Mesenteric Ischemia , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/etiology , Male , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Mesenteric Ischemia/etiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 71: 103-111, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898488

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old man was admitted to his local hospital with left leg pain and breathing difficulties. He had negative nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Chest X-ray and Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram displayed typical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) radiological features as ground-glass opacities and bronchovascular thickening. His respiratory symptoms resolved after four days of supportive treatment, whereas his left leg became more painful and discolored. He was referred to our center with acute left leg ischemia. computed tomography angiogram revealed eccentric mural thrombus at the aortic bifurcation, extending into left common iliac and an abrupt occlusion of left popliteal, tibioperoneal, and posterior tibial arteries. He was treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis for 48-hours that achieved successful revascularization of the ischemic limb with no intervention-related complications. At six-week follow-up, he showed full recovery. Our case demonstrates that catheter-directed thrombolysis is a successful and safe treatment option in a COVID-19 patient with acute arterial occlusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/drug therapy , Leg/blood supply , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 67(9): 516-520, 2020 Nov.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834694

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus associated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) causes a worldwide syndrome called Covid-19 that has caused 5,940,441 infections and 362,813 deaths until May 2020. In moderate and severe stages of the infection a generalized swelling, cytokine storm and an increment of the heart damage biomarkers occur. In addition, a relation between Covid-19 and neurological symptoms have been suggested. The results of autopsies suggest thrombotic microangiopathy in multiple organs. We present 2 cases of patients infected with severe Covid-19 that were hospitalized in the Reanimation Unit that presented cerebrovascular symptoms and died afterwards. A high dose prophylaxis with antithrombotic medication is recommended in patients affected by moderate to severe Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hemorrhage/complications , Ischemia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/etiology , Aged , COVID-19 , Fatal Outcome , Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/complications , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 314-317, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739734

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described; these have mainly included venous thromboembolic events. Limited literature is available regarding arterial thrombosis. Acute limb ischemia is associated with severe complications that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Herein, we report 3 cases of COVID-19 infection complicated by arterial thrombosis in the form of acute limb ischemia. Our case series adds to the limited literature regarding arterial thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/therapy , Male , Palliative Care , Thrombolytic Therapy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures
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