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2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected health care systems globally. The aim of our study is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of hospital admissions for ischemic stroke by severity in Japan. METHODS: We analysed administrative (Diagnosis Procedure Combination-DPC) data for cases of inpatients aged 18 years and older who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke and admitted during the period April 1 2018 to June 27 2020. Levels of change of the weekly number of inpatient cases with ischemic stroke diagnosis after the declaration of state of emergency were assessed using interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis. The numbers of patients with various characteristics and treatment approaches were compared. We also performed an ITS analysis for each group ("independent" or "dependent") divided based on components of activities of daily living (ADL) and level of consciousness at hospital admission. RESULTS: A total of 170,294 cases in 567 hospitals were included. The ITS analysis showed a significant decrease in the weekly number of ischemic stroke cases hospitalized (estimated decrease: -156 cases; 95% confidence interval (CI): -209 to -104), which corresponds to -10.4% (95% CI: -13.6 to -7.1). The proportion of decline in the independent group (-21.3%; 95% CI: -26.0 to -16.2) was larger than that in the dependent group (-8.6%; 95% CI: -11.7 to -5.4). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a marked reduction in hospital admissions due to ischemic stroke after the declaration of the state of emergency for the COVID-19 pandemic. The independent cases were affected more in proportion than dependent cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e022433, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511553

ABSTRACT

Background The relationship between COVID-19 and ischemic stroke is poorly understood due to potential unmeasured confounding and reverse causation. We aimed to leverage genetic data to triangulate reported associations. Methods and Results Analyses primarily focused on critical COVID-19, defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support or resulting in death. Cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to estimate genetic correlations of critical COVID-19 with ischemic stroke, other related cardiovascular outcomes, and risk factors common to both COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease (body mass index, smoking and chronic inflammation, estimated using C-reactive protein). Mendelian randomization analysis was performed to investigate whether liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of any cardiovascular outcome for which genetic correlation was identified. There was evidence of genetic correlation between critical COVID-19 and ischemic stroke (rg=0.29, false discovery rate [FDR]=0.012), body mass index (rg=0.21, FDR=0.00002), and C-reactive protein (rg=0.20, FDR=0.00035), but no other trait investigated. In Mendelian randomization, liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratio [OR] per logOR increase in genetically predicted critical COVID-19 liability 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P-value=0.03). Similar estimates were obtained for ischemic stroke subtypes. Consistent estimates were also obtained when performing statistical sensitivity analyses more robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants, including multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses adjusting for potential genetic confounding through body mass index, smoking, and chronic inflammation. There was no evidence to suggest that genetic liability to ischemic stroke increased the risk of critical COVID-19. Conclusions These data support that liability to critical COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The host response predisposing to severe COVID-19 is likely to increase the risk of ischemic stroke, independent of other potentially mitigating risk factors.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Body Mass Index , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/virology , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Inflammation , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/genetics , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Smoking
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106152, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506161

ABSTRACT

Cerebrovascular diseases attributed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are uncommon but can result in devastating outcomes. Pediatric acute ischemic strokes are themselves rare and with very few large vessel occlusion related acute ischemic strokes attributed to COVID-19 described in the literature as of date. COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to acute stroke care delays across the world and with pediatric endovascular therapy still in its infancy, it poses a great challenge in facilitating good outcomes in children presenting with acute ischemic strokes in the setting of COVID-19. We present a pediatric patient who underwent endovascular therapy for an internal carotid artery occlusion related acute ischemic stroke in the setting of active COVID-19 and had an excellent outcome thanks to a streamlined stroke pathway involving the vascular neurology, neuro-interventional, neurocritical care, and anesthesiology teams.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/therapy , Carotid Artery, Internal , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Child , Endovascular Procedures/instrumentation , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Stents , Treatment Outcome
6.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 261-267, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to associate with increased risk of thromboembolic events. Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has long been used to effectively manage those with large-vessel occlusive (LVO) stroke and has similarly been implemented in the management of stroke in COVID-19 patients. REVIEW SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic took the health care sector by a storm. Thus, less is known about MT outcomes in this population and evidence suggesting poor outcomes postthrombectomy for COVID-19 patients is accumulating. We provide a narrative on some of the published studies on the outcomes of MT in COVID-19 patients with LVO between March 2020 and February 2021. A description of patient characteristics, risk factors, COVID-19 infection severity, stroke features and thrombectomy success in this population is also presented as data from several studies show that LVO in COVID-19 patients may have some distinguishing characteristics that make management more challenging. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of COVID-19 on the long-term prognosis of stroke patients after thrombectomy is yet to be determined. The accumulating evidence from current studies indicates a negative impact of COVID-19 on outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients who receive MT, irrespective of timely, successful angiographic recanalization. This review may help alert clinicians of some of the COVID-19-specific postthrombectomy challenges.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
7.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 271-273, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501227

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Wake-up strokes are challenging to manage due to unknown time of onset. Recently, the wake-up trial demonstrated that recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) could be administered based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- diffusion weighted imaging/fluid attenuated inversion recovery mismatch. Many still doubt the safety results due to the higher rate of hemorrhagic conversion reported. Although it was statistically insignificant, the study was terminated early. Furthermore, Corona virus disease-19 is associated with coagulopathy and a higher risk of hemorrhagic conversion. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old fully functioning male presented with a wake-up right hemiparesis, right facial droop, and expressive aphasia. His National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 4 upon arrival. Last known well state was >4.5 hours. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. He had left distal-M2 occlusion. He was deemed not a candidate for rtPA. Hyperacute-MRI protocol showed diffusion weighted imaging/fluid attenuated inversion recovery mismatch. The patient received rtPA at 6.5 hours from the last knwn well state. Follow-up MRI-susceptibility weighted imaging revealed fragmented clot. The stroke burden was less than that shown on the initial computed tomography-perfusion scans implying saved penumbra. There was no hemorrhagic conversion despite low fibrinogen levels. CONCLUSION: The hyperacute-MRI protocol for wake-up COVID-19 associated strokes might be a safe option.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
9.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, there have been many reports of increased incidence of venous thromboembolism and arterial events as a complication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of symptomatic thrombotic events (TEs) in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV2 disease (coronavirus 19 [Covid-19]). METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study with adult patients with a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for SARS-CoV2, included from the date of diagnosis of Covid-19 and followed for 90 days or until death. RESULTS: A total of 1621 patients were included in this study. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range25th-75th [IQR] 53-87 years) and 57% (913) were female. Overall mortality was 21.6% (348). The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs within 90 days of diagnosis was 1.8% (30 of 1621) occurring in 28 patients, including an incidence of pulmonary embolism of 0.9% (15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60%-1.6%), deep venous thrombosis of 0.61% (10, 95% CI 0.2%-1%), ischemic stroke of 0.25% (4, 95% CI 0.09%-0.65%), and ischemic arterial events of 0.06% (1, 95% CI 0.008%-0.43%). No acute coronary syndrome events were recorded. The incidence of symptomatic TEs was significantly lower in the general ward than in intensive care units (1.2% vs 5.7%; p < .001). The median time since positive rt-PCR for SARS-CoV2 to symptomatic TE was 22.5 days (IQR 19-43 days). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients receiving (53.6%) and not receiving thromboprophylaxis (66.5%) and the development of TEs. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs among these patients was lower than the incidence previously reported.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/blood , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
10.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480881

ABSTRACT

We performed an in silico, in vitro, and in vivo assessment of a potassium 2-[2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamido]ethanesulfonate (compound 1) as a potential prodrug for cognitive function improvement in ischemic brain injury. Using in silico methods, we predicted the pharmacological efficacy and possible safety in rat models. In addition, in silico data showed neuroprotective features of compound 1, which were further supported by in vitro experiments in a glutamate excitotoxicity-induced model in newborn rat cortical neuron cultures. Next, we checked whether compound 1 is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier in intact and ischemic animals. Compound 1 improved animal behavior both in intact and ischemic rats and, even though the concentration in intact brains was low, we still observed a significant anxiety reduction and activity escalation. We used molecular docking and molecular dynamics to support our hypothesis that compound 1 could affect the AMPA receptor function. In a rat model of acute focal cerebral ischemia, we studied the effects of compound 1 on the behavior and neurological deficit. An in vivo experiment demonstrated that compound 1 significantly reduced the neurological deficit and improved neurological symptom regression, exploratory behavior, and anxiety. Thus, here, for the first time, we show that compound 1 can be considered as an agent for restoring cognitive functions.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Animals , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Brain Ischemia , Cognition/drug effects , Cognition/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neurons/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Primary Cell Culture , Pyrrolidines/chemical synthesis , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Stroke
12.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(12): 174, 2021 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cryptogenic stroke represents a heterogenous but clinically important collection of stroke etiologies for which our understanding continues to grow. Here, we review our current knowledge and most recent recommendations on secondary prevention for common causes of cryptogenic stroke including paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, atrial cardiopathy, patent foramen ovale, and substenotic atherosclerotic disease as well as the under-recognized mechanisms of occult malignancy, heart failure, and, most recently, infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). RECENT FINDINGS: The results from recent observational studies and randomized clinical trials have provided greater insight into the causal relationship and attributable risk of these suspected etiologies and have identified potential strategies to reduce the rates of recurrence. However, further clinical trials are needed to confirm the benefits of specific stroke prevention strategies, including the patient populations most likely to benefit from anticoagulation. There is ongoing research aimed at both reducing the proportion of ischemic strokes classified as cryptogenic and resolving much of the clinical equipoise that still exists. The results of these studies have the potential to provide us with a better understanding of these occult mechanisms and allow for more targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(14): e021046, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463078

ABSTRACT

Background Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the context of COVID-19 has received considerable attention for its propensity to affect patients of all ages. We aimed to evaluate the effect of age on functional outcome and mortality following an acute ischemic event. Methods and Results A prospectively maintained database from comprehensive stroke centers in Canada and the United States was analyzed for patients with AIS from March 14 to September 30, 2020 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The primary outcome was Modified Rankin Scale score at discharge, and the secondary outcome was mortality. Baseline characteristics, laboratory values, imaging, and thrombectomy workflow process times were assessed. Among all 126 patients with COVID-19 who were diagnosed with AIS, the median age was 63 years (range, 27-94). There were 35 (27.8%) patients with AIS in the aged ≤55 years group, 47 (37.3%) in the aged 56 to 70 group, and 44 (34.9%) in the aged >70 group. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and thrombectomy rates were comparable across these groups, (P=0.331 and 0.212, respectively). There was a significantly lower rate of mortality between each group favoring younger age (21.9% versus 45.0% versus 48.8%, P=0.047). After multivariable adjustment for possible confounders, a 1-year increase in age was significantly associated with fewer instances of a favorable outcome of Modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2 (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95 CI%, 0.90-0.99; P=0.048) and higher mortality (OR, 1.06; 95 CI%, 1.02-1.10; P=0.007). Conclusions AIS in the context of COVID-19 affects young patients at much greater rates than pre-pandemic controls. Nevertheless, instances of poor functional outcome and mortality are closely tied to increasing age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , United States
15.
Saudi Med J ; 42(10): 1136-1139, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456563

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-COV-2 is considered an effective preventive strategy to halt COVID-19 pandemic. Reports of thromboembolic events in vaccine recipients has jolted some of the European countries to pause the vaccination process temporarily. It is still unclear whether the events are actually due to the vaccines or it is just a coincidence. The gravity of events particularly in young and previously normal patients merits further research to reach some conclusion. Here we present a similar case who sustained ischemic stroke shortly after receiving the first dose of his vaccine.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106121, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the safety of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) in patients with stroke and COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter study included consecutive stroke patients with and without COVID-19 treated with IV-tPA between February 18, 2019, to December 31, 2020, at 9 centers participating in the CASCADE initiative. Clinical outcomes included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge, in-hospital mortality, the rate of hemorrhagic transformation. Using Bayesian multiple regression and after adjusting for variables with significant value in univariable analysis, we reported the posterior adjusted odds ratio (OR, with 95% Credible Intervals [CrI]) of the main outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 545 stroke patients, including 101 patients with COVID-19 were evaluated. Patients with COVID-19 had a more severe stroke at admission. In the study cohort, 85 (15.9%) patients had a hemorrhagic transformation, and 72 (13.1%) died in the hospital. After adjustment for confounding variables, discharge mRS score ≥2 (OR: 0.73, 95% CrI: 0.16, 3.05), in-hospital mortality (OR: 2.06, 95% CrI: 0.76, 5.53), and hemorrhagic transformation (OR: 1.514, 95% CrI: 0.66, 3.31) were similar in COVID-19 and non COVID-19 patients. High-sensitivity C reactive protein level was a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation in all cases (OR:1.01, 95%CI: 1.0026, 1.018), including those with COVID-19 (OR:1.024, 95%CI:1.002, 1.054). CONCLUSION: IV-tPA treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke and COVID-19 was not associated with an increased risk of disability, mortality, and hemorrhagic transformation compared to those without COVID-19. IV-tPA should continue to be considered as the standard of care in patients with hyper acute stroke and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Disability Evaluation , Europe , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Iran , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reduced admissions for cerebrovascular events were identified, but acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) has remained one of the leading causes of death and disability for many years. The aim of this article is to review current literature data for multidisciplinary team (MDT) coordination, rational management of resources and facilities, ensuring timely medical care for large vessel occlusion (LVO) AIS patients requiring endovascular treatment during the pandemic. METHODS: A detailed literature search was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed databases using these keywords and their combinations: acute ischaemic stroke, emergency, anaesthesia, airway management, mechanical thrombectomy, endovascular treatment, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19. Published studies and guidelines from inception to April 2021 were screened. The following nonsystematic review is based on a comprehensive literature search of available data, wherein 59 were chosen for detailed analysis. RESULTS: The pandemic has an impact on every aspect of AIS care, including prethrombectomy, intraprocedural and post-thrombectomy issues. Main challenges include institutional preparedness, increased number of AIS patients with multiorgan involvement, different work coordination principles and considerations about preferred anaesthetic technique. Care of these patients is led by MDT and nonoperating room anaesthesia (NORA) principles are applied. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate management of AIS patients requiring mechanical thrombectomy during the pandemic is of paramount importance to maximise the benefit of the endovascular procedure. MDT work and familiarity with NORA principles decrease the negative impact of the disease on the clinical outcomes for AIS patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(11): 106072, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377775

ABSTRACT

Recently cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) and thrombosis following the adenoviral vector vaccine against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were reported. A mechanism similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was proposed with antibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4). Vaccine related arterial thrombosis in the brain is rare but life-threatening and optimal treatment is not established. We report clinical, laboratory, imaging findings and treatment in a 51-year-old female presenting with acute left middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion 7 days after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Due to low platelet count and suspicion of VITT she was not eligible for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and proceeded to mechanical thrombectomy (MER) with successful recanalization four hours after onset of symptoms. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and heparin pentasaccharide fondaparinux was initiated. Presence of anti-PF4 antibodies was confirmed. The patient improved clinically with normalization of platelet count. Clinicians should be alert of VITT in patients with acute ischemic stroke after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination and low platelet counts. MER showed to be feasible and effective. We propose considering MER in patients with VITT and large vessel occlusion despite thrombocytopenia. High-dose IVIG should be started immediately. Alternative anticoagulation to heparin should be started 24 hours after stroke onset unless significant hemorrhagic transformation occurred. Platelet transfusion is contraindicated and should be considered only in severe hemorrhagic complications. Restenosis or reocclusion of the revascularized artery is possible due to the hypercoagulable state in VITT and angiographic surveillance after the procedure is reasonable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/chemically induced , Ischemic Stroke/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/immunology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/immunology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Middle Aged , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
20.
Stroke ; 52(11): e706-e709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371922
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