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2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106152, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506161

ABSTRACT

Cerebrovascular diseases attributed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are uncommon but can result in devastating outcomes. Pediatric acute ischemic strokes are themselves rare and with very few large vessel occlusion related acute ischemic strokes attributed to COVID-19 described in the literature as of date. COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to acute stroke care delays across the world and with pediatric endovascular therapy still in its infancy, it poses a great challenge in facilitating good outcomes in children presenting with acute ischemic strokes in the setting of COVID-19. We present a pediatric patient who underwent endovascular therapy for an internal carotid artery occlusion related acute ischemic stroke in the setting of active COVID-19 and had an excellent outcome thanks to a streamlined stroke pathway involving the vascular neurology, neuro-interventional, neurocritical care, and anesthesiology teams.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/therapy , Carotid Artery, Internal , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Child , Endovascular Procedures/instrumentation , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Stents , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(14): e021046, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463078

ABSTRACT

Background Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the context of COVID-19 has received considerable attention for its propensity to affect patients of all ages. We aimed to evaluate the effect of age on functional outcome and mortality following an acute ischemic event. Methods and Results A prospectively maintained database from comprehensive stroke centers in Canada and the United States was analyzed for patients with AIS from March 14 to September 30, 2020 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The primary outcome was Modified Rankin Scale score at discharge, and the secondary outcome was mortality. Baseline characteristics, laboratory values, imaging, and thrombectomy workflow process times were assessed. Among all 126 patients with COVID-19 who were diagnosed with AIS, the median age was 63 years (range, 27-94). There were 35 (27.8%) patients with AIS in the aged ≤55 years group, 47 (37.3%) in the aged 56 to 70 group, and 44 (34.9%) in the aged >70 group. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and thrombectomy rates were comparable across these groups, (P=0.331 and 0.212, respectively). There was a significantly lower rate of mortality between each group favoring younger age (21.9% versus 45.0% versus 48.8%, P=0.047). After multivariable adjustment for possible confounders, a 1-year increase in age was significantly associated with fewer instances of a favorable outcome of Modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2 (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95 CI%, 0.90-0.99; P=0.048) and higher mortality (OR, 1.06; 95 CI%, 1.02-1.10; P=0.007). Conclusions AIS in the context of COVID-19 affects young patients at much greater rates than pre-pandemic controls. Nevertheless, instances of poor functional outcome and mortality are closely tied to increasing age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , United States
5.
Ann Neurol ; 90(4): 627-639, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the incidence of cerebral sinus and venous thrombosis (CVT) within 1 month from first dose administration and the frequency of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) as the underlying mechanism after vaccination with BNT162b2, ChAdOx1, and mRNA-1273, in Germany. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was e-mailed to all departments of neurology. We requested a report of cases of CVT occurring within 1 month of a COVID-19 vaccination. Other cerebral events could also be reported. Incidence rates of CVT were calculated by using official statistics of 9 German states. RESULTS: A total of 45 CVT cases were reported. In addition, 9 primary ischemic strokes, 4 primary intracerebral hemorrhages, and 4 other neurological events were recorded. Of the CVT patients, 35 (77.8%) were female, and 36 (80.0%) were younger than 60 years. Fifty-three events were observed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 (85.5%), 9 after BNT162b2 (14.5%) vaccination, and none after mRNA-1273 vaccination. After 7,126,434 first vaccine doses, the incidence rate of CVT within 1 month from first dose administration was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.78) per 100,000 person-months (which corresponds to a risk of CVT within the first 31 days of 0.55 per 100,000 individuals) for all vaccines and 1.52 (95% CI = 1.00-2.21) for ChAdOx1 (after 2,320,535 ChAdOx1 first doses). The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 9.68 (95% CI = 3.46-34.98) for ChAdOx1 compared to mRNA-based vaccines and 3.14 (95% CI = 1.22-10.65) for females compared to non-females. In 26 of 45 patients with CVT (57.8%), VITT was graded highly probable. INTERPRETATION: Given an incidence of 0.02 to 0.15 per 100,000 person-months for CVT in the general population, these findings point toward a higher risk for CVT after ChAdOx1 vaccination, especially for women. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:627-639.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105944, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267765

ABSTRACT

Ten days after SARS-Cov2 reinfection with mild gastrointestinal symptoms and headache that occurred 2 months after an initial infection, a previously healthy 37-year-old woman developed fluctuating facial and upper limb paresthesia and weakness. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed ischemic lesions in the right parietal region of different stages within the same vascular territory. A cerebral angiography demonstrated an isolated focal arteriopathy with no other arterial involvement. Focal cerebral arteriopathy is exceedingly rare among adults and most commonly triggered by varicella-zoster virus reactivation. We present a case of focal cerebral arteriopathy in a patient with a recent reinfection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Reinfection , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/drug therapy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105919, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in acute ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection have not been fully clarified. We prospectively studied the phenotypic and etiological features of acute stroke occurring in COVID-19 infection. PATIENTS & METHODS: Within nine months starting from April-2020, the presence of COVID-19 infection was determined by thoracic CT and SARS-CoV-2 PCR in all acute stroke cases managed in a single tertiary center. Consecutive and prospective data on vascular risk factors/comorbidities, in-hospital quality metrics, discharge outcomes, etiological subclassification and blood markers of thrombosis / inflammation were compared in 44 COVID-19 positive cases (37 acute ischemic stroke, 5 TIA, 2 intracerebral hematoma) and 509 COVID-19 negative patients (355 ischemic, 105 TIA, 44 hematoma and 5 stroke mimic). RESULTS: COVID-19 positive patients had more severe strokes, delayed hospital admission, longer hospital stay, higher mortality rates, but had similar vascular risk factors/comorbidities frequency, thrombolysis/thrombectomy utilization rates, metrics, and stroke etiological subtype. They had significantly higher CRP, fibrinogen, ferritin, leukocyte count and lower lymphocyte count. No difference was detected in aPTT, INR, D-dimer, platelet, hemoglobin, homocysteine levels and ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and ENA panel positivity rates. Anti-phospholipid antibodies have been studied in 70% of COVID-19 positive and all cryptogenic patients, but were never found positive. Tests for coagulation factor levels and hereditary thrombophilia did not show major thrombophilia in any of the stroke patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We documented that there is no significant difference in etiological spectrum in acute stroke patients with COVID-19 infection. In addition, cryptogenic stroke and antiphospholipid antibody positivity rates did not increase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhagic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hemorrhagic Stroke/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
8.
Neurologist ; 26(3): 108-111, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214713

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with a hypercoagulable state, increasing the risk for ischemic stroke. In select cases, patients are already on anticoagulation therapy. Such examples highlight the severity of COVID-19's hyperthrombotic state, and raise questions regarding optimal stroke prevention in these patients. CASE REPORT: An 84-year-ool male with past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was admitted for respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 pneumonia. He was continued on his home apixaban 5 mg twice daily. On day 2 of admission, he developed a new aphasia, and right-sided facial droop. Computed tomography (CT) head was unrevealing. CT angiography did not show large vessel occlusion. CT perfusion demonstrated a left middle cerebral artery ischemic penumbra, without core. He was not eligible for thrombolysis or thrombectomy interventions. Later CT head confirmed L middle cerebral artery infarct. The patient's D-dimer was 1,184 ng/mL on day 1 of admission, and increased to 111,574 by day 4. His hypoxia worsened, requiring intubation and transfer to the ICU. He experienced further clinical decline and eventual demise. CONCLUSION: Ischemic stroke in anticoagulated patients with COVID-19 has been previously reported. Such cases emphasize the severity of the coronavirus virus associated hypercoagulable state. A majority of reported cases have occurred in patients continuing their ambulatory therapy. Overall, such cases are likely underreported. There are current trials comparing therapeutic versus prophylactic dose anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19. There are no studies specifically addressing anticoagulation agent failure in these patients. Further research is required this area to determine the optimal therapy for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage
9.
Neurologist ; 26(3): 86-89, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214712

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The concurrency of both, acute stroke and acute myocardial infarction in normal conditions, outside the pandemic is rare. Coagulopathy has been associated with the inflammatory phase of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and might be involved in this concurrency. CASES REPORT: We describe 2 patients with previous mild or no symptoms of COVID-19, admitted for acute stroke with recent/simultaneous myocardial infarction in whom admission polymerase chain reaction was negative but serologic testing diagnosed COVID-19. In these patients, concurrent stroke and myocardial infarction could have been promoted by COVID-19 infection. Management and evolution are detailed, and their contacts to confirm the COVID-19 infection. Pathogenic analysis of possible hypercoagulation state is described suggesting the hypothesis of endothelial dysfunction as the strongest mechanism involved in thrombus formation after the acute phase of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience with these cases suggests that patients with mild symptoms can also present thromboembolic complications once the acute phase of COVID-19 infection has passed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Humans , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/complications , Thrombophilia/etiology
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217498, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196364

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a known neurological complication in patients with respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 infection. However, AIS has not been described as a late sequelae in patients without respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Objective: To assess AIS experienced by adults 50 years or younger in the convalescent phase of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series prospectively identified consecutive male patients who received care for AIS from public health hospitals in Singapore between May 21, 2020, and October 14, 2020. All of these patients had laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic COVID-19 infection based on a positive SARS-CoV-2 serological (antibodies) test result. These patients were individuals from South Asian countries (India and Bangladesh) who were working in Singapore and living in dormitories. The total number of COVID-19 cases (54 485) in the worker dormitory population was the population at risk. Patients with ongoing respiratory symptoms or positive SARS-CoV-2 serological test results confirmed through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction nasopharyngeal swabs were excluded. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical course, imaging, and laboratory findings were retrieved from the electronic medical records of each participating hospital. The incidence rate of AIS in the case series was compared with that of a historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched national cohort. Results: A total of 18 male patients, with a median (range) age of 41 (35-50) years and South Asian ethnicity, were included. The median (range) time from a positive serological test result to AIS was 54.5 (0-130) days. The median (range) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 5 (1-25). Ten patients (56%) presented with a large vessel occlusion, of whom 6 patients underwent intravenous thrombolysis and/or endovascular therapy. Only 3 patients (17%) had a possible cardiac source of embolus. The estimated annual incidence rate of AIS was 82.6 cases per 100 000 people in this study compared with 38.2 cases per 100 000 people in the historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched cohort (rate ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.36-3.48; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series suggests that the risk for AIS is higher in adults 50 years or younger during the convalescent period of a COVID-19 infection without respiratory symptoms. Acute ischemic stroke could be part of the next wave of complications of COVID-19, and stroke units should be on alert and use serological testing, especially in younger patients or in the absence of traditional risk factors.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Convalescence , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/ethnology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Singapore/epidemiology , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data
11.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211002274, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191430

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to address several challenging questions in the management of young patients (those age 60 and under) who present with ischemic stroke. Do genetic thrombophilic states, strongly associated with venous thrombosis, independently cause arterial events in adults? Should cases of patent foramen ovale be closed with mechanical devices in patients with cryptogenic stroke? What are the optimal treatments for cerebral vein thrombosis, carotid artery dissection, and antiphospholipid syndrome and are DOACs acceptable treatment for these indications? What is the mechanism underlying large vessel stroke in patients with COVID-19? This is a narrative review. We searched PubMed and Embase and American College of physicians Journal club database for English language articles since 2000 looking mainly at randomized clinical trials, Meta analyses, Cochran reviews as well as some research articles viewed to be cutting edge regarding anticoagulation and cerebrovascular disease. Searches were done entering cerebral vein thrombosis, carotid dissection, anticoagulation therapy and stroke, antiphospholipid antibody and stroke, stroke in young adults, cryptogenic stroke and anticoagulation, patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke, COVID-19 and stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Cervical Vertebrae/blood supply , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/complications
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105817, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179850

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and virally-mediated vascular inflammation have become well-recognized features of the SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, COVID-19. Of growing concern is the apparent ineffectiveness of therapeutic anticoagulation in preventing thromboembolic events among some at-risk patient subtypes with COVID-19. We present a 43-year-old female with a history of seropositive-antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus who developed an acute ischemic stroke in the setting of mild COVID-19 infection despite adherence to chronic systemic anticoagulation. The clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial cell dysfunction and its potential to cause macrovascular events in spite of full anticoagulation warrants further investigation and likely represents another disease-defining pathology of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/blood , Adult , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/blood , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Treatment Failure
13.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(3): 143-149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148006

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has affected the health of people across the globe. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have a significant relationship with COVID-19, both as a risk factor and prognostic indicator, and as a complication of the disease itself. In addition to predisposing to CVD complications, the ongoing pandemic has severely affected the delivery of timely and appropriate care for cardiovascular conditions resulting in increased mortality. The etiology behind the cardiac injury associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is likely varied, including coronary artery disease, microvascular thrombosis, myocarditis, and stress cardiomyopathy. Further large-scale investigations are needed to better determine the underlying mechanism of myocardial infarction and other cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients and to determine the incidence of each type of cardiac injury in this patient population. Telemedicine and remote monitoring technologies can play an important role in optimizing outcomes in patients with established CVD. In this article, we summarize the various impacts that COVID-19 has on the cardiovascular system, including myocardial infarction, myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathy, thrombosis, and stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Thrombosis/etiology , Coronary Thrombosis/physiopathology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Microvessels , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115107

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dealt a devastating blow to healthcare systems globally. Approximately 3.2% of patients infected with COVID-19 require invasive ventilation during the course of the illness. Within this population, 25% of patients are affected with neurological manifestations. Among those who are affected by severe neurological manifestations, some may have acute cerebrovascular complications (5%), impaired consciousness (15%) or exhibit skeletal muscle hypokinesis (20%). The cause of the severe cognitive impairment and hypokinesis is unknown at this time. Potential causes include COVID-19 viral encephalopathy, toxic metabolic encephalopathy, post-intensive care unit syndrome and cerebrovascular pathology. We present a case of a 60 year old patient who sustained a prolonged hospitalization with COVID-19, had a cerebrovascular event and developed a persistent unexplained encephalopathy along with a hypokinetic state. He was treated successfully with modafinil and carbidopa/levodopa showing clinical improvement within 3-7 days and ultimately was able to successfully discharge home.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Carbidopa/administration & dosage , Hypokinesia , Ischemic Stroke , Levodopa/administration & dosage , Modafinil/administration & dosage , Rehabilitation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Critical Care/methods , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hypokinesia/diagnosis , Hypokinesia/etiology , Hypokinesia/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/methods
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 34, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110742

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has experienced the emergence in China of a new infection called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This infection quickly has progressed to a global pandemic since March 2020, with very high human-to-human transmission rate. Besides lung injury, COVID-19 is also associated with cardio and neurovascular complications. Herein, we report the case of a 77-year-old female who presented with non-severe COVID-19 and multiple ischemic strokes secondary to an extensive carotid thrombosis. The ischemic stroke was supposed to have been caused by the cytokine storm related to COVID-19. The possibility of hemorrhagic transformation, based on the assessment of bleeding score, limited the use of anticoagulation, and probably explained the stroke recurrence and poor outcome in our patient. The pathogenic mechanism and the management of this complex situation are still lacking and further studies are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aged , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Recurrence
17.
Am Heart J ; 235: 12-23, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with both venous and arterial thrombotic complications. While prophylactic anticoagulation is now widely recommended for hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis in outpatients with COVID-19 has not been established. STUDY DESIGN: PREVENT-HD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pragmatic, event-driven phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in symptomatic outpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at risk for thrombotic events, hospitalization, and death. Several challenges posed by the pandemic have necessitated innovative approaches to clinical trial design, start-up, and conduct. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by time from COVID-19 confirmation, to either rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily or placebo for 35 days. The primary efficacy end point is a composite of symptomatic venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute limb ischemia, non-central nervous system systemic embolization, all-cause hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. The primary safety end point is fatal and critical site bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis definition. Enrollment began in August 2020 and is expected to enroll approximately 4,000 participants to yield the required number of end point events. CONCLUSIONS: PREVENT-HD is a pragmatic trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of the direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban in the outpatient setting to reduce major venous and arterial thrombotic events, hospitalization, and mortality associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Outpatients , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Double-Blind Method , Extremities/blood supply , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Placebos/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
18.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067806

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) pandemic, some patients with severe COVID­19 exhibited complications such as acute ischemic stroke (AIS), which was closely associated with a poor prognosis. These patients often had an abnormal coagulation, namely, elevated levels of D­dimer and fibrinogen, and a low platelet count. Certain studies have suggested that COVID­19 induces AIS by promoting hypercoagulability. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms through which COVID­19 leads to a hypercoagulable state in infected patients remain unclear. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of hypercoagulability is of utmost importance for the effective treatment of these patients. The present review aims to summarize the current status of research on COVID­19, hypercoagulability and ischemic stroke. The present review also aimed to shed light into the underlying mechanisms through which COVID­19 induces hypercoagulability, and to provide therapies for different mechanisms for the more effective treatment of patients with COVID­19 with ischemic stroke and prevent AIS during the COVID­19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Thrombophilia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control
19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(4): 985-988, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infection with the SARS-COV2 virus (COVID-19) may be complicated by thrombotic diathesis. This complication often involves the pulmonary microcirculation. While macrovascular thrombotic complications of the lung may include pulmonary artery embolism, pulmonary artery thrombus in situ has also been hypothesized. Pulmonary vein thrombosis has not been described in this context. METHODS/RESULTS: Herein, we provide a case of an otherwise healthy male who developed an ischemic stroke with left internal carotid thrombus. Further imaging revealed pulmonary emboli with propagation through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. This left atrial thrombus provides a source of atypical "paradoxic arterial embolism". CONCLUSIONS: Thrombotic outcomes in the setting of severe COVID 19 pneumonia may include macrovascular venous thromboembolism, microvascular pulmonary vascular thrombosis and arterial thromboembolism. Pulmonary vein, herein described, provides further mechanistic pathway for potential arterial embolic phenomenon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carotid Artery Thrombosis , Ischemic Stroke , Pulmonary Embolism , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Heart Atria/pathology , Hemiplegia/diagnosis , Hemiplegia/etiology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/complications , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/diagnosis , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
20.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3719-3722, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Case series indicating cerebrovascular disorders in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been published. Comprehensive workups, including clinical characteristics, laboratory, electroencephalography, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid findings, are needed to understand the mechanisms. METHODS: We evaluated 32 consecutive critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated at a tertiary care center from March 9 to April 3, 2020, for concomitant severe central nervous system involvement. Patients identified underwent computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and autopsy in case of death. RESULTS: Of 32 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 8 (25%) had severe central nervous system involvement. Two presented with lacunar ischemic stroke in the early phase and 6 with prolonged impaired consciousness after termination of analgosedation. In all but one with delayed wake-up, neuroimaging or autopsy showed multiple cerebral microbleeds, in 3 with additional subarachnoid hemorrhage and in 2 with additional small ischemic lesions. In 3 patients, intracranial vessel wall sequence magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the first time to our knowledge. All showed contrast enhancement of vessel walls in large cerebral arteries, suggesting vascular wall pathologies with an inflammatory component. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions for SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid were all negative. No intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG synthesis was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: Different mechanisms of cerebrovascular disorders might be involved in COVID-19. Acute ischemic stroke might occur early. In a later phase, microinfarctions and vessel wall contrast enhancement occur, indicating small and large cerebral vessels involvement. Central nervous system disorders associated with COVID-19 may lead to long-term disabilities. Mechanisms should be urgently investigated to develop neuroprotective strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/immunology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Contrast Media , Critical Illness , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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