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1.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221131801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162205

ABSTRACT

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS), characterized by high morbidity and mortality, has imposed a considerable burden on society. Despite rapid development in the treatment of AIS, there is still a high risk of recurrence. Furthermore, there is a time delay in waiting for the results of conventional coagulation tests in candidate patients for intravenous thrombolysis therapy. Heterogeneous responses to antiplatelet, intravascular thrombolysis, and endovascular therapies also worsen the situation. Thromboelastography (TEG), as a global and portable detection method for hemostasis, facilitates clinicians in disease monitoring, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction in AIS. In this narrative review, we provided a comprehensive summary of the clinical application of TEG in ischemic stroke and gave insights to further studies.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Thrombelastography , Blood Coagulation Tests , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
2.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(11. Vyp. 2): 34-37, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all cases of COVID-19, including those complicated with ischemic stroke, admitted to the multispecialty infectious hospital in Ufa (Russia) in 2020, was performed. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of the development of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Eleven thousand forty hundred and thirty-two patients were admitted to the multidisciplinary infectious hospital during 2020, 1226 of them also suffered from ischemic stroke. Independent predictors of ischemic stroke in COVID-19 included age and laboratory parameters: increase in number of leucocytes, erythrocytes and platelets, increase of the level of creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin and decrease of the level of total protein, and activated partial thromboplastin time. CONCLUSION: Elderly people, patients with prominent systemic inflammatory response, which presented with leukocytosis, hypercoagulation, multiorgan failure of different severity and hypoproteinemia, were at higher risk of the development of ischemic stroke in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Aged , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e055108, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118048

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the most common cause of neurological disability in adults worldwide. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has shown promising results as a treatment for stroke in animal experiments. The pilot investigation of stem cells in stroke phase 1 and phase 2 trials showed that transplantation of the highest dose (20 million cells) was well tolerated. Preliminary clinical benefits have also been observed. However, the trials were open-label and had a small sample size. Furthermore, human NSCs (hNSCs) were intracerebrally implanted, and some serious adverse events were considered to be related to the surgical procedure. Therefore, we plan to conduct a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial to test the safety and efficacy of intranasal injection of hNSCs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-centre, randomised, double-blinded, parallel-controlled trial will be conducted in China. Sixty patients with ischaemic stroke who met the qualification criteria will be randomly divided into two groups: the NSCs and control groups. All participants will receive intranasal administration of hNSCs or placebo for 4 consecutive weeks. Patients will be followed up at baseline and at 4, 12, 24 and 48 weeks after intervention. The primary outcome is the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (4, 12, 24 weeks after intervention). Secondary outcomes include the modified Rankin scale, Barthel index, Mini-Mental State Examination score (4, 12, 24 weeks after intervention) and cranial MRI changes (24 and 48 weeks after intervention). All adverse events will be recorded during the study period. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Ren Ji Hospital (2018-009). All subjects will provide informed consent. The results will be accessible in peer-reviewed publications and will be presented at academic conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900022741; Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Neural Stem Cells , Stroke , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Stroke/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 223: 107505, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke is a remarkable cause of death and disability worldwide. Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common psychiatric disturbance after stroke. Despite PSD being a potentially treatable condition, it still requires approaches to improve the early diagnosis. The present study aims to investigate the factors associated and correlated variables associated with PSD during hospitalization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a specialized center of neurology in Santa Catarina, Brazil. 148 patients with acute ischemic stroke hospitalized between January 2020 and February 2021 were included. Sociodemographic, clinical and radiological variables were assessed during hospitalization. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied, as well as the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Factors associated were investigated through binary logistic regression and continuous variables through correlation tests. RESULTS: The prevalence of PSD during hospitalization was 31.1%. Factors associated with PSD in the acute phase of the stroke were female sex (OR: 2.6; CI 95%: 1.3-5.4; p < 0.01) and post-stroke anxiety during hospitalization (OR: 4.9; CI 95%: 2.3-10.3; p < 0.01). The variables NIHSS, mRS, and stroke area were positively correlated with HADS - depression values. CONCLUSIONS: This research evidenced a high prevalence of PSD in the acute phase of stroke. Despite the study being conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, the frequency is similar to the non-pandemic periods. The research provided clues to identify and timely treat patients at greater risk of developing PSD during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis
5.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 431-437, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092956

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate stroke characteristics in patients with concomitant coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Croatia during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective study investigated the characteristics of two groups of ischemic stroke patients: those who developed COVID-19 infection before stroke and those who developed the infection during the hospital stay after stroke onset. Stroke etiology was classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 255 stroke patients from 12 Croatian hospitals. The two groups of ischemic stroke patients differed in stroke etiology (P=0.038). Patients with COVID-19 infection before stroke had fewer cardioembolic strokes (46% vs 29.1%), more cryptogenic strokes (32.5% vs 14.3%), and more strokes in multiple vascular territories (12.4% vs 1.8%). The percentage of large-vessel occlusions was high in both groups (49.6% and 44.4%). Median modified Rankin Scale score on discharge was 4 in both groups. Mortality was 36.4% in the group with stroke after COVID-19 and 33.3% in the group with COVID-19 after stroke. CONCLUSION: Ischemic stroke after COVID-19 differs in etiology from ischemic stroke complicated by COVID-19 infection. Both patient groups are characterized by severe disability and high mortality. Raising the awareness of prehospital stroke and optimization of clinical workflow are important if we want to improve the stroke outcomes by acute recanalization techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Croatia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology
6.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 222: 107467, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We explored the relationship between markers of infection and inflammation and mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent thrombectomy. METHODS: We performed retrospective chart review of stroke patients who underwent thrombectomy at two tertiary academic centers between December 2018 and November 2020. Associations between discharge mortality, WBC count, neutrophil percentage, fever, culture data, and antibiotic treatment were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Student's t-test, and Fisher's exact test. Independent predictors of mortality were identified with multivariable analysis. Analyses were repeated excluding COVID-positive patients. RESULTS: Of 248 patients who underwent thrombectomy, 41 (17 %) died prior to discharge. Mortality was associated with admission WBC count (11 [8-14] vs. 9 [7-12], p = 0.0093), admission neutrophil percentage (78 % ± 11 vs. 71 % ± 14, p = 0.0003), peak WBC count (17 [13-22] vs. 12 [9-15], p < 0.0001), fever (71 % vs. 27 %, p < 0.0001), positive culture (44 % vs. 15 %, p < 0.0001), and days treated with antibiotics (3 [1-7] vs. 1 [0-4], p < 0.0001). After controlling for age, admission NIHSS and post-thrombectomy ASPECTS score, mortality was associated with admission WBC count (OR 13, CI 1.32-142, p = 0.027), neutrophil percentage (OR 1.03, CI 1.0-1.07, p = 0.045), peak WBC count (OR 301, CI 24-5008, p < 0.0001), fever (OR 24.2, CI 1.77-332, p < 0.0001), and positive cultures (OR 4.24, CI 1.87-9.62, p = 0.0006). After excluding COVID-positive patients (n = 14), peak WBC count, fever and positive culture remained independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Markers of infection and inflammation are associated with discharge mortality after thrombectomy. Further study is warranted to investigate the causal relationship of these markers with clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Thrombectomy , Stroke/complications , Biomarkers , Inflammation , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Brain Ischemia/complications
7.
CMAJ Open ; 10(4): E865-E871, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in telemedicine use. We compared care and outcomes in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke before and after the widespread adoption of telemedicine in Ontario, Canada, in 2020. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data, we identified patients with TIA or ischemic stroke discharged from any emergency department in Ontario before the widespread use of telemedicine (Apr. 1, 2015, to Mar. 31, 2020) and after (Apr. 1, 2020, to Mar. 31, 2021). We measured care, including visits with a physician, investigations and medication renewal. We compared 90-day death before and after 2020 using Cox proportional hazards models, and we compared 90-day admission using cause-specific hazard models. RESULTS: We identified 47 601 patients (49.3% female; median age 73, interquartile range 62-82, yr) with TIA (n = 35 695, 75.0%) or ischemic stroke (n = 11 906, 25.0%). After 2020, 83.1% of patients had 1 or more telemedicine visit within 90 days of emergency department discharge, compared with 3.8% before. The overall access to outpatient visits within 90 days remained unchanged (92.9% before v. 94.0% after; risk difference 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.3 to 3.5). Investigations and medication renewals were unchanged. Clinical outcomes were also similar before and after 2020; the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.97 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.04) for 90-day all-cause admission, 1.06 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.20) for stroke admission and 1.07 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.24) for death. INTERPRETATION: Care and short-term outcomes after TIA or minor stroke remained stable after the widespread implementation of telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings suggest that telemedicine is an effective method of health care delivery that can be complementary to in-person care for minor ischemic cerebrovascular events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Telemedicine , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(26): e29834, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051694

ABSTRACT

We assessed whether stroke severity, functional outcome, and mortality in patients with ischemic stroke differed between patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and those without. We conducted a prospective, single-center cohort study in Irbid, North Jordan. All patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke and SARS-CoV-2 infection were consecutively recruited from October 15, 2020, to October 16, 2021. We recorded demographic data, vascular risk factors, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, stroke subtype according to the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment Criteria (TOAST), treatments at admission, and laboratory variables for all patients. The primary endpoint was the functional outcome at 3 months assessed using the modified Rankin Score. Secondary outcomes involved in-hospital mortality and mortality at 3 months. We included 178 patients with a mean (standard deviation) age of 67.3 (12), and more than half of the cases were males (96/178; 53.9%). Thirty-six cases were coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related and had a mean (standard deviation) age of 70 (11.5). When compared with COVID-19-negative patients, COVID-19-positive patients were more likely to have a higher median NIHSS score at baseline (6 vs 11; P = .043), after 72 hours (6 vs 12; P = .006), and at discharge (4 vs 16; P < .001). They were also more likely to have a higher median modified Rankin Score after 3 months of follow-up (P < .001). NIHSS score at admission (odds ratio = 1.387, 95% confidence interval = 1.238-1.553]; P < .001) predicted having an unfavorable outcome after 3 months. On the other hand, having a concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection did not significantly impact the likelihood of unfavorable outcomes (odds ratio = 1.098, 95% confidence interval = 0.270-4.473; P = .896). The finding conclude that SARS-CoV-2 infection led to an increase in both stroke severity and in-hospital mortality but had no significant impact on the likelihood of developing unfavorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16176, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050512

ABSTRACT

Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at an increased risk of cardiovascular and thrombotic complications conferring an extremely poor prognosis. COVID-19 infection is known to be an independent risk factor for acute ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI). We developed a risk assessment model (RAM) to stratify hospitalized COVID-19 patients for arterial thromboembolism (ATE). This multicenter, retrospective study included adult COVID-19 patients admitted between 3/1/2020 and 9/5/2021. Among 3531 patients from the training cohort, 15.5% developed acute in-hospital ATE, including stroke, MI, and other ATE, compared to 13.4% in the validation cohort. The 16-item final score was named SARS-COV-ATE (Sex: male = 1, Age [40-59 = 2, > 60 = 4], Race: non-African American = 1, Smoking = 1 and Systolic blood pressure elevation = 1, Creatinine elevation = 1; Over the range: leukocytes/lactate dehydrogenase/interleukin-6, B-type natriuretic peptide = 1, Vascular disease (cardiovascular/cerebrovascular = 1), Aspartate aminotransferase = 1, Troponin-I [> 0.04 ng/mL = 1, troponin-I > 0.09 ng/mL = 3], Electrolytes derangement [magnesium/potassium = 1]). RAM had a good discrimination (training AUC 0.777, 0.756-0.797; validation AUC 0.766, 0.741-0.790). The validation cohort was stratified as low-risk (score 0-8), intermediate-risk (score 9-13), and high-risk groups (score ≥ 14), with the incidence of ATE 2.4%, 12.8%, and 33.8%, respectively. Our novel prediction model based on 16 standardized, commonly available parameters showed good performance in identifying COVID-19 patients at risk for ATE on admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Thromboembolism , Adult , Aspartate Aminotransferases , COVID-19/complications , Creatinine , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Magnesium , Male , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Potassium , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Troponin I
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 256-261, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up to 45% of ischemic strokes are cryptogenic, which is an impediment to proposing preventative measures. In this investigation we aimed to study underlying heart arrhythmias in patients with cryptogenic stroke, taking into consideration the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and stressful lockdown conditions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we observed 52 patients with cryptogenic stroke >1 month after acute presentation, and a control group consisting of 88 patients without stroke. All patients undewent the laboratory and instrumental investigation consisting of the following: lipid spectrum; hemostasiograms; hemoglobin A1c; transthoracic or/and transesophageal echocardiography; 24-hours monitoring of ECG; computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. We studied the hemodynamics of the common carotid arteries using Doppler ultrasound imaging and digital sphygmography (SG). RESULTS: The groups were indentical with respect to the preponderance of study parameters (sex, age, comorbidities, instrumental and laboratory data). The ischemic stroke group had a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the first type of extrasystolic arrhythmia according to our gradation of extrasystoles, which are ventricular systoles of extrasystolic contraction appearing before the transmitral blood flow peak (peak E in echocardiography). We observed that earlier ventricular systoles of extrasystole in the cardiac cycle predicted for greater growth of hemodynamic and kinetic parameters. Calculating the indices of a four-field table established the significant relationship between the moment of appearance of extrasystolic ventricular contraction in the cardiac cycle and the risk for cryptogenic stroke (normalized value of the Pearson coefficient (C`) of the two paramaters was 0.318). CONCLUSIONS: Extrasystolic arrhythmia appeared as an additional risk factor of earlier stroke. The most dangerous type of arrhythmia was when the ventricular contraction of the extrasystole appeared before the transmitral blood flow peak in the cardiac cycle. This observation could present a risk-marker for brain-related cardiovascular complications such as stroke, which might be patients suffering from different internal diseases, especially in the context of environmental stress conditions of the current pandemic and its related lockdown measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Complexes, Premature/complications , Cardiac Complexes, Premature/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hemodynamics , Humans , Lipids , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology
12.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(10): 815-827, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with increased risks of neurological and psychiatric sequelae in the weeks and months thereafter. How long these risks remain, whether they affect children and adults similarly, and whether SARS-CoV-2 variants differ in their risk profiles remains unclear. METHODS: In this analysis of 2-year retrospective cohort studies, we extracted data from the TriNetX electronic health records network, an international network of de-identified data from health-care records of approximately 89 million patients collected from hospital, primary care, and specialist providers (mostly from the USA, but also from Australia, the UK, Spain, Bulgaria, India, Malaysia, and Taiwan). A cohort of patients of any age with COVID-19 diagnosed between Jan 20, 2020, and April 13, 2022, was identified and propensity-score matched (1:1) to a contemporaneous cohort of patients with any other respiratory infection. Matching was done on the basis of demographic factors, risk factors for COVID-19 and severe COVID-19 illness, and vaccination status. Analyses were stratified by age group (age <18 years [children], 18-64 years [adults], and ≥65 years [older adults]) and date of diagnosis. We assessed the risks of 14 neurological and psychiatric diagnoses after SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared these risks with the matched comparator cohort. The 2-year risk trajectories were represented by time-varying hazard ratios (HRs) and summarised using the 6-month constant HRs (representing the risks in the earlier phase of follow-up, which have not yet been well characterised in children), the risk horizon for each outcome (ie, the time at which the HR returns to 1), and the time to equal incidence in the two cohorts. We also estimated how many people died after a neurological or psychiatric diagnosis during follow-up in each age group. Finally, we compared matched cohorts of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 directly before and after the emergence of the alpha (B.1.1.7), delta (B.1.617.2), and omicron (B.1.1.529) variants. FINDINGS: We identified 1 487 712 patients with a recorded diagnosis of COVID-19 during the study period, of whom 1 284 437 (185 748 children, 856 588 adults, and 242 101 older adults; overall mean age 42·5 years [SD 21·9]; 741 806 [57·8%] were female and 542 192 [42·2%] were male) were adequately matched with an equal number of patients with another respiratory infection. The risk trajectories of outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection in the whole cohort differed substantially. While most outcomes had HRs significantly greater than 1 after 6 months (with the exception of encephalitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome; nerve, nerve root, and plexus disorder; and parkinsonism), their risk horizons and time to equal incidence varied greatly. Risks of the common psychiatric disorders returned to baseline after 1-2 months (mood disorders at 43 days, anxiety disorders at 58 days) and subsequently reached an equal overall incidence to the matched comparison group (mood disorders at 457 days, anxiety disorders at 417 days). By contrast, risks of cognitive deficit (known as brain fog), dementia, psychotic disorders, and epilepsy or seizures were still increased at the end of the 2-year follow-up period. Post-COVID-19 risk trajectories differed in children compared with adults: in the 6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, children were not at an increased risk of mood (HR 1·02 [95% CI 0·94-1·10) or anxiety (1·00 [0·94-1·06]) disorders, but did have an increased risk of cognitive deficit, insomnia, intracranial haemorrhage, ischaemic stroke, nerve, nerve root, and plexus disorders, psychotic disorders, and epilepsy or seizures (HRs ranging from 1·20 [1·09-1·33] to 2·16 [1·46-3·19]). Unlike adults, cognitive deficit in children had a finite risk horizon (75 days) and a finite time to equal incidence (491 days). A sizeable proportion of older adults who received a neurological or psychiatric diagnosis, in either cohort, subsequently died, especially those diagnosed with dementia or epilepsy or seizures. Risk profiles were similar just before versus just after the emergence of the alpha variant (n=47 675 in each cohort). Just after (vs just before) the emergence of the delta variant (n=44 835 in each cohort), increased risks of ischaemic stroke, epilepsy or seizures, cognitive deficit, insomnia, and anxiety disorders were observed, compounded by an increased death rate. With omicron (n=39 845 in each cohort), there was a lower death rate than just before emergence of the variant, but the risks of neurological and psychiatric outcomes remained similar. INTERPRETATION: This analysis of 2-year retrospective cohort studies of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 showed that the increased incidence of mood and anxiety disorders was transient, with no overall excess of these diagnoses compared with other respiratory infections. In contrast, the increased risk of psychotic disorder, cognitive deficit, dementia, and epilepsy or seizures persisted throughout. The differing trajectories suggest a different pathogenesis for these outcomes. Children have a more benign overall profile of psychiatric risk than do adults and older adults, but their sustained higher risk of some diagnoses is of concern. The fact that neurological and psychiatric outcomes were similar during the delta and omicron waves indicates that the burden on the health-care system might continue even with variants that are less severe in other respects. Our findings are relevant to understanding individual-level and population-level risks of neurological and psychiatric disorders after SARS-CoV-2 infection and can help inform our responses to them. FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Research Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre, The Wolfson Foundation, and MQ Mental Health Research.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Dementia , Ischemic Stroke , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
13.
Am J Emerg Med ; 60: 88-95, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035662

ABSTRACT

This article highlights the most relevant emergency medicine (EM) pharmacotherapy publications indexed in 2021. A modified Delphi approach was utilized for selected journals to identify the most impactful EM pharmacotherapy studies via the GRADE system. After review of journal table of contents GRADE 1A and 1B articles were reviewed by authors. Twenty articles, 2 guidelines, 2 position papers, and 2 meta-analysis were selected for full summary. Articles included in this review highlight acute agitation management, acute appendicitis treatment, sexually transmitted infection updates, optimizing sepsis management and treatment, updates for the ideal thrombolytic agent in acute ischemic stroke and endovascular therapy candidates, indications for tranexamic acid, calicium for out of hospital cardiac arrest, optimial inotrope for cardiogenic shock, awareness during rapid sequence intubation paralysis, comparison of propofol or dexmedetomidine for sedation, treatment of cannabis hyperemsis syndrome, and prophylactic use of diphenhydramine to reduce neuroleptic side effects. Selected articles are summarized to include design, results, limitations, conclusions and impact.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Dexmedetomidine , Emergency Medicine , Ischemic Stroke , Propofol , Tranexamic Acid , Diphenhydramine , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans
15.
Intern Med ; 61(18): 2797-2801, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029870

ABSTRACT

A 53-year-old woman with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia was admitted and treated with intravenous unfractionated heparin for thromboprophylaxis under general anesthesia with mechanical ventilation. She developed right hemiparesis after hospitalization due to a large hemorrhagic infarction. Her platelet count decreased from 243,000/µL at administration to 121,000/µL. Anti-platelet factor 4-heparin antibody testing was positive according to a latex immunoturbidimetric assay. She was therefore diagnosed with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. We immediately stopped the heparin and started argatroban; the platelet count recovered, and thrombosis did not relapse. Physicians should consider heparin-induced thrombocytopenia as a cause of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Thrombocytopenia , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Middle Aged , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
16.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(8. Vyp. 2): 26-31, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025843

ABSTRACT

The article presents a case of ischemic stroke after SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient with dyscirculatory encephalopathy and schizophrenia. Patient 44 years old, was hospitalized due to a confirmed diagnosis of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) and diagnosed bilateral pneumonia with a damage to 65% of the lung parenchyma. The patient has a history of dyscirculatory encephalopathy and paranoid schizophrenia, a continuous type of course. A fatal outcome occurs on the 2nd day of inpatient treatment. A brain autopsy revealed pericellular and perivascular edema, looseness of neuroglia with necrobiotic changes in the brain substance. Neuronal damage, small-focal gliosis, basophilic balls, destructive-productive vasculitis, ischemic small-focus necrosis were revealed. In the lungs, areas of atelectasis, disatelectasis, hyaline membranes, and edematous fluid were found. Epithelium of the convoluted tubules showed dystrophic and necrotic changes. The cause of death of the patient was a new coronavirus infection COVID-19, which caused bilateral viral pneumonia, complicated by the development of acute respiratory failure and COVID-associated ischemic cerebral infarction complicated by neuromorphological changes in the brain.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Brain Edema , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Schizophrenia , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(8): 95-100, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study predictors of unfavorable outcomes in ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 173 case histories of patients with ischemic stroke and COVID-19 was carried out. The average age was 68.64±11.39 (95% CI 66.93-70.35; median 92, mean 34) years. By gender, women predominated (64.16%). Fatal outcome was observed in 62 (35.84%) patients. Risk factors were studied using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of a fatal stroke in a univariate analysis was established in the presence of a general severe condition of the patient and a number of other factors, which included the severity of COVID-19, acute coronary syndrome, multiple organ failure, the need for a ventilator, a history of kidney disease, pneumonia, high NIHSS score, oxygen partial pressure level, respiratory rate, number of hospitalizations, complete blood count (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocytes, neutrophils), coagulogram, glucose, liver and kidney markers (bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, urea), levels of creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein. A model based on multivariate analysis was used, which makes it possible to predict the probability of a fatal outcome. A regression function was obtained, which included the content of C-reactive protein, urea and NIHSS score. In patients with a value of 35% and above, there was an increased risk of death, in the case of a value below 35%, a favorable outcome was assumed. The model was statistically significant (p<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 88.9% and 97.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The revealed predictors of the probability of a fatal stroke outcome can be guidelines for a Coctor in choosing a patient management strategy at different stages of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Urea
18.
JAMA ; 328(7): 637-651, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013212

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of arterial thromboembolism and venous thromboembolism in persons with COVID-19 remains unclear. Objective: To measure the 90-day risk of arterial thromboembolism and venous thromboembolism in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 before or during COVID-19 vaccine availability vs patients hospitalized with influenza. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 41 443 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (April-November 2020), 44 194 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during vaccine availability (December 2020-May 2021), and 8269 patients hospitalized with influenza (October 2018-April 2019) in the US Food and Drug Administration Sentinel System (data from 2 national health insurers and 4 regional integrated health systems). Exposures: COVID-19 or influenza (identified by hospital diagnosis or nucleic acid test). Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospital diagnosis of arterial thromboembolism (acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke) and venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) within 90 days. Outcomes were ascertained through July 2019 for patients with influenza and through August 2021 for patients with COVID-19. Propensity scores with fine stratification were developed to account for differences between the influenza and COVID-19 cohorts. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for outcomes during each COVID-19 vaccine availability period vs the influenza period. Results: A total of 85 637 patients with COVID-19 (mean age, 72 [SD, 13.0] years; 50.5% were male) and 8269 with influenza (mean age, 72 [SD, 13.3] years; 45.0% were male) were included. The 90-day absolute risk of arterial thromboembolism was 14.4% (95% CI, 13.6%-15.2%) in patients with influenza vs 15.8% (95% CI, 15.5%-16.2%) in patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (risk difference, 1.4% [95% CI, 1.0%-2.3%]) and 16.3% (95% CI, 16.0%-16.6%) in patients with COVID-19 during vaccine availability (risk difference, 1.9% [95% CI, 1.1%-2.7%]). Compared with patients with influenza, the risk of arterial thromboembolism was not significantly higher among patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.97-1.11]) or during vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00-1.14]). The 90-day absolute risk of venous thromboembolism was 5.3% (95% CI, 4.9%-5.8%) in patients with influenza vs 9.5% (95% CI, 9.2%-9.7%) in patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (risk difference, 4.1% [95% CI, 3.6%-4.7%]) and 10.9% (95% CI, 10.6%-11.1%) in patients with COVID-19 during vaccine availability (risk difference, 5.5% [95% CI, 5.0%-6.1%]). Compared with patients with influenza, the risk of venous thromboembolism was significantly higher among patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.43-1.79]) and during vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.68-2.12]). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on data from a US public health surveillance system, hospitalization with COVID-19 before and during vaccine availability, vs hospitalization with influenza in 2018-2019, was significantly associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism within 90 days, but there was no significant difference in the risk of arterial thromboembolism within 90 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Infarction , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Risk Assessment , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1036, 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke requires early medical imaging with a computed tomography (CT) scan and immediate thrombolysis treatment. In rural areas, the long distance to the nearest hospital reduce the patients' probability of receiving medical assistance within the 4.5-h period. The aim of this study was to assess how the service was set-up, and how managers and personnel experience the organisation and value of a rural telemedicine, remote controlled CT stroke service. METHODS: Ten semi-structured individual interviews and one semi-structured focus group interview were conducted. The sample included 15 participants involved in the telemedicine service in Hallingdal, Norway. The interview guide consisted of questions on the service, experience of working with the service, value and quality, management, and challenges. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was used to develop a narrative of the findings. RESULTS: Findings were categorised into three main categories; value of the service, organisation of the project, and from project to permanent service. Participants perceived the service to be valuable for patients and the local community. The service included task shifting from radiographers and junior doctors to the local paramedics. To enable long- term operation of the service the participants suggested management, coordination, and continuous training as important factors. CONCLUSIONS: The service was perceived as valuable to the local community, providing a sense of healthcare security and equitability. Management's involvement, flexibility, and coordination appears to be a key factor for successful implementation and long-term sustainability of the service.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Telemedicine , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Qualitative Research , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy
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