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2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(11): 106072, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377775

ABSTRACT

Recently cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) and thrombosis following the adenoviral vector vaccine against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were reported. A mechanism similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was proposed with antibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4). Vaccine related arterial thrombosis in the brain is rare but life-threatening and optimal treatment is not established. We report clinical, laboratory, imaging findings and treatment in a 51-year-old female presenting with acute left middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion 7 days after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Due to low platelet count and suspicion of VITT she was not eligible for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and proceeded to mechanical thrombectomy (MER) with successful recanalization four hours after onset of symptoms. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and heparin pentasaccharide fondaparinux was initiated. Presence of anti-PF4 antibodies was confirmed. The patient improved clinically with normalization of platelet count. Clinicians should be alert of VITT in patients with acute ischemic stroke after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination and low platelet counts. MER showed to be feasible and effective. We propose considering MER in patients with VITT and large vessel occlusion despite thrombocytopenia. High-dose IVIG should be started immediately. Alternative anticoagulation to heparin should be started 24 hours after stroke onset unless significant hemorrhagic transformation occurred. Platelet transfusion is contraindicated and should be considered only in severe hemorrhagic complications. Restenosis or reocclusion of the revascularized artery is possible due to the hypercoagulable state in VITT and angiographic surveillance after the procedure is reasonable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/chemically induced , Ischemic Stroke/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/immunology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/immunology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Middle Aged , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211028389, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285174

ABSTRACT

Stroke is an identified sequela of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. While the pathophysiology remains poorly understood, endothelial dysfunction and intravascular thrombosis secondary to sepsis-induced hypercoagulability likely increase the risk of stroke. This report describes the rare case of an otherwise healthy 42-year-old male who developed large bilateral ischemic infarcts during admission for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to COVID pneumonia. This report adds to scarce literature describing massive cerebrovascular injury in COVID patients and emphasizes the importance of increased clinical suspicion for stroke in patients who exhibit acute change in mental status or motor function, as well as rapid clinical deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 61(7): 486-490, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278670

ABSTRACT

A 63-year-old man, who had persistent fever for a month, was admitted to the hospital with sudden left arm palsy with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3. Consequently, brain MRI showed hyperintensity of the bilateral occipital, right parietal, and right frontal lobes on diffusion-weighted imaging. Moreover, FLAIR presented hyperintensity of the left occipital lobe. Magnetic resonance angiography detected the deficit of the blood-flow signal of the horizontal segment of the middle cerebral artery. He was diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. In addition, chest CT showed ground-glass opacities, and test to detect SARS-CoV-2 was positive. Cerebral embolism was suspected. However, the source was unknown. His ischemic stroke was possibly associated with coagulation abnormality caused by coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Intracranial Embolism/virology , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Middle Aged , Middle Cerebral Artery
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105944, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267765

ABSTRACT

Ten days after SARS-Cov2 reinfection with mild gastrointestinal symptoms and headache that occurred 2 months after an initial infection, a previously healthy 37-year-old woman developed fluctuating facial and upper limb paresthesia and weakness. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed ischemic lesions in the right parietal region of different stages within the same vascular territory. A cerebral angiography demonstrated an isolated focal arteriopathy with no other arterial involvement. Focal cerebral arteriopathy is exceedingly rare among adults and most commonly triggered by varicella-zoster virus reactivation. We present a case of focal cerebral arteriopathy in a patient with a recent reinfection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Reinfection , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/drug therapy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
6.
Stroke ; 52(7): 2422-2426, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke may complicate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection based on clinical hypercoagulability. We investigated whether transcranial Doppler ultrasound has utility for identifying microemboli and clinically relevant cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFVs) in COVID-19. METHODS: We performed transcranial Doppler for a consecutive series of patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection admitted to 2 intensive care units at a large academic center including evaluation for microembolic signals. Variables specific to hypercoagulability and blood flow including transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed as a part of routine care. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included in this analysis, 16 with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Of those, 2 had acute ischemic stroke secondary to large vessel occlusion. Ten non-COVID stroke patients were included for comparison. Two COVID-negative patients had severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and stroke due to large vessel occlusion. In patients with COVID-19, relatively low CBFVs were observed diffusely at median hospital day 4 (interquartile range, 3-9) despite low hematocrit (29.5% [25.7%-31.6%]); CBFVs in comparable COVID-negative stroke patients were significantly higher compared with COVID-positive stroke patients. Microembolic signals were not detected in any patient. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 60% (interquartile range, 60%-65%). CBFVs were correlated with arterial oxygen content, and C-reactive protein (Spearman ρ=0.28 [P=0.04]; 0.58 [P<0.001], respectively) but not with left ventricular ejection fraction (ρ=-0.18; P=0.42). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection, we observed lower than expected CBFVs in setting of low arterial oxygen content and low hematocrit but not associated with suppression of cardiac output.


Subject(s)
Blood Flow Velocity , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Blood Gas Analysis , Brain/blood supply , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105817, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179850

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and virally-mediated vascular inflammation have become well-recognized features of the SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, COVID-19. Of growing concern is the apparent ineffectiveness of therapeutic anticoagulation in preventing thromboembolic events among some at-risk patient subtypes with COVID-19. We present a 43-year-old female with a history of seropositive-antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus who developed an acute ischemic stroke in the setting of mild COVID-19 infection despite adherence to chronic systemic anticoagulation. The clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial cell dysfunction and its potential to cause macrovascular events in spite of full anticoagulation warrants further investigation and likely represents another disease-defining pathology of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/blood , Adult , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/blood , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Treatment Failure
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105731, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the potential usefulness of delayed-phase, low-dose, non-gated, chest spectral CT scans (DSCT) for the early triage of cardioembolic (CE) sources in patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and for the simultaneous detection of myocardial disease and thrombotic complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since July 2020 and promoted by the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented the use of DSCT after cerebrovascular CT angiography (CTA) among patients with AIS using a dual-layer spectral CT. We explored the presence of CE sources, as well as late myocardium iodine enhancement (LIE) and pulmonary thromboembolism. Among patients further undergoing transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) or cardiac CTA, we explored the diagnostic performance. RESULTS: Fifty consecutive patients with AIS who underwent DSCT after cerebrovascular CTA comprised the patient population. The confidence degree for excluding cardiac thrombi was significantly higher than for LIE (4.4±0.8 vs. 3.4±1.3, p<0.0001). DSCT identified a CE source in 4 (8%) and LIE in 24 (48%) patients. The iodine ratio of CE sources was significantly lower compared to the left atrial appendage of patients with no CE sources (0.25±0.1 mg/mL vs. 0.91±0.2 mg/mL, p<0.0001). TEE/cardiac CT, performed in 20 (40%) patients, identified a CE source in 5 (25%) cases, whereas DSCT identified 4 (20%), leading to a sensitivity and specificity of 80% (95% CI 28-99%) and 100% (95% CI 78-100%) respectively (kappa 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we identified DSCT as a potential unsophisticated approach for the early triage of CE sources among patients with AIS undergoing CTA upon admission.


Subject(s)
Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Triage/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Embolism/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thorax
9.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115107

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dealt a devastating blow to healthcare systems globally. Approximately 3.2% of patients infected with COVID-19 require invasive ventilation during the course of the illness. Within this population, 25% of patients are affected with neurological manifestations. Among those who are affected by severe neurological manifestations, some may have acute cerebrovascular complications (5%), impaired consciousness (15%) or exhibit skeletal muscle hypokinesis (20%). The cause of the severe cognitive impairment and hypokinesis is unknown at this time. Potential causes include COVID-19 viral encephalopathy, toxic metabolic encephalopathy, post-intensive care unit syndrome and cerebrovascular pathology. We present a case of a 60 year old patient who sustained a prolonged hospitalization with COVID-19, had a cerebrovascular event and developed a persistent unexplained encephalopathy along with a hypokinetic state. He was treated successfully with modafinil and carbidopa/levodopa showing clinical improvement within 3-7 days and ultimately was able to successfully discharge home.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Carbidopa/administration & dosage , Hypokinesia , Ischemic Stroke , Levodopa/administration & dosage , Modafinil/administration & dosage , Rehabilitation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Critical Care/methods , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hypokinesia/diagnosis , Hypokinesia/etiology , Hypokinesia/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/methods
11.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a small but clinically significant risk of stroke, the cause of which is frequently cryptogenic. In a large multinational cohort of consecutive COVID-19 patients with stroke, we evaluated clinical predictors of cryptogenic stroke, short-term functional outcomes and in-hospital mortality among patients according to stroke etiology. METHODS: We explored clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of consecutively evaluated patients 18 years of age or older with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 31 hospitals in 4 countries (3/1/20-6/16/20). RESULTS: Of the 14.483 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19, 156 (1.1%) were diagnosed with AIS. Sixty-one (39.4%) were female, 84 (67.2%) white, and 88 (61.5%) were between 60 and 79 years of age. The most frequently reported etiology of AIS was cryptogenic (55/129, 42.6%), which was associated with significantly higher white blood cell count, c-reactive protein, and D-dimer levels than non-cryptogenic AIS patients (p

Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Registries , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke , United States/epidemiology
12.
Chest ; 159(2): e107-e113, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053266

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old man presented to the ED at a time of low severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), prevalence and reported 2 weeks of progressive shortness of breath, dry cough, headache, myalgias, diarrhea, and recurrent low-grade fevers to 39°C for 1 week with several days of recorded peripheral capillary oxygen saturation of 80% to 90% (room air) on home pulse oximeter. Five days earlier, he had visited an urgent care center where a routine respiratory viral panel was reportedly negative. A COVID-19 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test result was pending at the time of ED visit. He reported a past medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease that was treated with famotidine. Travel history included an out-of-state trip 3 weeks earlier, but no recent international travel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Bacteremia/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cerebellar Diseases/complications , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/physiopathology , Oximetry , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/complications , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3719-3722, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Case series indicating cerebrovascular disorders in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been published. Comprehensive workups, including clinical characteristics, laboratory, electroencephalography, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid findings, are needed to understand the mechanisms. METHODS: We evaluated 32 consecutive critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated at a tertiary care center from March 9 to April 3, 2020, for concomitant severe central nervous system involvement. Patients identified underwent computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and autopsy in case of death. RESULTS: Of 32 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 8 (25%) had severe central nervous system involvement. Two presented with lacunar ischemic stroke in the early phase and 6 with prolonged impaired consciousness after termination of analgosedation. In all but one with delayed wake-up, neuroimaging or autopsy showed multiple cerebral microbleeds, in 3 with additional subarachnoid hemorrhage and in 2 with additional small ischemic lesions. In 3 patients, intracranial vessel wall sequence magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the first time to our knowledge. All showed contrast enhancement of vessel walls in large cerebral arteries, suggesting vascular wall pathologies with an inflammatory component. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions for SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid were all negative. No intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG synthesis was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: Different mechanisms of cerebrovascular disorders might be involved in COVID-19. Acute ischemic stroke might occur early. In a later phase, microinfarctions and vessel wall contrast enhancement occur, indicating small and large cerebral vessels involvement. Central nervous system disorders associated with COVID-19 may lead to long-term disabilities. Mechanisms should be urgently investigated to develop neuroprotective strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/immunology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Contrast Media , Critical Illness , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e928852, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily affects the lungs but can involve any organ. The medical community is struggling to cope with the critical illness associated with the disease. On top of that, patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have presented with complications such as thrombotic episodes in various organs both during and after being infected with SARS-CoV-2. A COVID-19-associated prothrombotic state has been mentioned in multiple recent research articles. The role of anticoagulants is debatable, because even after receiving them prophylactically, many patients have experienced thrombotic episodes. The situation, therefore, represents a challenge to the medical community. CASE REPORT We report on a COVID-19-associated prothrombotic state in a 65-year-old man with no history of comorbid illness. Initially, he presented with right-sided weakness and was found to have had an acute ischemic stroke. Urgent imaging after the stroke revealed changes on electrocardiography that were remarkable for left bundle branch block. The patient's elevated cardiac enzyme levels correlated with a silent acute myocardial infarction (MI). His echocardiogram revealed a left ventricular (LV) thrombus. He was managed with a multidisciplinary approach involving Neurology, Cardiology, and Medicine. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19-associated prothrombotic episodes involving arterial and venous systems have been reported in the literature. But concomitant stroke, acute MI, and LV thrombus rarely have been documented. The role of prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation is still unclear because even when patients are on these drugs, they continue to develop thrombotic episodes. Indeed, further studies are required to develop a standard management plan for what can be a fatal situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Myocardial Infarction/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Aged , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , Bundle-Branch Block/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Echocardiography , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Male , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Neuroradiol J ; 34(4): 308-312, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033523

ABSTRACT

The disease caused by the new coronavirus, initially described in China in December 2019, became known as coronavirus disease 2019 and quickly spread to countries on all continents, becoming a pandemic with an important global impact. Despite being a virus that typically affects the respiratory tract, some studies have already described neurological manifestations associated with this infection, including acute ischaemic vascular insult. We report a case series including 30 patients, who presented with neurological symptoms during admission to our service, being diagnosed with ischaemic stroke and, concomitantly, coronavirus disease 2019. In the subgroup of patients analysed, a state of hypercoagulability and pro thrombosis was observed through laboratory tests, probably related to the cytokine storm syndrome associated with infection by this virus. With that, we discussed the possibility of this finding being an aggravating factor in the occurrence of stroke in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Neuroimaging/methods , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Brazil , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3765-3769, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evaluation of the lung apices using computed tomography angiography of the head and neck during acute ischemic stroke (AIS) can provide the first objective opportunity to screen for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed an analysis assessing the utility of apical lung exam on computed tomography angiography for COVID-19-specific lung findings in 57 patients presenting with AIS. We measured the diagnostic accuracy of apical lung assessment alone and in combination with patient-reported symptoms and incorporate both to propose a COVID-19 era AIS algorithm. RESULTS: Apical lung assessment when used in isolation, yielded a sensitivity of 0.67, specificity of 0.93, positive predictive value of 0.19, negative predictive value of 0.99, and accuracy of 0.92 for the diagnosis of COVID-19, in patients presenting to the hospital for AIS. When combined with self-reported clinical symptoms of cough or shortness of breath, sensitivity of apical lung assessment improved to 0.83. CONCLUSIONS: Apical lung assessment on computed tomography angiography is an accurate screening tool for COVID-19 and can serve as part of a combined screening approach in AIS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Angiography/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105609, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012468

ABSTRACT

The case of a 70-year-old male presenting an ischemic stroke related to COVID-19 infection is described. He was initially admitted to the hospital with respiratory insufficiency syndrome secondary to pneumonia caused by SARS Co2. In the next days, he developed rapid neurological deterioration characterized by drowsiness which progressed to deep coma. D-dimer was elevated. Brain CT scan showed bilateral massive ischemic stroke located in the anterior circulation, CT angiogram showed occlusion in the left internal carotid artery and the right middle cerebral artery. The deterioration of the patient continued and he subsequently died. Large vessel occlusion has been reported in COVID-19 patients, but this clinical presentation is usually unilateral. Cases of bilateral occlusion of large vessels have not been previously reported in COVID-19 patients. This report shows that bilateral massive stroke may occur in COVID-19 cases and it should be suspected in patients who show rapid neurological deterioration without focal deficits.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Coma/etiology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Male , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Thrombectomy
19.
Int J Stroke ; 16(4): 429-436, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-related strokes are increasingly being diagnosed across the world. Knowledge about the clinical profile, imaging findings, and outcomes is still evolving. Here we describe the characteristics of a cohort of 62 COVID-19-related stroke patients from 13 hospitals, from Bangalore city, south India. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical profile, neuroimaging findings, interventions, and outcomes in COVID-19-related stroke patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective study of all COVID-19-related stroke patients from 13 hospitals from south India; 1st June 2020-31st August 2020. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging data were collected along with treatment administered and outcomes. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in all cases by RT-PCR testing. The data obtained from the case records were entered in SPSS 25 for statistical analysis. RESULTS: During the three-month period, we had 62 COVID-19-related stroke patients, across 13 centers; 60 (97%) had ischemic strokes, while 2 (3%) had hemorrhagic strokes. The mean age of patients was 55.66 ± 13.20 years, with 34 (77.4%) males. Twenty-six percent (16/62) of patients did not have any conventional risk factors for stroke. Diabetes mellitus was seen in 54.8%, hypertension was present in 61.3%, coronary artery disease in 8%, and atrial fibrillation in 4.8%. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 12.7 ± 6.44. Stroke severity was moderate (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 5-15) in 27 (61.3%) patients, moderate to severe (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 16-20) in 13 (20.9%) patients and severe (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 21-42) in 11 (17.7%) patients. According to TOAST classification, 48.3% was stroke of undetermined etiology, 36.6% had large artery atherosclerosis, 10% had small vessel occlusion, and 5% had cardioembolic strokes. Three (5%) received intravenous thrombolysis with tenecteplase 0.2 mg/kg and 3 (5%) underwent mechanical thrombectomy, two endovascular and one surgical. Duration of hospital stay was 16.16 ± 6.39 days; 21% (13/62) died in hospital, while 37 (59.7%) had a modified Rankin score of 3-5 at discharge. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were associated with increased mortality. A comparison to 111 historical controls during the non-COVID period showed a higher proportion of strokes of undetermined etiology, higher mortality, and higher morbidity in COVID-19-related stroke patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related strokes are increasingly being recognized in developing countries, like India. Stroke of undetermined etiology appears to be the most common TOAST subtype of COVID-19-related strokes. COVID-19-related strokes were more severe in nature and resulted in higher mortality and morbidity. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were associated with increased mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , India/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105542, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965527

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report six consecutive patients with confirmed coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who underwent Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography evaluation for cerebral microemboli in the setting of suspected or confirmed acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Patient data were obtained from medical records from Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL between May and June 2020. All patients with confirmed COVID-19 who underwent clinical TCD ultrasonography for microemboli detection were included. RESULTS: A total of eight TCD studies were performed in six patients with COVID-19 (4 men and 2 women, median age 65±5), four with confirmed ischemic stroke and two with refractory encephalopathy. Microemboli were detected in three male patients, two patients had suffered a confirmed ischemic stroke and one who developed prolonged encephalopathy. Microemboli of varying intensity were identified in multiple vascular territories in two patients, and microemboli persisted despite therapeutic anticoagulation in a third patient. Of the three patients without evidence of microemboli on TCD ultrasonography, two patients had suffered a confirmed ischemic stroke, while one remained with refractory encephalopathy. CONCLUSIONS: TCD ultrasonography for microemboli detection identified three patients with confirmed COVID-19 with evidence of cerebral arterial microemboli, including one who was therapeutically anticoagulated. TCD ultrasonography provides a non-invasive method for evaluating cerebral microemboli in patients with COVID-19 and may be useful in assessing response to treatment in cases with suspected or confirmed disorders of hypercoagulability. Further studies investigating the prevalence of cerebral microemboli and associated risk factors are needed to characterize their pathogenic mechanism and guide therapeutic interventions in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Embolism/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , Cerebral Angiography , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/etiology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/therapy , Intracranial Embolism/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombectomy , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
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