Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 353
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 206, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238613


INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the emergency department (ED). Door-to-needle time (DNT) could be prolonged for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) treatment. We aimed to investigate the impact of two COVID-19 pandemics on the workflow of IVT in our neurovascular ED. METHOD: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who received IVT treatment in the neurovascular ED of Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, from January 20, 2020, to October 30, 2020, covering two COVID-19 pandemics in China. The time-based performances of IVT treatment including onset-to-arrival time, arrival-to-CT time, CT-to-needle time, door-to-needle time, and onset-to-needle time were recorded. Data on clinical characteristics and imaging information were also collected. RESULTS: Four hundred forty patients that received IVT were enrolled in this study. The number of patients admitted to our neurovascular ED began to decrease in December 2019 and was the lowest in April 2020 (n = 95). Longer DNT (Wuhan pandemic: 49.00 [35.00, 64.00] min; Beijing pandemic: 55.00 [45.50, 77.00] min) interval delays were observed during the two pandemics (p = .016). More patients admitted during the two pandemics had an 'unknown' subtype (Wuhan pandemic: 21.8%; Beijing pandemic: 31.4%. p = .008). The percentage of the cardiac embolism subtype was higher during the Wuhan pandemic (20.0%) than during other periods. The median admission NIHSS score increased during the Wuhan pandemic and the Beijing pandemic (8.00 [4.00, 12.00], 7.00 [4.50, 14.00], respectively, p < .001). CONCLUSION: The number of patients who received IVT decreased during the Wuhan pandemic. Higher admission NIHSS scores and prolonged DNT intervals were also observed during the Wuhan pandemic and the Beijing pandemic.

Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Stroke/drug therapy , Pandemics , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment , China/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
Ideggyogy Sz ; 76(5-6): 197-204, 2023 May 30.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235610


Background and purpose:

 Thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy have been proven effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Due to the narrow time window, the number of patients suitable for these treatments is low. The main limitation is the pre-hospital stage, few people call an ambulance in time. The delay may be caused by the population’s insufficient health knowledge, but also by the loneliness and isolation of the population most prone to stroke. Among the latter, there are many grandparents who spend considerable time with their grandchildren. This gave rise to the idea of educating even younger children about the symptoms of a stroke, enabling them to call an ambulance if necessary. To this end, we adapted the Angels Initiative project previously tested in Greece. The Hungarian pilot study Budapest District XII. took place in district kindergartens. The Angels’ original role-playing program could not be implemented due to the COVID epidemic, so the necessity called for a new, Hungarian version: the online “Stroke Ovi” program. We introduced this in several stages, and in the third we also carried out an impact study.

. Methods:

 We adapted the Angels Initiative’s international program and its Hungarian translation to our program. We prepared the original, live role-playing form, with a parent meeting in the selected “test kindergarten”. Due to the uncertainly lingering impact of the COVID epidemic, we reevaluated our plan, using the Hungarian storybook and take-home workbook created in the meantime, we developed our own online version in several kindergartens in Budapest. We held 10 and then 25 minute sessions a week for 5 weeks. In the third educational cycle, which always targets new groups, we already examined the impact of the program by taking pre- and post-tests, in which not only the children but also their parents participated. In addition to neurologists and kindergarten teachers, we also included psychologists and speech therapists in our work, because we believed that in a social environment that includes parents and children, results can only be achieved through multidisciplinary cooperation.

. Results:

 In the third cycle of the program, tests were taken before (pre-test) and after (post-test) among children and their parents. We only took into account those answers where we received an evaluable answer in the survey before and after the program. Our most important results: 1. there was no negative change in any question, so it was not the case that the total score of any question in the pre-test was higher than in the post-test. 2. The children learned that not only adults can call the ambulance. 3. Before the program, all children were already aware that if “someone is very ill”, the ambulance should be called. 4. Among the questions about stroke symptoms, it is important that hemiparesis, facial paresis and speech/language disorder are clear symptoms for children. Based on the parental questionnaires, the knowledge of the adults can be judged to be very good. The same number of correct answers were received during the pre-test and the post-test, on the basis of which we could not calculate a transfer effect. However, it is important that the parents considered the program useful, motivating and important for the children, so cooperation can be expected in the future.

. Conclusion:

The Hungarian “Stroke Ovi” program has so far proven to be clearly effective. This was proven by the impact assessments even if, instead of the original role-playing game, we implemented it “only” online due to the COVID epidemic. This constraint also forced and created a new “Hungarian version”. Despite the small number of samples caused by the circumstances, we consider this positive effect to be measurable. However, as the main result and evidence, we evaluated the children’s reaction, which took shape in spontaneous drawings and displayed professional values in addition to positive emotional reactions, such as the drawing of ambulances, the recurring representation of the 112 number. With the involvement of the media, we think online education is also a good option in the series of stroke campaigns, but we think the original role-playing form is really effective. At the same time, we can see that the application of the new method requires great caution due to the education of developing children. For this reason, results can only be achieved through social and multidisciplinary cooperation involving neurologists, psychologists, kindergarten teachers, and parents.


COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Child , Adult , Humans , Pilot Projects , Students/psychology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/prevention & control
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 223, 2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234800


BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-19 infection is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events. We present a case of acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke in a patient with SARS-CoV-19 infection despite being on warfarin with supratherapeutic INR (International Normalized Ratio). CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old Caucasian female with multiple comorbidities was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. A rapid antigen test confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia, and intravenous remdesivir was initiated. On the fifth day of admission, the patient experienced sudden onset confusion, slurred speech, left-sided hemiplegia, right-sided eye deviation, and left-sided facial droop. Imaging studies revealed an occlusion of the distal anterior M2 segment of the right middle cerebral artery, and an MRI of the brain confirmed an acute right MCA infarction. Notably, the patient was receiving warfarin therapy with a supratherapeutic INR of 3.2. CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the potential for thromboembolic events, including stroke, in patients with COVID-19 infection, even when receiving therapeutic anticoagulation therapy. Healthcare providers should be vigilant for signs of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients, particularly those with pre-existing risk factors. Further research is necessary to understand the pathophysiology and optimal management of thrombotic complications in COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Female , Aged , Warfarin/therapeutic use , International Normalized Ratio/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications
Clin Neuroradiol ; 33(2): 499-507, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240288


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory features of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in COVID-19 patients with and without ischemic stroke complications. METHODS: This observational study was conducted between August and December 2021 and 48 patients who had confirmed ROCM due to COVID-19, according to neuroimaging and histopathology/mycology evidence were included. Brain, orbit and paranasal sinus imaging was performed in all included patients. Data pertaining to clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory characteristics and risk factors were collected and compared between patients with and without ischemic stroke complications. RESULTS: Of the patients 17 were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Watershed infarction was the most common pattern (N = 13, 76.4%). Prevalence of conventional risk factors of stroke showed no significant differences between groups (patients with stroke vs. without stroke). Cavernous sinus (p = 0.001, odds ratio, OR = 12.8, 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.3-72) and ICA (p < 0.001, OR = 16.31, 95%CI: 2.91-91.14) involvement was more common in patients with stroke. Internal carotid artery (ICA) size (on the affected side) in patients with ischemic stroke was significantly smaller than in patients without stroke (median = 2.4 mm, interquartile range, IQR: 1.3-4 vs. 3.8 mm, IQR: 3.2-4.3, p = 0.004). Superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) size (on the affected side) in patients with stroke was significantly larger than patients without stroke (2.2 mm, IQR: 1.5-2.5 vs. 1.45 mm IQR: 1.1-1.8, p = 0.019). Involvement of the ethmoid and frontal sinuses were higher in patients with stroke (p = 0.007, OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.37-2.49 and p = 0.011, OR = 5, 95% CI: 1.4-18.2, respectively). Patients with stroke had higher D­dimer levels, WBC counts, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios, and BUN/Cr ratio (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Stroke-related ROCM was not associated with conventional ischemic stroke risk factors. Neuroimaging investigations including qualitative and quantitative parameters of cavernous sinus, ICA and SOV are useful to better understand the mechanism of stroke-related ROCM in COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Stroke , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/complications , Neuroimaging
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232184


Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) patients may experience an acute ischemic stroke; however, risk factors, in-hospital deaths, and outcomes have not been thoroughly investigated. This study investigates the risk factors, comorbidities, and outcomes in patients with SARS-VoV-2 infection and acute ischemic stroke compared to patients without these conditions. The present retrospective study was conducted in the King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre (KAIMRC), Ministry of National Guard, Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from April 2020 to February 2022. This study investigates the risk variables among the individuals who were diagnosed with either SARS-CoV-2 with stroke or patients with stroke alone. A total of 42,688 COVID-19 patients were registered, 187 cases of strokes were listed in COVID-19 patients, however, 5395 cases with stroke without SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results revealed that factors including age, hypertension, deep vein thrombosis, and ischemic heart disease are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The results also displayed an elevated frequency of in-hospital deaths in COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke. The results also showed that SARS-CoV-2 together predicts the probability of stroke and death in the study sample. The study findings conclude that ischemic strokes were infrequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and usually occur in the presence of other risk factors. The risk factors of ischemic strokes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 are old age, male gender, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, DVT, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, the results showed a higher frequency of in-hospital deaths in COVID-19 patients with stroke compared to COVID-19 patients without stroke.

COVID-19 , Hypertension , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Ischemia , Stroke , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Risk Factors , Hypertension/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/complications
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 546-556, July-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2313981


Abstract Ischemic strokes secondary to occlusion of large vessels have been described in patients with COVID-19. Also, venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism have been related to the disease. Vascular occlusion may be associated with a prothrombotic state due to COVID-19-related coagulopathy and endotheliopathy. Intracranial hemorrhagic lesions can additionally be seen in these patients. The causative mechanism of hemorrhage could be associated with anticoagulant therapy or factors such as coagulopathy and endotheliopathy. We report on cases of ischemic, thrombotic, and hemorrhagic complications in six patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed typical SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia findings in all the cases, which were all confirmed by either serology or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thromboembolism/complications , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Ischemic Stroke , Hemorrhage
Int J Stroke ; 18(4): 383-391, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317287


Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a prothrombotic autoimmune disease with heterogeneous clinicopathological manifestations and is a well-established cause of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA), particularly in younger patients. There is growing recognition of a wider spectrum of APS-associated cerebrovascular lesions, including white matter hyperintensities, cortical atrophy, and infarcts, which may have clinically important neurocognitive sequalae. Diagnosis of APS-associated AIS/TIA requires expert review of clinical and laboratory information. Management poses challenges, given the potential for substantial morbidity and recurrent thrombosis, additional risk conferred by conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and limited evidence base regarding optimal antithrombotic therapy for secondary prevention. In this review, we summarize key features of APS-associated cerebrovascular disorders, with focus on clinical and laboratory aspects of diagnostic evaluation. The current status of prognostic markers is considered. We review the evidence base for antithrombotic treatment in APS-associated stroke and discuss uncertainties, including the optimal intensity of anticoagulation and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants. Clinical practice recommendations are provided, covering antithrombotic treatment, supportive management, and options for anticoagulant-refractory cases, and we highlight the benefits of adopting a considered, multidisciplinary team approach.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/diagnosis , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Ischemic Attack, Transient/complications , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(6): 107140, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291491


OBJECTIVE: To study factors associated with systolic blood pressure(SBP) control for patients post-discharge from an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack(TIA) during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic periods within the Veterans Health Administration(VHA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed retrospective data from patients discharged from Emergency Departments or inpatient admissions after an ischemic stroke or TIA. Cohorts consisted of 2,816 patients during March-September 2020 and 11,900 during the same months in 2017-2019. Outcomes included primary care or neurology clinic visits, recorded blood pressure readings and average blood pressure control in the 90-days post-discharge. Random effect logit models were used to compare clinical characteristics of the cohorts and relationships between patient characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS: The majority (73%) of patients with recorded readings during the COVID-19 period had a mean post-discharge SBP within goal (<140 mmHg); this was slightly lower than the pre-COVID-19 period (78%; p=0.001). Only 38% of the COVID-19 cohort had a recorded SBP in the 90-days post-discharge compared with 83% of patients during the pre-pandemic period (p=0.001). During the pandemic period, 29% did not have follow-up primary care or neurologist visits, and 33% had a phone or video visit without a recorded SBP reading. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with an acute cerebrovascular event during the initial COVID-19 period were less likely to have outpatient visits or blood pressure measurements than during the pre-pandemic period; patients with uncontrolled SBP should be targeted for follow-up hypertension management.

COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Blood Pressure/physiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Aftercare , Patient Discharge , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 59-65, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265734


BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of regionally imposed social and healthcare restrictions due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to the time metrics in the management of acute ischemic stroke patients admitted at the regional stroke referral site for Central South Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We compared relevant time metrics between patients with acute ischemic stroke receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and/or endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) before and after the declared restrictions and state of emergency imposed in our region (March 17, 2020). RESULTS: We identified a significant increase in the median door-to-CT times for patients receiving intravenous tPA (19 min, interquartile range (IQR): 14-27 min vs. 13 min, IQR: 9-17 min, p = 0.008) and/or EVT (20 min, IQR: 15-33 min vs. 11 min, IQR: 5-20 min, p = 0.035) after the start of social and healthcare restrictions in our region compared to the previous 12 months. For patients receiving intravenous tPA treatment, we also found a significant increase (p = 0.005) in the median door-to-needle time (61 min, IQR: 46-72 min vs. 37 min, IQR: 30-50 min). No delays in the time from symptom onset to hospital presentation were uncovered for patients receiving tPA and/or endovascular reperfusion treatments in the first 1.5 months after the establishment of regional and institutional restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: We detected an increase in our institutional time to treatment metrics for acute ischemic stroke patients receiving tPA and/or endovascular reperfusion therapies, related to delays from hospital presentation to the acquisition of cranial CT imaging for both tPA- and EVT-treated patients, and an added delay to treatment with tPA.

Délais dans le traitement en milieu hospitalier des AVC aigus dans le contexte de la pandémie de COVID-19. CONTEXTE: Nous nous sommes penchés, dans le contexte de la pandémie de COVID-19, sur l'impact de restrictions régionales imposées dans le domaine social et dans les soins de santé sur les délais de prise en charge de patients victimes d'un AVC aigu. À noter que ces patients ont été admis dans un centre régional de traitement des AVC situé dans le centre-ouest de l'Ontario (Canada). MÉTHODES: Nous avons comparé entre eux les délais de prise en charge de patients ayant bénéficié d'activateurs tissulaires du plasminogène par intraveineuse (tPA) et/ou d'une procédure de thrombectomie endovasculaire (TE) avant et après la mise sur pied de restrictions et l'imposition d'un état d'urgence sanitaire dans notre région (17 mars 2020). RÉSULTATS: Après la mise sur pied de ces restrictions, nous avons identifié, par rapport aux 12 mois précédent, une augmentation notable des délais médians entre l'arrivée à l'hôpital et un examen de tomodensitométrie dans le cas de patients bénéficiant de tPA (19 minutes, EI : 14­27 minutes contre 13 minutes, EI : 9­17 minutes ; p = 0,008) et/ou d'une procédure de TE (20 minutes, EI : 15­33 minutes contre 11 minutes, EI : 5­20 minutes ; p = 0,035). Pour ce qui est des patients bénéficiant de tPA, nous avons également observé une augmentation importante (p = 0,005) des délais médians entre leur arrivée à l'hôpital et l'injection d'un traitement (61 minutes, EI : 46­72 minutes contre 37 minutes, EI : 30­50 minutes). Enfin, dans le premier mois et demi suivant la mise sur pied des restrictions régionales et institutionnelles attribuables à la pandémie de COVID-19, aucun délai supplémentaire entre l'apparition des premiers symptômes d'un AVC et l'arrivée à l'hôpital n'a été remarqué pour des patients bénéficiant de tPA et/ou d'une procédure de TE. CONCLUSION: En somme, nous avons détecté une augmentation de nos délais de traitement dans le cas de patients victimes d'un AVC aigu ayant bénéficié de tPA et/ou d'une procédure de TE. Cela peut être attribué à une augmentation des délais de présentation à l'hôpital mais aussi à des délais dans l'obtention d'images de tomodensitométrie pour des patients traités avec des tPA et une procédure de TE, sans compter des délais accrus pour bénéficier d'un traitement de tPA.

Endovascular Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 122-126, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264826


This is an observational cohort study comparing 156 patients evaluated for acute stroke between March 30 and May 31, 2020 at a comprehensive stroke center with 138 patients evaluated during the corresponding time period in 2019. During the pandemic, the proportion of COVID-19 positive patients was low (3%), the time from symptom onset to hospital presentation was significantly longer, and a smaller proportion of patients underwent reperfusion therapy. Among patients directly evaluated at our institution, door-to-needle and door-to-recanalization metrics were significantly longer. Our findings support concerns that the current pandemic may have a negative impact on the management of acute stroke.

COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endovascular Procedures/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quebec , SARS-CoV-2
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4429, 2023 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286255


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an unprecedented disruption to health care systems around the globe. Stroke is still an ongoing issue during the pandemic. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on emergent stroke care in Beijing, China. This is a retrospective analysis of two groups of patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) registered in the Beijing Emergency Care Database between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020. Based on a database including 77 stroke centres, the quantity and quality of emergency care for stroke were compared. Subgroup analyses based on hospitals in different areas (high-risk and low/medium-risk areas) were carried out. A total of 6440 and 8699 admissions with suspected stroke were recorded in 2020 and 2019, respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean age and sex distribution for the patients between the two observational periods. The number of AIS admissions decreased by approximately 23.9% during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to that during the prepandemic period. The proportions of intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment were 76.4% and 13.1%, respectively, in 2020, which were higher than those in 2019 (71.7% and 9.3%, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in the time from stroke onset to arrival at the hospital (97.97 ± 23.09 min vs. 99.40 ± 20.76 min, p = 0.832) between the two periods. The door-to-needle time for thrombolysis (44.92 ± 9.20 min vs. 42.37 ± 9.06 min, p < 0.001) and door-to-thrombectomy time (138.56 ± 32.45 min vs. 120.55 ± 32.68 min, p < 0.001) were increased significantly in the pandemic period compared to those in the prepandemic period, especially in hospitals in high-risk areas. The decline in the number of patients with AIS and delay in treatment started after the launch of the level-1 public health emergency response and returned to stability after the release of professional protocols and consensus statements. Disruptions to medical services during the COVID-19 pandemic have substantially impacted AIS patients, with a clear drop in admission and a decline in the quality of emergent AIS care, especially in hospitals in high-risk areas and at the time of the initial outbreak of COVID-19. Health care systems need to maintain rapid adaptation to possible outbreaks of COVID-19 or similar crises in the future.

Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Beijing , Pandemics , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282045, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283321


BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) infection (COVID-19), but the prognosis of these patients is poorly understood. PURPOSE: To explore the impact of COVID-19 on neurological outcomes in AIS patients. METHODS: A comparative retrospective cohort study was conducted in 32 consecutive AIS patients with and 51 without COVID-19 between the 1st of March 2020 and 1st of May 2021. The evaluation was based on a detailed chart review for demographic data, medical history, stroke severity, cranial and vessel imaging results, laboratory parameters, COVID-19 severity, hospitalization time, in-hospital mortality, and functional deficits at discharge (modified Rankin Scale, mRS). RESULTS: COVID-19 AIS patients showed tendency to worse initial neurological deficit (NIHSS 9 (3-13) vs. 4 (2-10); p = 0.06), higher rate of large vessel occlusion (LVO; 13/32 vs. 14/51; p = 0.21), had prolonged hospitalization (19.4 ± 17.7 vs. 9.7 ± 7 days; p = 0.003), had lower chance of functional independence (mRS≤2) (12/32 vs. 32/51; p = 0.02) and showed higher in-hospital mortality (10/32 vs. 6/51; p = 0.02). In COVID-19 AIS patients, LVO was more common with COVID-19 pneumonia than without (55.6% vs. 23.1%; p = 0.139). CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related AIS carries a worse prognosis. COVID-19 with pneumonia seems to be associated with a higher rate of LVO.

COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/complications
Stroke ; 54(5): e194-e198, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256504


BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of nationally representative data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) outcome. METHODS: We created a cross-sectional cohort of nationally weighted National Inpatient Sample nonelective hospital discharges aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke from 2016 to 2020. The outcome was in-hospital mortality and exposure was COVID-19 status. To understand the effect of COVID-19 on AIS severity, we report National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale by exposure status. In a final analysis, we used a nationally weighted logistic regression and marginal effects to compare April to December 2020 to the same period in 2019 to understand how the pandemic modified the effect of race and ethnicity and median household income on in-hospital AIS mortality. RESULTS: We observed significantly higher AIS mortality in 2020 than prior years (2020 versus 2016-19, 7.3% versus 6.3%, P<0.001) and higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in those with COVID-19 than those without (mean: 9.7±9.1 versus 6.6±7.4, P<0.001), but patients with AIS without COVID in 2020 had only marginally higher mortality (2020 versus 2016-2019, 6.6% versus 6.3%, P=0.001). Comparing April to December 2020 to 2019, the adjusted risk of in-hospital AIS mortality was most notably increased in Hispanics (2020 versus 2019: 9.2% versus 5.8%, P<0.001) and the lowest quartile of income (2020 versus 2019: 8.0% versus 6.0%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital stroke mortality increased in 2020 in the United States because of comorbid AIS and COVID-19, which had higher stroke severity. The increase in AIS mortality during April-December 2020 was significantly more pronounced in Hispanics and those in the lowest quartile of household income.

Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , United States , Adolescent , Adult , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Inpatients , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies
Stroke ; 54(5): e190-e193, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263844


BACKGROUND: Whether the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines may cause a transient increased stroke risk is uncertain. METHODS: In a registry-based cohort of all adult residents at December 27, 2020, in Norway, we linked individual-level data on COVID-19 vaccination, positive SARS-CoV-2 test, hospital admissions, cause of death, health care worker status, and nursing home resident status extracted from the Emergency Preparedness Register for COVID-19 in Norway. The cohort was followed for incident intracerebral bleeding, ischemic stroke, and subarachnoid hemorrhage within the first 28 days after the first/second or third dose of mRNA vaccination until January 24, 2022. Stroke risk after vaccination relative to time not exposed to vaccination was assessed by Cox proportional hazard ratio, adjusted for age, sex, risk groups, health care personnel, and nursing home resident. RESULTS: The cohort included 4 139 888 people, 49.8% women, and 6.7% were ≥80 years of age. During the first 28 days after an mRNA vaccine, 2104 people experienced a stroke (82% ischemic stroke, 13% intracerebral hemorrhage, and 5% subarachnoid hemorrhage). Adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) after the first/second and after the third mRNA vaccine doses were 0.92 (0.85-1.00) and 0.89 (0.73-1.08) for ischemic stroke, 0.81 (0.67-0.98) and 1.05 (0.64-1.71) for intracerebral hemorrhage, and 0.64 (0.46-0.87) and 1.12 (0.57-2.19) for subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find increased risk of stroke during the first 28 days after an mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Registries , RNA, Messenger
N Engl J Med ; 388(14): 1272-1283, 2023 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263629


BACKGROUND: The role of endovascular therapy for acute stroke with a large infarction has not been extensively studied in differing populations. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, open-label, randomized trial in China involving patients with acute large-vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation and an Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score of 3 to 5 (range, 0 to 10, with lower values indicating larger infarction) or an infarct-core volume of 70 to 100 ml. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio within 24 hours from the time they were last known to be well to undergo endovascular therapy and receive medical management or to receive medical management alone. The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days (scores range from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating greater disability), and the primary objective was to determine whether a shift in the distribution of the scores on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days had occurred between the two groups. Secondary outcomes included scores of 0 to 2 and 0 to 3 on the modified Rankin scale. The primary safety outcome was symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 48 hours after randomization. RESULTS: A total of 456 patients were enrolled; 231 were assigned to the endovascular-therapy group and 225 to the medical-management group. Approximately 28% of the patients in both groups received intravenous thrombolysis. The trial was stopped early owing to the efficacy of endovascular therapy after the second interim analysis. At 90 days, a shift in the distribution of scores on the modified Rankin scale toward better outcomes was observed in favor of endovascular therapy over medical management alone (generalized odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.69; P = 0.004). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 14 of 230 patients (6.1%) in the endovascular-therapy group and in 6 of 225 patients (2.7%) in the medical-management group; any intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 113 (49.1%) and 39 (17.3%), respectively. Results for the secondary outcomes generally supported those of the primary analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In a trial conducted in China, patients with large cerebral infarctions had better outcomes with endovascular therapy administered within 24 hours than with medical management alone but had more intracranial hemorrhages. (Funded by Covidien Healthcare International Trading [Shanghai] and others; ANGEL-ASPECT number, NCT04551664.).

Brain Ischemia , Cerebral Infarction , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Thrombectomy , Humans , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Cerebral Infarction/surgery , China , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Prospective Studies , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 29(7): 1898-1906, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263382


INTRODUCTION: Whether the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with a long-term negative impact on acute stroke care remains uncertain. This study aims to compare the timing of key aspects of stroke codes between patients before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at an academic hospital in Shanghai, China and included all adult patients with acute ischemic stroke hospitalized via the emergency department (ED) stroke pathway during the 24 months since the COVID-19 outbreak (COVID-19: January 1, 2020-December 31, 2021). The comparison cohort included patients with ED stroke pathway visits and hospitalizations during the same period (pre-COVID-19: January 1, 2018-December 31, 2019). We compared critical time points of prehospital and intrahospital acute stroke care between patients during the COVID-19 era and patients during the pre-COVID-19 era using t test, χ2 , and Mann-Whitney U test where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1194 acute ischemic stroke cases were enrolled, including 606 patients in COVID-19 and 588 patients in pre-COVID-19. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the median onset-to-hospital time was about 108 min longer compared with the same period of pre-COVID-19 (300 vs 192 min, p = 0.01). Accordingly, the median onset-to-needle time was 169 min in COVID-19 and 113 min in pre-COVID-19 (p = 0.0001), and the proportion of patients with onset-to-hospital time within 4.5 h was lower (292/606 [48.2%] vs 328/558 [58.8%], p = 0.0003) during the pandemic period. Furthermore, the median door-to-inpatient admission and door-to-inpatient rehabilitation times increased from 28 to 37 h and from 3 to 4 days (p = 0.014 and 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: During the 24 months of COVID-19, a prolongation of stroke onset to hospital arrival and to intravenous rt-PA administration times were noted. Meanwhile, acute stroke patients needed to stay in the ED for a longer time before hospitalization. Educational system support and process optimization should be pursued in order to acquire timely delivery of stroke care during the pandemic.

COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Retrospective Studies , China/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
Eur J Med Res ; 28(1): 102, 2023 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263243


Following the COVID-19 virus epidemic, extensive, coordinated international research has led to the rapid development of effective vaccines. Although vaccines are now considered the best way to achieve collective safety and control mortality, due to the critical situation, these vaccines have been issued the emergency use licenses and some of their potential subsequence side effects have been overlooked. At the same time, there are many reports of side effects after getting a COVID-19 vaccine. According to these reports, vaccination can have an adverse event, especially on nervous system. The most important and common complications are cerebrovascular disorders including cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, transient ischemic attack, intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, and demyelinating disorders including transverse myelitis, first manifestation of MS, and neuromyelitis optica. These effects are often acute and transient, but they can be severe and even fatal in a few cases. Herein, we have provided a comprehensive review of documents reporting neurological side effects of COVID-19 vaccines in international databases from 2020 to 2022 and discussed neurological disorders possibly caused by vaccination.

COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2