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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected health care systems globally. The aim of our study is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of hospital admissions for ischemic stroke by severity in Japan. METHODS: We analysed administrative (Diagnosis Procedure Combination-DPC) data for cases of inpatients aged 18 years and older who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke and admitted during the period April 1 2018 to June 27 2020. Levels of change of the weekly number of inpatient cases with ischemic stroke diagnosis after the declaration of state of emergency were assessed using interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis. The numbers of patients with various characteristics and treatment approaches were compared. We also performed an ITS analysis for each group ("independent" or "dependent") divided based on components of activities of daily living (ADL) and level of consciousness at hospital admission. RESULTS: A total of 170,294 cases in 567 hospitals were included. The ITS analysis showed a significant decrease in the weekly number of ischemic stroke cases hospitalized (estimated decrease: -156 cases; 95% confidence interval (CI): -209 to -104), which corresponds to -10.4% (95% CI: -13.6 to -7.1). The proportion of decline in the independent group (-21.3%; 95% CI: -26.0 to -16.2) was larger than that in the dependent group (-8.6%; 95% CI: -11.7 to -5.4). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a marked reduction in hospital admissions due to ischemic stroke after the declaration of the state of emergency for the COVID-19 pandemic. The independent cases were affected more in proportion than dependent cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e022433, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511553

ABSTRACT

Background The relationship between COVID-19 and ischemic stroke is poorly understood due to potential unmeasured confounding and reverse causation. We aimed to leverage genetic data to triangulate reported associations. Methods and Results Analyses primarily focused on critical COVID-19, defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support or resulting in death. Cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to estimate genetic correlations of critical COVID-19 with ischemic stroke, other related cardiovascular outcomes, and risk factors common to both COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease (body mass index, smoking and chronic inflammation, estimated using C-reactive protein). Mendelian randomization analysis was performed to investigate whether liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of any cardiovascular outcome for which genetic correlation was identified. There was evidence of genetic correlation between critical COVID-19 and ischemic stroke (rg=0.29, false discovery rate [FDR]=0.012), body mass index (rg=0.21, FDR=0.00002), and C-reactive protein (rg=0.20, FDR=0.00035), but no other trait investigated. In Mendelian randomization, liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratio [OR] per logOR increase in genetically predicted critical COVID-19 liability 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P-value=0.03). Similar estimates were obtained for ischemic stroke subtypes. Consistent estimates were also obtained when performing statistical sensitivity analyses more robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants, including multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses adjusting for potential genetic confounding through body mass index, smoking, and chronic inflammation. There was no evidence to suggest that genetic liability to ischemic stroke increased the risk of critical COVID-19. Conclusions These data support that liability to critical COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The host response predisposing to severe COVID-19 is likely to increase the risk of ischemic stroke, independent of other potentially mitigating risk factors.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Body Mass Index , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/virology , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Inflammation , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/genetics , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Smoking
3.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, there have been many reports of increased incidence of venous thromboembolism and arterial events as a complication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of symptomatic thrombotic events (TEs) in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV2 disease (coronavirus 19 [Covid-19]). METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study with adult patients with a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for SARS-CoV2, included from the date of diagnosis of Covid-19 and followed for 90 days or until death. RESULTS: A total of 1621 patients were included in this study. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range25th-75th [IQR] 53-87 years) and 57% (913) were female. Overall mortality was 21.6% (348). The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs within 90 days of diagnosis was 1.8% (30 of 1621) occurring in 28 patients, including an incidence of pulmonary embolism of 0.9% (15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60%-1.6%), deep venous thrombosis of 0.61% (10, 95% CI 0.2%-1%), ischemic stroke of 0.25% (4, 95% CI 0.09%-0.65%), and ischemic arterial events of 0.06% (1, 95% CI 0.008%-0.43%). No acute coronary syndrome events were recorded. The incidence of symptomatic TEs was significantly lower in the general ward than in intensive care units (1.2% vs 5.7%; p < .001). The median time since positive rt-PCR for SARS-CoV2 to symptomatic TE was 22.5 days (IQR 19-43 days). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients receiving (53.6%) and not receiving thromboprophylaxis (66.5%) and the development of TEs. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs among these patients was lower than the incidence previously reported.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/blood , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(11): 106063, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364289

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stroke, a dreaded complication of SARS-CoV2, has been reported in 0.9 to 5% of SARS-CoV2 patients. There are concerns that SARS-CoV2 infection has a significant independent association with acute ischemic stroke, even in the absence of conventional cerebrovascular risk factors. Whether elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers have predictive value in the occurrence of stroke in SARS-CoV2 is poorly understood. AIM: To profile the characteristics of SARS-CoV2 positive patients with ischemic stroke (COVID-Stroke) and to identify the significance of elevated IBMs in the prediction of ischemic COVID-stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical characteristics, stroke risk factors, laboratory parameters- including levels of inflammatory biomarkers, and outcome of SARS-CoV2 patients with stroke (n=60) were collected. SARS-CoV2 RT- PCR positive age, gender, and pulmonary severity matched non-stroke patients were taken as controls (n = 60). Binary multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find the predictors of ischemic COVID-stroke. RESULTS: D-dimer > 441.8 ng/mL, LDH> 395U/L, ESR >19 mm/h and CRP> 0.2 mg/dL were independently found to be very strong predictors of occurrence of ischemic COVID-stroke (p < 0.001 for each). On multivariate analysis, D-dimer > 441.8 ng/mL, ESR > 19 mm/h, and RDW > 16.1% were found to be the most strong predictors of the occurrence of ischemic COVID-stroke. Conventional CVD risk factors- higher age (> 60years), presence of diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were not found to be significant predictors in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In SARS-CoV2 patients, D-dimer elevated beyond 441.8 ng/mL, ESR greater than 19 mm/h, and RDW widened more than 16.1% were the strongest predictors of the occurrence of ischemic stroke. This is the first study that attempts to find cut-off levels of IBMs in the prediction of ischemic COVID-stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Erythrocyte Indices , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Up-Regulation
5.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(8): e542-e552, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356516

ABSTRACT

Stroke is a leading cause of disability and the second most common cause of death worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that air pollution is an emerging risk factor for stroke. Over the past decades, air pollution levels have continuously increased and are now estimated to be responsible for 14% of all stroke-associated deaths. Interpretation of previous literature is difficult because stroke was usually not distinguished as ischaemic or haemorrhagic, nor by cause. This Review summarises the evidence on the association between air pollution and the different causes of ischaemic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke, to clarify which people are most at risk. The risk for ischaemic stroke is increased after short-term or long-term exposure to air pollution. This effect is most pronounced in people with cardiovascular burden and stroke due to large artery disease or small vessel disease. Short-term exposure to air pollution increases the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage, a subtype of haemorrhagic stroke, whereas the effects of long-term exposure are less clear. Limitations of the current evidence are that studies are prone to misclassification of exposure, often rely on administrative data, and have insufficient clinical detail. In this Review, we provide an outlook on new research opportunities, such as those provided by the decreased levels of air pollution due to the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Hemorrhagic Stroke , Ischemic Stroke , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Stroke/epidemiology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Risk
6.
Am Heart J ; 241: 35-37, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356104

ABSTRACT

Societal lockdowns during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic were associated with decreased admission rates for acute cardiovascular conditions worldwide. In this nationwide Danish study of the first five weeks of a second pandemic lockdown, incidence of new-onset heart failure and atrial fibrillation remained stable, but there was a significant drop in new-onset ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke during the fourth week of lockdown, which normalized promptly. The observed drops were lower compared to the first Danish lockdown in March 2020; thus, our data suggest that declines in acute cardiovascular disease admission rates during future lockdowns are avoidable.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Lancet ; 398(10300): 599-607, 2021 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a complex disease targeting many organs. Previous studies highlight COVID-19 as a probable risk factor for acute cardiovascular complications. We aimed to quantify the risk of acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke associated with COVID-19 by analysing all COVID-19 cases in Sweden. METHODS: This self-controlled case series (SCCS) and matched cohort study was done in Sweden. The personal identification numbers of all patients with COVID-19 in Sweden from Feb 1 to Sept 14, 2020, were identified and cross-linked with national inpatient, outpatient, cancer, and cause of death registers. The controls were matched on age, sex, and county of residence in Sweden. International Classification of Diseases codes for acute myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke were identified in causes of hospital admission for all patients with COVID-19 in the SCCS and all patients with COVID-19 and the matched control individuals in the matched cohort study. The SCCS method was used to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for first acute myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke following COVID-19 compared with a control period. The matched cohort study was used to determine the increased risk that COVID-19 confers compared with the background population of increased acute myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke in the first 2 weeks following COVID-19. FINDINGS: 86 742 patients with COVID-19 were included in the SCCS study, and 348 481 matched control individuals were also included in the matched cohort study. When day of exposure was excluded from the risk period in the SCCS, the IRR for acute myocardial infarction was 2·89 (95% CI 1·51-5·55) for the first week, 2·53 (1·29-4·94) for the second week, and 1·60 (0·84-3·04) in weeks 3 and 4 following COVID-19. When day of exposure was included in the risk period, IRR was 8·44 (5·45-13·08) for the first week, 2·56 (1·31-5·01) for the second week, and 1·62 (0·85-3·09) for weeks 3 and 4 following COVID-19. The corresponding IRRs for ischaemic stroke when day of exposure was excluded from the risk period were 2·97 (1·71-5·15) in the first week, 2·80 (1·60-4·88) in the second week, and 2·10 (1·33-3·32) in weeks 3 and 4 following COVID-19; when day of exposure was included in the risk period, the IRRs were 6·18 (4·06-9·42) for the first week, 2·85 (1·64-4·97) for the second week, and 2·14 (1·36-3·38) for weeks 3 and 4 following COVID-19. In the matched cohort analysis excluding day 0, the odds ratio (OR) for acute myocardial infarction was 3·41 (1·58-7·36) and for stroke was 3·63 (1·69-7·80) in the 2 weeks following COVID-19. When day 0 was included in the matched cohort study, the OR for acute myocardial infarction was 6·61 (3·56-12·20) and for ischaemic stroke was 6·74 (3·71-12·20) in the 2 weeks following COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke. This indicates that acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke represent a part of the clinical picture of COVID-19, and highlights the need for vaccination against COVID-19. FUNDING: Central ALF-funding and Base Unit ALF-Funding, Region Västerbotten, Sweden; Strategic funding during 2020 from the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Sweden; Stroke Research in Northern Sweden; The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
8.
Ann Neurol ; 90(4): 627-639, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the incidence of cerebral sinus and venous thrombosis (CVT) within 1 month from first dose administration and the frequency of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) as the underlying mechanism after vaccination with BNT162b2, ChAdOx1, and mRNA-1273, in Germany. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was e-mailed to all departments of neurology. We requested a report of cases of CVT occurring within 1 month of a COVID-19 vaccination. Other cerebral events could also be reported. Incidence rates of CVT were calculated by using official statistics of 9 German states. RESULTS: A total of 45 CVT cases were reported. In addition, 9 primary ischemic strokes, 4 primary intracerebral hemorrhages, and 4 other neurological events were recorded. Of the CVT patients, 35 (77.8%) were female, and 36 (80.0%) were younger than 60 years. Fifty-three events were observed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 (85.5%), 9 after BNT162b2 (14.5%) vaccination, and none after mRNA-1273 vaccination. After 7,126,434 first vaccine doses, the incidence rate of CVT within 1 month from first dose administration was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.78) per 100,000 person-months (which corresponds to a risk of CVT within the first 31 days of 0.55 per 100,000 individuals) for all vaccines and 1.52 (95% CI = 1.00-2.21) for ChAdOx1 (after 2,320,535 ChAdOx1 first doses). The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 9.68 (95% CI = 3.46-34.98) for ChAdOx1 compared to mRNA-based vaccines and 3.14 (95% CI = 1.22-10.65) for females compared to non-females. In 26 of 45 patients with CVT (57.8%), VITT was graded highly probable. INTERPRETATION: Given an incidence of 0.02 to 0.15 per 100,000 person-months for CVT in the general population, these findings point toward a higher risk for CVT after ChAdOx1 vaccination, especially for women. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:627-639.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior diagnosis of heart failure (HF) is associated with increased length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality from COVID-19. Associations between substance use, venous thromboembolism (VTE) or peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its effects on LOS or mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study identified risk factors associated with poor in-hospital outcomes among patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: Case-control study was conducted of patients with prior diagnosis of HF hospitalised with COVID-19 at an academic tertiary care centre from 1 January 2020 to 28 February 2021. Patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 with risk factors were compared with those without risk factors for clinical characteristics, LOS and mortality. Multivariate regression was conducted to identify multiple predictors of increased LOS and in-hospital mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19. RESULTS: Total of 211 patients with HF were hospitalised with COVID-19. Women had longer LOS than men (9 days vs 7 days; p<0.001). Compared with patients without PAD or ischaemic stroke, patients with PAD or ischaemic stroke had longer LOS (7 days vs 9 days; p=0.012 and 7 days vs 11 days, p<0.001, respectively). Older patients (aged 65 and above) had increased in-hospital mortality compared with younger patients (adjusted OR: 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.07; p=0.036). Prior diagnosis of VTE increased mortality more than threefold in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 (adjusted OR: 3.33; 95% CI 1.29 to 8.43; p=0.011). CONCLUSION: Vascular diseases increase LOS and mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity/trends , Heart Failure/mortality , Vascular Diseases/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105860, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Amongst all the global catastrophe due to Coronavirus disease 2019, a significant bright spot is a reduction in air pollution as countries undergo lockdowns to limit the spread of infection. Another reduction that has been reported is in the number of strokes presenting to hospitals, despite the virus implicated in causing a hypercoagulable state. Acute exposure to air pollution has been linked to increase in stroke incidence and the improvement in air quality may be responsible for the decrease in stroke presentations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we compared the air quality index (AQI) of Karachi, the largest cosmopolitan city of Pakistan, during the lockdown period in 2020 to the same period in the previous year. RESULTS: We found a significant drop in AQI depicting an improvement in air quality. Simultaneously, we identified a drop in number of stroke admissions to less than half from 2019 to 2020 at one of the largest tertiary care hospitals of the city, during this period of interest. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that one important reason for this drop in stroke admissions, may be an actual reduction in stroke incidence brought about by an improvement in air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Patient Admission/trends , Urban Health/trends , Aged , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110314, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230184

ABSTRACT

Importance: After the emergence of COVID-19, studies reported a decrease in hospitalizations of patients with ischemic stroke (IS), but there are little to no data regarding hospitalizations for the remainder of 2020, including outcome data from a large cohort of patients with IS and comorbid COVID-19. Objective: To assess hospital discharge rates, demographic factors, and outcomes of hospitalization associated with the COVID-19 pandemic among US patients with IS before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from the Vizient Clinical Data Base on 324 013 patients with IS at 478 nonfederal hospitals in 43 US states between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020. Patients were eligible if they were admitted to the hospital on a nonelective basis and were not receiving hospice care at the time of admission. A total of 41 166 discharged between January and March 2020 were excluded from the analysis because they had unreliable data on COVID-19 status, leaving 282 847 patients for the study. Exposure: Ischemic stroke and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly counts of discharges among patients with IS in 2020. Demographic characteristics and outcomes, including in-hospital death, among patients with IS who were discharged in 2019 (control group) were compared with those of patients with IS with or without comorbid COVID-19 (COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups, respectively) who were discharged between April and December 2020. Results: Of the 282 847 patients included in the study, 165 912 (50.7% male; 63.4% White; 26.3% aged ≥80 years) were allocated to the control group; 111 418 of 116 935 patients (95.3%; 51.9% male; 62.8% White; 24.6% aged ≥80 years) were allocated to the non-COVID-19 group and 5517 of 116 935 patients (4.7%; 58.0% male; 42.5% White; 21.3% aged ≥80 years) to the COVID-19 group. A mean (SD) of 13 846 (553) discharges per month among patients with IS was reported in 2019. Discharges began decreasing in February 2020, reaching a low of 10 846 patients in April 2020 before returning to a prepandemic level of 13 639 patients by July 2020. A mean (SD) of 13 492 (554) discharges per month was recorded for the remainder of 2020. Black and Hispanic patients accounted for 21.4% and 7.0% of IS discharges in 2019, respectively, but accounted for 27.5% and 16.0% of those discharged with IS and comorbid COVID-19 in 2020. Compared with patients in the control and non-COVID-19 groups, those in the COVID-19 group were less likely to smoke (16.0% vs 17.2% vs 6.4%, respectively) and to have hypertension (73.0% vs 73.1% vs 68.2%) or dyslipidemia (61.2% vs 63.2% vs 56.6%) but were more likely to have diabetes (39.8% vs 40.5% vs 53.0%), obesity (16.2% vs 18.4% vs 24.5%), acute coronary syndrome (8.0% vs 9.2% vs 15.8%), or pulmonary embolus (1.9% vs 2.4% vs 6.8%) and to require intubation (11.3% vs 12.3% vs 37.6%). After adjusting for baseline factors, patients with IS and COVID-19 were more likely to die in the hospital than were patients with IS in 2019 (adjusted odds ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 4.83-5.53; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale adjusted odds ratio, 3.57; 95% CI, 3.15-4.05). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, after the emergence of COVID-19, hospital discharges of patients with IS decreased in the US but returned to prepandemic levels by July 2020. Among patients with IS between April and December 2020, comorbid COVID-19 was relatively common, particularly among Black and Hispanic populations, and morbidity was high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , Patients/classification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patients/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
15.
Stroke ; 52(5): e117-e130, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195876
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105805, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is limited literature on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) complications such as thromboembolism, cardiac complications etc. as possible trigger for stroke. Hence, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 related cardiovascular complications and secondary infection and their possibility as potential triggers for the stroke. METHODS: Data from observational studies describing the complications [acute cardiac injury (ACI), cardiac arrhythmias (CA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock, secondary infection] and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, were extracted following PRISMA guidelines. Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were obtained, and forest plots were created using random-effects models. A short review of these complications as triggers of stroke was conducted. RESULTS: 16 studies with 3480 confirmed COVID-19 patients, prevalence of ACI [38%vs5.9%], CA [26%vs5.3%], DIC [4%vs0.74%], septic shock [18%vs0.36%], and infection [30%vs12.5%] was higher among patients with poor outcomes. In meta-analysis, ACI [aOR:9.93(95%CI:3.95-25.00], CA [7.52(3.29-17.18)], DIC [7.36(1.24-43.73)], septic shock [30.12(7.56-120.10)], and infection [10.41(4.47-24.27)] had higher odds of adverse outcomes. Patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, had complications like pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism, DIC, etc. and had poor outcomes CONCLUSION: The complications like acute cardiac injury, cardiac arrhythmias, DIC, septic shock, and secondary infection had poor outcomes. Patients with stroke were having history of these complications. Long term monitoring is required in such patients to prevent stroke and mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
18.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 26(2): 158-162, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess and quantify the impact COVID-19 has had thus far on ischemic stroke admission rate and severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score) at a single tertiary center in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis performed on admitted cases with definitive final diagnoses of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic stroke at King Abdullah Medical City in Makkah between January 1, 2020 and July 2020. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were included in our study, 41 of whom presented at our facility before the pandemic and 29 during the pandemic. No statistical significance was observed between rate of admission, stroke severity, and rate of thrombolysis before the COVID-19 pandemic and after the outbreak. We observed a reduction of mean arrival time after the pandemic began, as well as a reduction of hospital stay days. CONCLUSION: A 29% reduction of admission secondary to acute ischemic stroke was noted during the pandemic. However, COVID-19 did not affect acute stroke care at our institute. The study is limited because of its small sample size, as we assessed just one medical center.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
19.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(4): 412-419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158151

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and thrombotic events (TEs) were reported in patients with COVID-19. Clinical outcome of AIS in the course of COVID-19 remains unknown. We compared early clinical outcome and mortality of COVID-positive (+) patients admitted for AIS with COVID-negative (-) ones. We hypothesized that COVID+ patients would have poorer clinical outcomes and present a higher rate of TEs and mortality compared with COVID- ones. METHODS: In this multicentric observational retrospective study, we enrolled patients over 18 years old admitted for AIS in 3 stroke units of the Parisian region during lockdown from March 17, 2020, to May 2, 2020. COVID-19 status as well as demographic, clinical, biological, and imaging data was collected retrospectively from medical records. Poor outcome was defined as modified Rankin score (mRS) 3-6 (3-6) at discharge. We also compared TE frequency and mortality rate through a composite criterion in both groups. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixteen patients were enrolled; mean age was 68 years old, and 63% were male. Forty patients were CO-VID+ (18.5%) and 176 were COVID-. Obesity was statistically more frequent in the COVID+ group (36 vs. 13% p < 0.01). The percentage of patients with mRS (3-6) at discharge was higher in the COVID+ group compared with the COVID- group (60 vs. 41%, p = 0.034). The main predictor of presenting a mRS (3-6) at discharge was high NIHSS score at admission (OR, CI 95%: 1.325, 1.22-1.43). Mortality rate was higher in the COVID+ group (12 vs. 3.4%, p = 0.033) as well as TE frequency (15 vs. 2.8%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this study, patients with AIS infected by SARS-CoV-2 showed a poorer early outcome than COVID- ones. However, when compared to other factors, COVID-19 was not a significant predictor of poor outcome. Vascular morbidity and mortality rates were significantly higher in the COVID+ group compared with the COVID- group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Functional Status , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(4): 371-374, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19) infection is an ongoing pandemic and worldwide health emergency that has caused important changes in healthcare systems. Previous studies reported an increased risk of thromboembolic events, including stroke. This systematic review aims to describe the clinical features and etiological characteristics of ischemic stroke patients with CO-VID-19 infection. METHOD: A literature search was performed in principal databases for studies and case reports containing data concerning risk factors, clinical features, and etiological characteristics of patients infected with COVID-19 and suffering from stroke. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied. RESULTS: Overall, 14 articles were included for a total of 93 patients. Median age was 65 (IQR: 55-75) years with prevalence in males. Stroke occurred after a median of 6 days from COVID-19 infection diagnosis. Median National of Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 19. Cryptogenic (Cry) strokes were more frequent (51.8%), followed by cardioembolic etiology, and they occurred a long time after COVID-19 diagnosis compared with large-artery atherosclerosis strokes (ptrend: 0.03). The clinical severity of stroke was significantly associated with the severity grade of COVID-19 infection (ptrend: 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic strokes in COVID-19-infected patients were clinically severe, affecting younger patients mainly with Cry and cardioembolic etiologies. Further multicenter prospective registries are needed to better describe the causal association and the effect of COVID-19 infection on stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Embolic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Time Factors
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