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1.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 285-288, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525691

ABSTRACT

The arterial revascularization procedure is still a challenging issue in Covid-19 associated limb ischemia. Herein we aimed to present a case of a 64 year-old woman with acute ischemic signs in upper extremity who was diagnosed as a probable Covid-19 case incidentally after admission. Although late admission and failed recurrent embolectomies lead to an eventful course, intra-arterial thrombolysis seemed to present a benefitable treatment option for our patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Embolectomy , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Middle Aged , Regional Blood Flow , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
2.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 289-292, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525692

ABSTRACT

To describe the case of a young female patient, affected by Systemic Lupus Erythematous, hospitalized for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pneumonia and presenting a treatment-resistant acute upper limb ischemia. Two days after hospital admission, the patient suffered sudden right upper limb pain associated with mild functional impairment. At physical examination, radial and ulnar pulses were absent, and no flow signal was detected at duplex ultrasound scan. Therefore, an acute limb ischemia diagnoses was posed. Despite several surgical and endovascular revascularization attempts, the patient underwent an above the elbow amputation in 10th postoperative day from first surgical embolectomy, and she died for respiratory failure 25 days after hospitalization. Our case of acute upper limb ischemia seems to confirm that clinical manifestation and fate of thrombotic disorder in COVID-19 patients could be precipitated by concomitant autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Embolectomy , Endovascular Procedures , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 285-288, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305205

ABSTRACT

The arterial revascularization procedure is still a challenging issue in Covid-19 associated limb ischemia. Herein we aimed to present a case of a 64 year-old woman with acute ischemic signs in upper extremity who was diagnosed as a probable Covid-19 case incidentally after admission. Although late admission and failed recurrent embolectomies lead to an eventful course, intra-arterial thrombolysis seemed to present a benefitable treatment option for our patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Embolectomy , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Middle Aged , Regional Blood Flow , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
4.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 104, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: H syndrome (HS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease caused by a mutation in the solute carrier family 29, member 3 (SCL29A3) gene. It has a variable clinical presentation and little phenotype-genotype correlation. The pathognomonic sign of HS is cutaneous hyperpigmentation located mainly in the inner thighs and often accompanied by other systemic manifestations. Improvement after tocilizumab treatment has been reported in a few patients with HS. We report the first patient with HS who presented cardiogenic shock, multiorgan infiltration, and digital ischemia. CASE PRESENTATION: 8-year-old boy born to consanguineous parents of Moroccan origin who was admitted to the intensive care unit during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with tachypnoea, tachycardia, and oliguria. Echocardiography showed dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systolic dysfunction compatible with cardiogenic shock. Additionally, he presented with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection by chromatographic immunoassay were negative. A previously ordered gene panel for pre-existing sensorineural hearing loss showed a pathological mutation in the SCL29A3 gene compatible with H syndrome. Computed tomography scan revealed extensive alveolar infiltrates in the lungs and multiple poor defined hypodense lesions in liver, spleen, and kidneys; adenopathy; and cardiomegaly with left ventricle subendocardial nodules. Invasive mechanical ventilation, broad antibiotic and antifungal coverage showed no significant response. Therefore, Tocilizumab as compassionate use together with pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone was initiated. Improvement was impressive leading to normalization of inflammation markers, liver and kidney function, and stabilising heart function. Two weeks later, he was discharged and has been clinically well since then on two weekly administration of Tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS: We report the most severe disease course produced by HS described so far in the literature. Our patient's manifestations included uncommon, new complications such as acute heart failure with severe systolic dysfunction, multi-organ cell infiltrate, and digital ischemia. Most of the clinical symptoms of our patient could have been explained by SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating the importance of a detailed differential diagnosis to ensure optimal treatment. Although the mechanism of autoinflammation of HS remains uncertain, the good response of our patient to Tocilizumab makes a case for the important role of IL-6 in this syndrome and for considering Tocilizumab as a first-line treatment, at least in severely affected patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/physiopathology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Child , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/diagnosis , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/genetics , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/therapy , Humans , Ischemia/therapy , Kidney Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/physiopathology , Lymphadenopathy/therapy , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Nucleoside Transport Proteins/genetics , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Splenic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Splenic Diseases/physiopathology , Splenic Diseases/therapy , Toes/blood supply , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
5.
Urol Int ; 105(9-10): 916-919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262425

ABSTRACT

Infection by COVID-19, being a respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, can predispose to arterial and venous thrombotic disease, in response to excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and venous stasis. During the COVID-19 pandemic period, the technological and resource availability for the care of these patients with thrombotic disease is critical, marking a factor of morbidity and poor prognosis in these cases. We describe a case of priapism in a patient with COVID-19, during the course of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and respiratory distress syndrome with a procoagulant state, seeking to relate the pathophysiological factors of ischemic priapism in patients with infection with SARS-Cov-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Penile Erection , Penis/blood supply , Priapism/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/physiopathology , Male , Priapism/diagnosis , Priapism/physiopathology , Regional Blood Flow
6.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 1056-1063, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the muscular dysfunction, despite the generalized weakness and fatigue that patients report after overcoming the acute phase of the infection. This study aimed to detect impaired muscle efficiency by evaluating delta efficiency (DE) in patients with COVID-19 compared with subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and control group (CG). METHODS: A total of 60 participants were assigned to four experimental groups: COVID-19, COPD, IHD, and CG (n = 15 each group). Incremental exercise tests in a cycle ergometer were performed to obtain peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). DE was obtained from the end of the first workload to the power output where the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. RESULTS: A lower DE was detected in patients with COVID-19 and COPD compared with those in CG (P ≤ 0.033). However, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups with diseases (P > 0.05). Lower VO2 peak, peak ventilation, peak power output, and total exercise time were observed in the groups with diseases than in the CG (P < 0.05). A higher VO2 , ventilation, and power output were detected in the CG compared with those in the groups with diseases at the first and second ventilatory threshold (P < 0.05). A higher power output was detected in the IHD group compared with those in the COVID-19 and COPD groups (P < 0.05) at the first and second ventilatory thresholds and when the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. A significant correlation (P < 0.001) was found between the VO2 peak and DE and between the peak power output and DE (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 showed marked mechanical inefficiency similar to that observed in COPD and IHD patients. Patients with COVID-19 and COPD showed a significant decrease in power output compared to IHD during pedalling despite having similar response in VO2 at each intensity. Resistance training should be considered during the early phase of rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise/physiology , Lung/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Ischemia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Resistance Training/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 56(5): 585-587, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A relation between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and acute pancreatitis has been suggested. However, the incidence and clinical relevance of this relation remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the incidence, severity and clinical impact of acute pancreatitis in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a prospective, observational cohort concerning all COVID-19 patients admitted to two Dutch university hospitals between 4 March 2020 and 26 May 2020. Primary outcome was acute pancreatitis potentially related to COVD-19 infection. Acute pancreatitis was defined according to the revised Atlanta Classification. Potential relation with COVID-19 was defined as the absence of a clear aetiology of acute pancreatitis. RESULTS: Among 433 patients with COVID-19, five (1.2%) had potentially related acute pancreatitis according to the revised Atlanta Classification. These five patients suffered from severe COVID-19 infection; all had (multiple) organ failure and 60% died. None of the patients developed necrotizing pancreatitis. Moreover, development of acute pancreatitis did not lead to major treatment consequences. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast with previous research, our study demonstrated that COVID-19 related acute pancreatitis is rare and of little clinical impact. It is therefore debatable if acute pancreatitis in COVID-19 patients requires specific screening. We hypothesize that acute pancreatitis occurs in patients with severe illness due to COVID-19 infection as a result of transient hypoperfusion and pancreatic ischemia, not as a direct result of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Organ Failure , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pancreas/blood supply , Pancreas/physiopathology , Pancreatitis/diagnosis , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pancreatitis/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(2): 155-173, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044433

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has similarities to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreaks, as severe patients and non-survivors have frequently shown abnormal coagulation profiles. Immune-mediated pathology is a key player in this disease; hence, the role of the complement system needs assessment. The complement system and the coagulation cascade share an intricate network, where multiple mediators maintain a balance between both pathways. Coagulopathy in COVID-19, showing mixed features of complement-mediated and consumption coagulopathy, creates a dilemma in diagnosis and management. AREAS COVERED: Pathophysiology of coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients, with a particular focus on D-dimer and its role in predicting the severity of COVID-19 has been discussed. A comprehensive search of the medical literature on PubMed was done till May 30th, 2020 with the keywords 'COVID-19', 'SARS-CoV-2', 'Coronavirus', 'Coagulopathy', and 'D-dimer'. Twenty-two studies were taken for weighted pooled analysis of D-dimer. EXPERT OPINION: A tailored anticoagulant regimen, including intensification of standard prophylactic regimens with low-molecular-weight heparin is advisable for COVID-19 patients. Atypical manifestations and varying D-dimer levels seen in different populations bring forth the futility of uniform recommendations for anticoagulant therapy. Further, direct thrombin inhibitors and platelet inhibitors in a patient-specific manner should also be considered.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Complement Activation , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/physiopathology , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Forecasting , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Iron Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Ischemia/blood , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Mice , Prevalence , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology
9.
Vasc Med ; 26(2): 174-179, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983897

ABSTRACT

The expansion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prompted measures of disease containment by the Italian government with a national lockdown on March 9, 2020. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the rate of hospitalization and mode of in-hospital treatment of patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) before and during lockdown in the Campania region of Italy. The study population includes all patients with CLTI hospitalized in Campania over a 10-week period: 5 weeks before and 5 weeks during lockdown (n = 453). Patients were treated medically and/or underwent urgent revascularization and/or major amputation of the lower extremities. Mean age was 69.2 ± 10.6 years and 27.6% of the patients were women. During hospitalization, 21.9% of patients were treated medically, 78.1% underwent revascularization, and 17.4% required amputations. In the weeks during the lockdown, a reduced rate of hospitalization for CLTI was observed compared with the weeks before lockdown (25 vs 74/100,000 inhabitants/year; incidence rate ratio: 0.34, 95% CI 0.32-0.37). This effect persisted to the end of the study period. An increased amputation rate in the weeks during lockdown was observed (29.3% vs 13.4%; p < 0.001). This study reports a reduced rate of CLTI-related hospitalization and an increased in-hospital amputation rate during lockdown in Campania. Ensuring appropriate treatment for patients with CLTI should be prioritized, even during disease containment measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic or other similar conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Extremities/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
J Hand Surg Am ; 45(6): 518-522, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-228547

ABSTRACT

As coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause an immense burden on the global health care systems, it is crucial to understand the breadth of this disease process. Recent reports identified hypercoagulability in a subset of critically ill patients and extremity ischemia in an even smaller cohort. Because abnormal coagulation parameters and extremity ischemia have been shown to correlate with poor disease prognosis, understanding how to treat these patients is crucial. To better describe the identification and management of this phenomenon, we present 2 cases of critically ill patients with COVID-19 who developed fingertip ischemia while in the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Fingers/blood supply , Ischemia/drug therapy , Ischemia/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Disease Progression , Fatal Outcome , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Ischemia/physiopathology , Male , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/diagnosis , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/drug therapy , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies
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