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1.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(9): 781-786, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077582

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease associated with severe gastrointestinal complications including life-threatening mesenteric ischemia. We sought to review and summarize the currently available literature on the presentation, management, and outcomes of mesenteric ischemia in patients with COVID-19. Patients and Methods: The PubMed database was searched to identify studies published between January 2020 and January 2021 that reported one or more adult (≥18 years) patients with COVID-19 who developed mesenteric ischemia during hospitalization. The demographic characteristics, clinical and imaging findings, management, and outcomes of patients from each study were extracted and summarized. Results: A total of 35 articles reporting on 61 patients with COVID-19 with mesenteric ischemia met the eligibility and were included in our study. The mean age was 60 (±15.9) years, and 53% of patients were male. Imaging findings of these patients included mesenteric arterial or venous thromboembolism, followed by signs of mesenteric ischemia. Sixty-seven percent of patients were taken to the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy and bowel resection and 21% were managed conservatively. The terminal ileum was the most commonly involved area of necrosis (26%). The mortality rate of patients with COVID-19 with mesenteric ischemia was 33%, and the most common cause of death was multiorgan failure or refractory septic shock. Twenty-seven percent of patients managed operatively died during the post-operative period. Conclusions: Mesenteric ischemia in patients with COVID-19 is a devastating complication associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Further efforts should focus on developing strategies for early recognition and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Mesenteric Ischemia , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Mesenteric Ischemia/epidemiology , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Acute Disease , Laparotomy , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery
2.
Acta Med Indones ; 54(3): 438-443, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2046460

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 4 million deaths worldwide to date. During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, thrombotic complications due to hypercoagulable state have emerged as an important issue. Acute limb ischemia is one of emergency cases in vascular disease caused by a sudden decrease in arterial limbs perfusion. Here, we report a 53-year-old male patient with severe COVID-19 and a history of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who developed extensive arterial thrombosis and limb ischemia despite being on therapeutic-dose anticoagulation, requiring surgical intervention. Right and left leg open thrombectomy was performed at day 7 after admission due to the excruciating pain and the worsening of the limb conditions. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit in emergency room because of the unstable hemodynamic and passed away a few hours after the surgery. For critically ill patients with COVID-19, special attention should be paid to abnormal coagulation dysfunction and microcirculatory disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Male , Microcirculation , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Thrombosis/etiology
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chronic mesenteric ischemia is a rare entity with non-specific symptomatology; combined with rare etiologies, it could lead to unwarranted surgical indication. CASE REPORT: We report the case of an 85-year-old woman, with a history of hypertension, persistent thrombocytosis, atherosclerosis, and recent minor COVID-19 infection, presenting to the hospital with postprandial abdominal pain and nonspecific clinical examination findings; upon abdominal CT, superior mesenteric artery circumferential thrombosis was revealed. A bone marrow biopsy was performed due to suspected essential thrombocythemia, confirming the diagnosis. An endovascular approach was chosen as therapy option and a stent was placed in the occluded area. Dual antiplatelet and cytoreductive therapies were initiated after the intervention. Clinical course was excellent, with no residual stenosis 1 month after stenting. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic strategy in elderly patients with exacerbated chronic mesenteric ischemia requires an interdisciplinary approach in solving both the exacerbation and the underlying conditions in order to prevent further thrombotic events. Although the patient presented a thrombotic state, other specific risk factors such as COVID-19 related-coagulopathy and essential thrombocythemia should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenteric Ischemia , Thrombocythemia, Essential , Thrombosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Mesenteric Ischemia/complications , Mesenteric Ischemia/therapy , Stents/adverse effects , Thrombocythemia, Essential/complications , Thrombosis/etiology
6.
J Vasc Surg ; 76(4): 987-996.e3, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885971

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is associated with adverse limb outcomes and increased mortality. However, a small subset of the CLTI population will have no feasible conventional methods of revascularization. In such cases, venous arterialization (VA) could provide an alternative for limb salvage. The objective of the present study was to review the outcomes of VA at our institution. METHODS: We performed a single-institution review of 41 patients who had been followed up prospectively and had undergone either superficial or deep VA. The data collected included patient demographics, comorbidities, VA technique (endovascular vs hybrid), and WIfI (wound, ischemia, and foot infection) limb staging. Data were collected at 1-month, 6-month, and 1-year intervals and included the following outcomes: patency, wound healing, major adverse limb events, major amputation, and death. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS: The study group included 41 patients who had undergone successful open hybrid superficial or deep endovascular VA; 21 (51.2%) had undergone a purely endovascular procedure and 20 (48.8%), hybrid VA. The WIfI clinical stage was as follows: stage 4, 33 (80.5%); stage 3, 6 (14.6%); and stage 2, 1 (2.4%). Of the 41 patients, 24 (58.5%) had completed follow-up at 6 months and 16 (39%) at 1 year. At 1 year, the VA primary patency was 28.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15%-0.43%), primary assisted patency was 44.3% (95% CI, 0.27%-0.60%), and secondary patency was 67% (95% CI, 0.49%-0.80%). The complete wound healing rate was 2.7% (n = 1) at 1 month, 62.5% (n = 15) at 6 months, and 18.8% (n = 3) at 1 year. Overall wound healing at 1 year was 46.3% (n = 19). The number of major adverse limb events at 1 year was 15 (36.5%) and included 8 reinterventions (19.5%) and 7 major amputations (17%). The number of deaths was zero (0%) at 1 month and four (19%) at 6 months. Two deaths (9.5%) were attributed to COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). No further deaths had occurred within 1 year. The limb salvage survival probability at 1 year was 81%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that for a select subset of CLTI patients presenting with a high WIfI clinical limb stage and no viable options for conventional open or endovascular arterial revascularization, superficial and deep VA are feasible options to achieve limb salvage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Amputation , Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/surgery , Limb Salvage/adverse effects , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 126-134, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863437

ABSTRACT

The authors report hybrid treatment of a patient with angina pectoris class II, multiple previous reconstructive interventions on the aortofemoral segment and chronic ischemia of the left lower limb stage IV and concomitant COVID-19. Coronary angiography was performed after regression of infectious disease under antiviral therapy. Occlusion of the left anterior descending artery was observed that required LAD stenting. On the next day, hybrid revascularization of the lower extremities was implemented: thrombectomy and endarterectomy from the branch of the aorto-femoral bypass graft and deep femoral artery at the first stage, stenting of the orifice of proximal branch of aorto-femoral bypass graft at the second stage, endarterectomy from superficial femoral artery, recanalization and stenting of superficial femoral artery and popliteal artery at the third stage and prosthetic- femoral bypass with autologous vein at the fourth stage. Postoperative angiography revealed patent stents and no residual stenoses. The choice in favor of these procedures and step-by-step approach has been substantiated. The authors emphasized effectiveness and safety of this treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19 , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Femoral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Femoral Artery/surgery , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Popliteal Artery/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Patency
8.
Surgery ; 171(5): 1422-1426, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of COVID-19 infection in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia, mainly the limb salvage estimates rate and the overall survival. METHODS: This was a retrospective, consecutive cohort study of chronic limb-threatening ischemia in patients with COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Overall, 35 patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia and COVID-19 infection were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 72.51 years, and most of them were male (60%), with arterial hypertension (85.7%), followed by diabetes mellitus (80%) and tobacco user (71.4%). There was a higher prevalence of wound, ischemia and foot infection (WIfI) classification 4 with 58.8% and Rutherford grade 5 (74.3%). The factors related to overall mortality rate were: D-dimer >1,000 mg/dL (hazard ratio = 22.7, P < .001, confidence interval = 10.49-26.52), respiratory symptoms (hazard ratio = 16.6, P < .001, confidence interval = 9.87-20.90), chest computed tomography compromising higher than 50% of the pulmonary tract (hazard ratio = 16,0, P < .001, confidence interval = 10.41-20.55), acute kidney failure (hazard ratio = 21.58, P < .001, confidence interval = 16.5-30.5), chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio = 4.4, P = .036, confidence interval = 1.45-10.1), therapeutic anticoagulation (hazard ratio = 8.37, P = .004, confidence interval = 1.35-8.45), and WIfI classification (hazard ratio = 5.28, P = .022, confidence interval = 1.34-10.01). The following were related to limb loss: D-dimer >1,000 mg/mL (hazard ratio = 5.47, P = .02, confidence interval = 1.94-10.52), respiratory symptoms (hazard ratio = 5.42, P = .02, confidence interval = 1.87-10.90), and WIfI classification (hazard ratio = 4.44, P = .035, confidence interval = 1.34-8.01). CONCLUSION: This study concluded that COVID-19 has a catastrophic impact among patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia. The main factors related to overall mortality were D-dimer >1,000 mg/dL, respiratory symptoms, chest computed tomography compromising higher than 50% of the pulmonary tract, acute kidney failure, chronic kidney disease, therapeutic anticoagulation, and WIfI classification. The factors related to limb loss were WIfI classification, D-dimer >1,000 mg/mL and respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Wound Infection , Aged , Amputation , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/complications , Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Ischemia/surgery , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Limb Salvage , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing , Wound Infection/diagnosis , Wound Infection/surgery
9.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(7): e211-e215, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808510

ABSTRACT

A new variant of coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing acute respiratory distress in humans was identified for the first time in 2019, in Wuhan, China. One of the many complications of infection with this coronavirus is hypercoagulopathy, resulting in acute thrombosis; often leading to acute limb ischaemia. Herein, we report 20 cases of COVID-19 with peripheral arterial thrombosis involving either upper or lower limbs. Some patients underwent vascular procedures and most had to undergo amputation at some level. All the cases (n=20) were referred to us during the 8-month period June 2020 to March 2021. The most common age group was between 51 and 60 years, of whom 80% were males; all the patients had diabetes. The right lower limb was most affected (50%); 15 patients underwent embolectomy. Twenty-five per cent of patients presented with wet gangrene. One patient with upper limb thrombosis recovered after embolectomy and did not require any amputation. Eighty-five per cent of patients underwent some form of amputation and the mortality rate was 10%. Arterial thrombosis is one complication patients may develop during COVID-19 illness, which may affect the outcome. Patients with comorbid conditions like diabetes are at higher risk of developing arterial thrombosis during COVID-19 infection. Susceptibility to coagulopathy may continue even after patient discharge and it is important that both patients and treating physicians are aware of this limb-threatening complication and seek early medical attention.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19 , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Thrombosis , Amputation , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Ischemia/complications , Ischemia/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 135, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808379

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In addition to attacking the respiratory system, the coronavirus disease may attack the gastrointestinal tract in various ways, one of which is by creating a coagulopathy that may lead to acute ischemia of the bowel, increasing morbidity and mortality rates in these patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of a white 72-year-old European male, who was admitted to the intensive care unit after developing COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. On the third week, despite a favorable evolution of his respiratory symptoms, the patient became clinically septic; laboratory findings showed an augmentation of his D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels. Imaging showed signs of ischemia of the right colon. The patient was taken to the operating room; only the right side of his colon was ischemic, with a well demarcated cut-off. A laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with a terminal ileostomy was performed. The patient was able to go home 2 weeks after surgery. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Ischemic colitis is an uncommon pathology in the general population, and is rare in COVID-19 patients. Most cases of ischemic colitis in COVID-19 patients in the literature were limited to the left colon, with < 10 cases involving the right colon. Accurate and quick diagnosis with appropriate management is the key to avoid any mortality in those patients who are already weakened by the coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ischemic , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Colectomy , Colitis, Ischemic/diagnosis , Colitis, Ischemic/etiology , Colitis, Ischemic/surgery , Humans , Ischemia/surgery , Male
11.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 84: 1-5, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For many surgeons the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 meant a downscaling of surgical interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the measures taken on the care for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAOD) and acute limb ischemia (ALI). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the vascular practices of 2 major teaching hospitals in the Netherlands was performed. All interventions and outpatient visits for PAOD or ALI in 2020 were included. Patients treated in 2018 and 2019 were to serve as a control group. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: In 2020, a total of 1513 procedures were performed for PAOD or ALI. This did not differ significantly from previous years. Overall, Fontaine 2 and 4 were the most frequent indications for intervention. A significant increase in the number of major amputations was observed in 2020 compared to 2018 (P< 0.01). This was mainly due to patients suffering from PAOD Fontaine 4. Inversely, a reduction in the number of femoro-popliteal bypasses was observed between 2020 and 2018. The number of outpatient visit due to Fontaine 2 was significantly lower in 2020 compared to 2018. CONCLUSIONS: The vascular practices of our hospitals were minimally influenced by the measures taken due to the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2. There was an increase in the number of amputation but an enormous surge in patients presenting with critical limb ischemia was not observed.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19 , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Amputation , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/epidemiology , Ischemia/surgery , Limb Salvage , Pandemics , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(9): 673-677, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592222

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic enforced changes to healthcare services at a pace and extent not seen previously in the NHS. The Royal Devon and Exeter provides regional vascular surgery services. A consultant-led urgent 'hot clinic' was established, providing patients with ambulatory care. We aim to describe the service for critical limb ischaemia (CLI) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and evaluate this against recommended best practice. METHODS: Retrospective review of electronic databases and records of patients with CLI during a non-COVID vs COVID-19 period. Primary outcome measures were those established by guidance from the Vascular Society of Great Britain and Ireland. RESULTS: Non-COVID vs COVID-19: total patients n=97 vs 96, of which CLI patients n=29 vs 21. Median length of stay 15 vs 0 days (p<0.001); median time from referral to specialist review 0 vs 3 days (p<0.001); multidisciplinary team meeting (MDT) recorded 3% vs 29%; median time to intervention 6 vs 8 days; conservative management 52% vs 67%; endovascular 28% vs 10%; open surgery 21% vs 24%; 30-day survival 79% vs 76%. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 imposed a major change to the service for patients with CLI with a focus on ambulatory care pathways for diagnosis and intervention. We observe a significant reduction in overall length of stay with no clinically significant change in time to consultant review, time to imaging, overall management strategy or outcomes. The results of this study show that patients with CLI can be managed safely and effectively on an ambulatory basis in accordance with established best practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Humans , Limb Salvage , Ischemia/surgery , Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Amputation , Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery
13.
Int J Low Extrem Wounds ; 21(2): 197-200, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582582

ABSTRACT

An 84-year-old male patient with no known comorbidity was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of dyspnea and respiratory distress. The patient was referred to the COVID outpatient clinic, laboratory and radiology tests were performed. Thoracic CT scan of the patient showed large peripheral patchy ground glass densities observed in the lower lobes of both lungs. CT imaging findings were evaluated by an experienced radiologist and reported as COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient, who was self-isolated at home for 5 days, presented to the emergency department again on the fifth day with complaints of respiratory distress, fever, bruising with cough, and loss of peripheral pulse in the left lower extremity. Necessary tests were performed on the patient. An above-knee amputation was performed when a diagnosis of limb ischemic necrosis was made and no revascularization attempt was considered by the CVS department. This case study describes the coexistence of sudden lower extremity thrombosis and Covid-19 in our case without a known chronic disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Limb Salvage , Lower Extremity/surgery , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522933

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulable and proinflammatory states induced by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) lead to thrombotic and embolic events. In this case report, the authors describe how they successfully managed acute critical limb ischaemia in a patient of COVID-19 illness with severe pulmonary disease and high thrombus burden in the infrapopliteal arteries.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy
15.
Am Surg ; 87(12): 1893-1900, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a deadly multisystemic disease, and bowel ischemia, the most consequential gastrointestinal manifestation, remains poorly described. Our goal is to describe our institution's surgical experience with management of bowel ischemia due to COVID-19 infection over a one-year period. METHODS: All patients admitted to our institution between March 2020 and March 2021 for treatment of COVID-19 infection and who underwent exploratory laparotomy with intra-operative confirmation of bowel ischemia were included. Data from the medical records were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included. Eighty percent had a new or increasing vasopressor requirement, 70% had abdominal distension, and 50% had increased gastric residuals. Intra-operatively, ischemia affected the large bowel in 80% of cases, the small bowel in 60%, and both in 40%. Sixty five percent had an initial damage control laparotomy. Most of the resected bowel specimens had a characteristic appearance at the time of surgery, with a yellow discoloration, small areas of antimesenteric necrosis, and very sharp borders. Histologically, the bowel specimens frequently have fibrin thrombi in the small submucosal and mucosal blood vessels in areas of mucosal necrosis. Overall mortality in this cohort was 33%. Forty percent of patients had a thromboembolic complication overall with 88% of these developing a thromboembolic phenomenon despite being on prophylactic pre-operative anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Bowel ischemia is a potentially lethal complication of COVID-19 infection with typical gross and histologic characteristics. Suspicious clinical features that should trigger surgical evaluation include a new or increasing vasopressor requirement, abdominal distension, and intolerance of gastric feeds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intestinal Diseases/surgery , Intestinal Diseases/virology , Ischemia/surgery , Ischemia/virology , Female , Humans , Laparotomy , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 63(1): 80-89, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To perform a scoping review of how patients with COVID-19 are affected by acute limb ischaemia (ALI) and evaluate the recommendations of the 2020 ESVS ALI Guidelines for these patients. METHODS: Research questions were defined, and a systematic literature search was performed following the PRISMA guidelines. Abstracts and unpublished literature were not included. The definition of ALI in this review is in accordance with the ESVS guidelines. RESULTS: Most identified papers were case reports or case series, although population based data and data from randomised controlled trials were also identified. In total, 114 unique and relevant papers were retrieved. Data were conflicting concerning whether the incidence of ALI increased, or remained unchanged, during the pandemic. Case reports and series reported ALI in patients who were younger and healthier than usual, with a greater proportion affecting the upper limb. Whether or not this is coincidental remains uncertain. The proportion of men/women affected seems unchanged. Most reported cases were in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19. Patients with ALI as their first manifestation of COVID-19 were reported. Patients with ALI have a worse outcome if they have a simultaneous COVID-19 infection. High levels of D-dimer may predict the occurrence of arterial thromboembolic events in patients with COVID-19. Heparin resistance was observed. Anticoagulation should be given to hospitalised COVID-19 patients in prophylactic dosage. Most of the treatment recommendations from the ESVS Guidelines remained relevant, but the following were modified regarding patients with COVID-19 and ALI: 1) CTA imaging before revascularisation should include the entire aorta and iliac arteries; 2) there should be a high index of suspicion, early testing for COVID-19 infection and protective measures are advised; and 3) there should be preferential use of local or locoregional anaesthesia during revascularisation. CONCLUSION: Although the epidemiology of ALI has changed during the pandemic, the recommendations of the ESVS ALI Guidelines remain valid. The above mentioned minor modifications should be considered in patients with COVID-19 and ALI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Ischemia/surgery , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vascular Surgical Procedures/standards , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , Ischemia/complications
17.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(9): 694-700, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480440

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Vascular Society of Great Britain and Ireland (VSGBI) Peripheral Arterial Disease Quality Improvement Framework (PAD QIF) stipulates targets for managing patients with chronic limb-threatening ischaemia (CLTI); however, it is unknown whether these are achievable. This survey aims to evaluate contemporary practice for managing CLTI in the UK. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed in conjunction with the VSGBI to survey the management of CLTI and canvass opinions on the PAD QIF. The survey was distributed to all consultant members of the VSGBI and through a targeted social media campaign. RESULTS: Forty-seven consultant vascular surgeons based at 36 arterial centres across the UK responded (response rate from arterial centres = 46%). Only 14.3% of centres provided outpatient consultation within the target of seven days from referral, with only one centre providing revascularisation within the target of seven days from consultation. For inpatient management, 31.6% provided surgical and 23.8% endovascular revascularisation within the target of three days from assessment. While 60% of participants believe the PAD QIF's 5-day 'admitted care' pathway is achievable, only 28.6% thought the 14-day 'non-admitted care' pathway was feasible. Challenges to meeting these targets include the availability of theatre space and angiography lists, and availability of outpatient appointments for patient assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The opinion of UK vascular surgeons indicates that achieving the targets of the PAD QIF represents a major challenge based upon current services. Adapting existing services with a greater focus on providing an 'urgent' model of care may help to potentially overcome these challenges.


Subject(s)
Ischemia/surgery , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Lower Extremity/surgery , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Specialties, Surgical , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Chronic Disease , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Limb Salvage , United Kingdom
18.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(6): 542-547, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441428

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The main goal of this systematic review was to analyze the outcomes of acute limb ischemia (ALI) in patients suffering from the novel Coronavirus: COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review on Medline and Embase was conducted up to May 15, 2021. All papers were sorted by abstract and full text by two independent authors. Systematic reviews, commentaries, and studies that did not distinguish status of COVID-19 infection were excluded from review. Patient demographics were recorded along with modality of treatment (endovascular and/or surgical). We analyzed 30-day outcomes, including mortality. Primary outcome was to evaluate clinical characteristic of ALI in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 in term of location of ischemia, treatment options and 30-day outcomes. EVINDENCE SYNTHESIS: We selected 36 articles with a total of 194 patients. Most patients were male (80%) with a median age of 60 years old. The treatment most used was thromboembolectomy (31% of all surgical interventions). A total of 32 patients (19%) were not submitted to revascularization due to critical status. The rate of technical success was low (68%), and mortality rate was high (35%). CONCLUSIONS: This review confirms that SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a high risk of ALI. Further studies are needed to investigate the association and elucidate potential mechanisms, which may include a hypercoagulable state and hyperactivation of the immune response. Furthermore, management of ALI is not standardized and depends on patient condition and extension of the thrombosed segment. ALI in COVID-19 patients is associated with high risk of failure of revascularization and perioperative mortality.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/therapy , Ischemia/surgery , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Ischemia/blood , Ischemia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/blood , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Vascular Surgical Procedures/mortality
19.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 34(3): 96-100, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434170

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to report our institutional experience with patients with COVID-19 who developed acute limb ischemia during hospitalization and to determine the characteristics and clinical outcomes. Between March 2020 and January 2021, we treated 3 patients who were COVID-19-positive and developed acute limb ischemia after they received thromboprophylaxis. We performed an embolectomy by exposing the popliteal artery below the knee to treat an occlusion of the popliteal and tibial arteries. An infusion of unfractionated heparin was initiated immediately after surgery, maintaining a partial thromboplastin time ratio > 2.5 times the normal value and transferred the patients to the intensive care unit. However, after these patients developed recurrent acute limb ischemia in the same leg, we decided to perform an embolectomy of popliteal and tibial arteries at the ankle and created an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with tibial veins using polypropylene 7-0. The first patient died from pneumonia after 3 weeks in the intensive care unit; at that time, the foot was viable with triphasic flow in the distal posterior tibial artery and the AVF was patent. The second and third patients are doing well, they can walk without any problems, and the tibial arteries and AFV were patent on duplex ultrasound after 6 months. The AVF allowed part of the flow of tibial arteries to divert into the small veins of the foot that have a low resistance to maintain patency of tibial vessels, despite a hypercoagulable state and extensive thrombotic microangiopathy in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Fistula , COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , Heparin , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , SARS-CoV-2
20.
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