Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
Lipids Health Dis ; 21(1): 15, 2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bile acids (BAs) not only play an important role in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis but also have antiapoptotic and neuroprotective effects. However, few studies have focused on the relationship of the total bile acid (TBA) levels with the severity and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations of the fasting serum TBA levels on admission with the stroke severity, in-hospital complication incidence and 3 -month all-cause mortality in patients with AIS. METHODS: A total of 777 consecutive AIS patients were enrolled in this study and were divided into four groups according to the quartiles of the serum TBA levels on admission. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the relationship between the fasting TBA levels and the stroke severity, in-hospital complications, and 3-month mortality in AIS patients. RESULTS: Patients in group Q3 had the lowest risk of severe AIS (NIHSS > 10) regardless of the adjustments for confounders (P < 0.05). During hospitalization, 115 patients (14.8%) had stroke progression (NIHSS score increased by ≥ 2), and 222 patients (28.6%) developed at least one complication, with no significant difference among the four groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI), hemorrhagic transformation (HT), gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), seizures or renal insufficiency (RI) among the four groups (P > 0.05). A total of 114 patients (14.7%) died from various causes (including in-hospital deaths) at the 3-month follow-up, including 42 (21.3%), 26 (13.3%), 19 (9.9%) and 27 (13.9%) patients in groups Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 respectively, with significant differences (P = 0.013). After adjusting for confounding factors, the risk of death decreased (P -trend < 0.05) in groups Q2, Q3, and Q4 when compared with group Q1, and the OR values were 0.36 (0.16-0.80), 0.30 (0.13-0.70), and 0.29 (0.13-0.65), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: TBA levels were inversely associated with the 3-month mortality of AIS patients but were not significantly associated with the severity of stroke or the incidence of complications.


Subject(s)
Bile Acids and Salts/blood , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Aged , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prognosis , Risk Factors
2.
Stroke ; 52(12): 3908-3917, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We evaluated whether stroke severity, functional outcome, and mortality are different in patients with ischemic stroke with or without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicentre cohort study in Catalonia, Spain. Recruitment was consecutive from mid-March to mid-May 2020. Patients had an acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours and a previous modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 to 3. We collected demographic data, vascular risk factors, prior mRS score, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, rate of reperfusion therapies, logistics, and metrics. Primary end point was functional outcome at 3 months. Favourable outcome was defined depending on the previous mRS score. Secondary outcome was mortality at 3 months. We performed mRS shift and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: We evaluated 701 patients (mean age 72.3±13.3 years, 60.5% men) and 91 (13%) had COVID-19 infection. Median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was higher in patients with COVID-19 compared with patients without COVID-19 (8 [3-18] versus 6 [2-14], P=0.049). Proportion of patients with a favourable functional outcome was 33.7% in the COVID-19 and 47% in the non-COVID-19 group. However, after a multivariable logistic regression analysis, COVID-19 infection did not increase the probability of unfavourable functional outcome. Mortality rate was 39.3% among patients with COVID-19 and 16.1% in the non-COVID-19 group. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, COVID-19 infection was a risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio, 3.14 [95% CI, 2.10-4.71]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ischemic stroke and COVID-19 infection have more severe strokes and a higher mortality than patients with stroke without COVID-19 infection. However, functional outcome is comparable in both groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Functional Status , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy
3.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 212: 107027, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520782

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the impact of home quarantine in older patients without COVID-19 hospitalized due to neurological disorders. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 255 elderly patients(median age: 75 years, female: 54%), including 180 (70%) in the pre-home quarantine period and 75 (30%) home quarantine period from January to May 2020 (ten weeks before and ten weeks after the March 21, 2020, lockdown for older patients in Turkey) in a tertiary referral neurological center. RESULTS: In the home quarantine period, we documented a fall in the number of neurological admissions by 58.3%, but an increased need for intensive care in older patients. Patients in the home quarantine period were younger [73 (65-91) vs 76 (65-95), p = 0.005], had worse Glasgow Coma Scores (12.3 ± 3.6 vs 13.7 ± 2.5, p = 0.007), higher in-hospital mortality rate (21.3% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.001), had a lower prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, and chronic neurologic disease, albeit had a higher prevalence of the acute cerebrovascular disease (hemorrhagic/ ischemic stroke)(90.7% vs 78.9, p = 0.025). In this period, even there was an increase in the proportion of the patients undergoing reperfusion therapy, it wasn't statistically significant (20.3% vs. 10.1%, p: 0.054). Multivariate analysis revealed that high NIHSS (The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score (OR=1.25; p < 0.001) and hospitalization in the home quarantine period (OR=3.21; p = 0.043) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that during the COVID-19 home quarantine period, despite a significantly fewer number of patients admitted to the hospitalization, there was a higher percentage of those hospitalized needing intensive care and an overall worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Quarantine , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Female , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Male , Turkey
4.
Stroke ; 53(3): 800-807, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke. We present prevalence and characteristics of strokes in patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection enrolled in the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry. METHODS: In this quality improvement registry study, we examined demographic, baseline clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The primary outcomes were ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and in-hospital death. RESULTS: Among 21 073 patients with COVID-19 admitted at 107 hospitals between January 29, 2020, and November 23, 2020, 160 (0.75%) experienced acute ischemic stroke/TIA (55.3% of all acute strokes) and 129 (0.61%) had other types of stroke. Among nonischemic strokes, there were 44 (15.2%) intracerebral hemorrhages, 33 (11.4%) subarachnoid hemorrhages, 21 (7.3%) epidural/subdural hemorrhages, 2 (0.7%) cerebral venous sinus thromboses, and 24 (8.3%) strokes not otherwise classified. Asians and non-Hispanic Blacks were overrepresented among ischemic stroke/TIA patients compared with their overall representation in the registry, but adjusted odds of stroke did not vary by race. Median time from COVID-19 symptom onset to ischemic stroke was 11.5 days (interquartile range, 17.8); median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 11 (interquartile range, 17). COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke/TIA had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation compared with those without stroke. Intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation were associated with higher odds of acute ischemic stroke/TIA, but older age was not a predictor. In adjusted models, acute ischemic stroke/TIA was not associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic stroke risk did not vary by race. In contrast to the association between older age and death from COVID-19, ischemic stroke risk was the highest among middle-aged adults after adjusting for comorbidities and illness severity, suggesting a potential mechanism for ischemic stroke in COVID-19 independent of age-related atherosclerotic pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/mortality , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(14): e021046, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463078

ABSTRACT

Background Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the context of COVID-19 has received considerable attention for its propensity to affect patients of all ages. We aimed to evaluate the effect of age on functional outcome and mortality following an acute ischemic event. Methods and Results A prospectively maintained database from comprehensive stroke centers in Canada and the United States was analyzed for patients with AIS from March 14 to September 30, 2020 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The primary outcome was Modified Rankin Scale score at discharge, and the secondary outcome was mortality. Baseline characteristics, laboratory values, imaging, and thrombectomy workflow process times were assessed. Among all 126 patients with COVID-19 who were diagnosed with AIS, the median age was 63 years (range, 27-94). There were 35 (27.8%) patients with AIS in the aged ≤55 years group, 47 (37.3%) in the aged 56 to 70 group, and 44 (34.9%) in the aged >70 group. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and thrombectomy rates were comparable across these groups, (P=0.331 and 0.212, respectively). There was a significantly lower rate of mortality between each group favoring younger age (21.9% versus 45.0% versus 48.8%, P=0.047). After multivariable adjustment for possible confounders, a 1-year increase in age was significantly associated with fewer instances of a favorable outcome of Modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2 (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95 CI%, 0.90-0.99; P=0.048) and higher mortality (OR, 1.06; 95 CI%, 1.02-1.10; P=0.007). Conclusions AIS in the context of COVID-19 affects young patients at much greater rates than pre-pandemic controls. Nevertheless, instances of poor functional outcome and mortality are closely tied to increasing age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , United States
6.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(6): 535-541, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441429

ABSTRACT

The acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 disease, a global pandemic. A strong association has been documented between COVID-19 and cardiovascular events, although the exact pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear. Carotid atherothrombosis and ischemic stroke represents one of the possible severe manifestations of COVID-19, as a leading cause of long-term disability and death. Different complex intertwined mechanisms seem to underlie the endothelitis which is the cause of multiple cardiovascular manifestations. To date, few case series describing COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke caused by cervical carotid thrombosis have been published. All the patients shared common similar radiographic features, comorbidities, and biomarker profiles. The aim of this brief review was to analyze the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in the management of a Vascular Surgery Department, changing the daily vascular practice, as well as to provide practical suggestions for symptomatic carotid stenosis, while reviewing published literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Diseases/mortality , Carotid Artery Diseases/surgery , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106121, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the safety of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) in patients with stroke and COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter study included consecutive stroke patients with and without COVID-19 treated with IV-tPA between February 18, 2019, to December 31, 2020, at 9 centers participating in the CASCADE initiative. Clinical outcomes included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge, in-hospital mortality, the rate of hemorrhagic transformation. Using Bayesian multiple regression and after adjusting for variables with significant value in univariable analysis, we reported the posterior adjusted odds ratio (OR, with 95% Credible Intervals [CrI]) of the main outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 545 stroke patients, including 101 patients with COVID-19 were evaluated. Patients with COVID-19 had a more severe stroke at admission. In the study cohort, 85 (15.9%) patients had a hemorrhagic transformation, and 72 (13.1%) died in the hospital. After adjustment for confounding variables, discharge mRS score ≥2 (OR: 0.73, 95% CrI: 0.16, 3.05), in-hospital mortality (OR: 2.06, 95% CrI: 0.76, 5.53), and hemorrhagic transformation (OR: 1.514, 95% CrI: 0.66, 3.31) were similar in COVID-19 and non COVID-19 patients. High-sensitivity C reactive protein level was a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation in all cases (OR:1.01, 95%CI: 1.0026, 1.018), including those with COVID-19 (OR:1.024, 95%CI:1.002, 1.054). CONCLUSION: IV-tPA treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke and COVID-19 was not associated with an increased risk of disability, mortality, and hemorrhagic transformation compared to those without COVID-19. IV-tPA should continue to be considered as the standard of care in patients with hyper acute stroke and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Disability Evaluation , Europe , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Iran , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(2): 185-199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posterior circulation stroke is characterized by poor prognosis because its optimal thrombolysis "time window" is always missed. After mechanical thrombectomy (MT), the recanalization rate of posterior circulation obstruction is significantly increased, but prognosis remains poor. To best manage patients, prognostic factors are needed to inform MT triaging after posterior circulation stroke. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done for the period through April 2020. Studies included those with posterior circulation stroke cases that underwent MT. The primary outcome measure in this study was the modified Rankin Scale on day 90. RESULTS: No outcome differences were found in gender, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and coronary artery disease (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28; OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.82-1.26; OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.94-1.68; and OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.58-1.22, respectively). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke correlated with poorer prognosis (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.77; OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.50-0.73; and OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.99, respectively). However, hyperlipidemia correlated with better prognosis (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.58). CONCLUSION: Our analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or previous stroke correlate with poorer outcomes. Intriguingly, hyperlipidemia correlates with better prognosis. These factors may help inform triage decisions when considering MT for posterior circulation stroke patients. However, large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Thrombectomy/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Recovery of Function , Referral and Consultation/trends , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombectomy/mortality , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(11): 105953, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275544

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose; Chile has been one of the most affected countries by the COVID-19 pandemic, with one of the highest case rates per population. This has affected the epidemiological behaviour of various pathologies. We analyze the impact of the pandemic on the number of admissions due to stroke, its severity and mortality in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: a multicenter observational study based on the records of the 3 hospitals of the South East health service in Santiago, Chile. We recorded the number of patients admitted for ischemic stroke between 01 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. We grouped the cases into two periods, pre-pandemic and pandemic, according to the setting of the state of emergency in Chile. RESULTS: 431 patients were admitted with ischemic stroke during the study period. There was a non-significant decrease in weekly admissions (17 vs 15 patients per week). No differences were observed in the proportion of patients with medical treatment (p = 0.810), IVT (p = 0.638), EVT (p = 0.503) or IVT + EVT (p = 0.501). There was a statistically significant increase in the NIHSS on admission (7.23 vs 8.78, p = 0.009) and mortality (5.2% vs 12.4%, p = 0.012). In a multivariate analysis the NIHSS on admission was associated with the increased mortality (RR 1.11, CI 1.04-1.19, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: We found an increase in the severity of ischemic stroke on admission and in-hospital mortality during the pandemic period. The main factor to increase in-hospital mortality was the NIHSS on admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chile/epidemiology , Disability Evaluation , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105805, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is limited literature on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) complications such as thromboembolism, cardiac complications etc. as possible trigger for stroke. Hence, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 related cardiovascular complications and secondary infection and their possibility as potential triggers for the stroke. METHODS: Data from observational studies describing the complications [acute cardiac injury (ACI), cardiac arrhythmias (CA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock, secondary infection] and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, were extracted following PRISMA guidelines. Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were obtained, and forest plots were created using random-effects models. A short review of these complications as triggers of stroke was conducted. RESULTS: 16 studies with 3480 confirmed COVID-19 patients, prevalence of ACI [38%vs5.9%], CA [26%vs5.3%], DIC [4%vs0.74%], septic shock [18%vs0.36%], and infection [30%vs12.5%] was higher among patients with poor outcomes. In meta-analysis, ACI [aOR:9.93(95%CI:3.95-25.00], CA [7.52(3.29-17.18)], DIC [7.36(1.24-43.73)], septic shock [30.12(7.56-120.10)], and infection [10.41(4.47-24.27)] had higher odds of adverse outcomes. Patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, had complications like pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism, DIC, etc. and had poor outcomes CONCLUSION: The complications like acute cardiac injury, cardiac arrhythmias, DIC, septic shock, and secondary infection had poor outcomes. Patients with stroke were having history of these complications. Long term monitoring is required in such patients to prevent stroke and mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
11.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 326-331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence suggests patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop thrombosis and thrombosis-related complications. Some previous evidence has suggested COVID-19-associated strokes are more severe with worse outcomes for patients, but further studies are needed to confirm these findings. The aim of this study was to determine the association between COVID-19 and mortality for patients with ischaemic stroke in a large multicentre study. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records of inpatients from 50 healthcare organizations, predominately from the USA. Patients with ischaemic stroke within 30 days of COVID-19 were identified. COVID-19 was determined from diagnosis codes or a positive test result identified with CO-VID-19-specific laboratory codes between January 20, 2020, and October 1, 2020. Historical controls with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19 were identified in the period January 20, 2019, to October 1, 2019. 1:1 propensity score matching was used to balance the cohorts with and without CO-VID-19 on characteristics including age, sex, race and comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for all-cause 60-day mortality by COVID-19 status were produced. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 954 inpatients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19. During the same time period in 2019, there were 48,363 inpatients with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19 (historical controls). Compared to patients with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19, patients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19 had a lower mean age, had a lower prevalence of white patients, a higher prevalence of black or African American patients and a higher prevalence of hypertension, previous cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, ischaemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver disease, neoplasms, and mental disorders due to known physiological conditions. After propensity score matching, there were 952 cases and 952 historical controls; cases and historical controls were better balanced on all included characteristics (all p > 0.05). After propensity score matching, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed the survival probability was significantly lower in ischaemic stroke patients with COVID-19 (78.3% vs. 91.0%, log-rank test p < 0.0001). The odds of 60-day mortality were significantly higher for patients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19 compared to the propensity score-matched historical controls (odds ratio: 2.51 [95% confidence interval 1.88-3.34]). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Ischaemic stroke patients with COVID-19 had significantly higher 60-day all-cause mortality compared to propensity score-matched historical controls (ischaemic stroke patients without COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Stroke/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a small but clinically significant risk of stroke, the cause of which is frequently cryptogenic. In a large multinational cohort of consecutive COVID-19 patients with stroke, we evaluated clinical predictors of cryptogenic stroke, short-term functional outcomes and in-hospital mortality among patients according to stroke etiology. METHODS: We explored clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of consecutively evaluated patients 18 years of age or older with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 31 hospitals in 4 countries (3/1/20-6/16/20). RESULTS: Of the 14.483 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19, 156 (1.1%) were diagnosed with AIS. Sixty-one (39.4%) were female, 84 (67.2%) white, and 88 (61.5%) were between 60 and 79 years of age. The most frequently reported etiology of AIS was cryptogenic (55/129, 42.6%), which was associated with significantly higher white blood cell count, c-reactive protein, and D-dimer levels than non-cryptogenic AIS patients (p

Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Registries , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105552, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily known as a respiratory illness; however, a wide variety of symptoms and complications of the central nervous system (CNS), such as ischemic cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) have been reported. Hereby, we provide a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the literature, investigating the incidence of ischemic CVA and the mortality due to it in the setting of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our search databases included Google Scholar, MEDLINE via PubMed, and Scopus. We searched the databases up to July 22, 2020. The primary outcome was the incidence of ischemic CVA in COVID-19 cases, while the secondary outcomes were the ratio of mortality in these cases. Standard meta-analysis methods used to measure the pooled incidence and mortality rates of ischemic CVA in COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: After excluding studies with reasons, only 20 articles were eligible to be included in our qualitative synthesis, and 17 studies were evaluated quantitatively in our meta-analysis. Included studies reported a pooled average incidence of 1.7% for ischemic CVA, ranging from 1.3% to 2.3%. Mortality in patients of ischemic CVA to all COVID-19 cases was 0.5%, ranging from 0.4% to 0.6%. The mortality rate of patients with CVA to those who suffered from COVID-19 infection and ischemic CVA simultaneously was 29.2% ranging from 21.6% to 38.2%. Overall, the heterogeneity of the studies was high. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed a pooled incidence of 1.7% for ischemic CVA in the setting of COVID-19 infection, with a mortality rate of 29.2% amongst the COVID-19 patients who are suffering ischemic CVA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Treatment Outcome
14.
Int J Stroke ; 16(4): 429-436, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-related strokes are increasingly being diagnosed across the world. Knowledge about the clinical profile, imaging findings, and outcomes is still evolving. Here we describe the characteristics of a cohort of 62 COVID-19-related stroke patients from 13 hospitals, from Bangalore city, south India. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical profile, neuroimaging findings, interventions, and outcomes in COVID-19-related stroke patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective study of all COVID-19-related stroke patients from 13 hospitals from south India; 1st June 2020-31st August 2020. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging data were collected along with treatment administered and outcomes. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in all cases by RT-PCR testing. The data obtained from the case records were entered in SPSS 25 for statistical analysis. RESULTS: During the three-month period, we had 62 COVID-19-related stroke patients, across 13 centers; 60 (97%) had ischemic strokes, while 2 (3%) had hemorrhagic strokes. The mean age of patients was 55.66 ± 13.20 years, with 34 (77.4%) males. Twenty-six percent (16/62) of patients did not have any conventional risk factors for stroke. Diabetes mellitus was seen in 54.8%, hypertension was present in 61.3%, coronary artery disease in 8%, and atrial fibrillation in 4.8%. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 12.7 ± 6.44. Stroke severity was moderate (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 5-15) in 27 (61.3%) patients, moderate to severe (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 16-20) in 13 (20.9%) patients and severe (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 21-42) in 11 (17.7%) patients. According to TOAST classification, 48.3% was stroke of undetermined etiology, 36.6% had large artery atherosclerosis, 10% had small vessel occlusion, and 5% had cardioembolic strokes. Three (5%) received intravenous thrombolysis with tenecteplase 0.2 mg/kg and 3 (5%) underwent mechanical thrombectomy, two endovascular and one surgical. Duration of hospital stay was 16.16 ± 6.39 days; 21% (13/62) died in hospital, while 37 (59.7%) had a modified Rankin score of 3-5 at discharge. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were associated with increased mortality. A comparison to 111 historical controls during the non-COVID period showed a higher proportion of strokes of undetermined etiology, higher mortality, and higher morbidity in COVID-19-related stroke patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related strokes are increasingly being recognized in developing countries, like India. Stroke of undetermined etiology appears to be the most common TOAST subtype of COVID-19-related strokes. COVID-19-related strokes were more severe in nature and resulted in higher mortality and morbidity. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were associated with increased mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , India/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Stroke ; 52(1): 31-39, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion can be concurrent with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion in patients with COVID-19 are substantially unknown. Our aim was to study early outcomes after MT in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, European, cohort study involving 34 stroke centers in France, Italy, Spain, and Belgium. Data were collected between March 1, 2020 and May 5, 2020. Consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases with large vessel occlusion, who were treated with MT, were included. Primary investigated outcome: 30-day mortality. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: early neurological improvement (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improvement ≥8 points or 24 hours National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 0-1), successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade ≥2b), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. RESULTS: We evaluated 93 patients with COVID-19 with large vessel occlusion who underwent MT (median age, 71 years [interquartile range, 59-79]; 63 men [67.7%]). Median pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score were 17 (interquartile range, 11-21) and 8 (interquartile range, 7-9), respectively. Anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke represented 93.5% of cases. The rate modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b to 3 was 79.6% (74 patients [95% CI, 71.3-87.8]). Thirty-day mortality was 29% (27 patients [95% CI, 20-39.4]). Early neurological improvement was 19.5% (17 patients [95% CI, 11.8-29.5]), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 5.4% (5 patients [95% CI, 1.7-12.1]). Patients who died at 30 days exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte count, higher levels of aspartate, and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). After adjustment for age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, and successful reperfusion, these biological markers remained associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio of 2.70 [95% CI, 1.21-5.98] per SD-log decrease in lymphocyte count, 2.66 [95% CI, 1.22-5.77] per SD-log increase in aspartate, and 4.30 [95% CI, 1.43-12.91] per SD-log increase in LDH). CONCLUSIONS: The 29% rate of 30-day mortality after MT among patients with COVID-19 is not negligible. Abnormalities of lymphocyte count, LDH and aspartate may depict a patient's profiles with poorer outcomes after MT. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04406090.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Europe , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/mortality , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(2): 105429, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899244

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus pandemic due to the novel SARS-Cov-2 virus has proven to have systemic and multi-organ involvement with high acuity neurological conditions including acute ischemic strokes. We present a case series of consecutive COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular disease treated at our institution including 3 cases of cerebral artery dissection including subarachnoid hemorrhage. Knowledge of the varied presentations including dissections will help treating clinicians at the bedside monitor and manage these complications preemptively.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Hemorrhagic Stroke/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Aneurysm/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Patient Admission , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnosis , Aneurysm, Dissecting/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hemorrhagic Stroke/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnosis , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
17.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(12): 2641-2645, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-877180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Comorbidity of acute ischaemic stroke with Covid-19 is a challenging condition, potentially influencing the decision of whether to administer intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We aimed to assess the 1-month outcome in ischaemic stroke patients with Covid-19 infection who received IVT alone or before thrombectomy (bridging therapy). METHODS: As a collaboration initiative promoted by the Italian Stroke Organization, all Italian stroke units (n = 190) were contacted and invited to participate in data collection on stroke patients with Covid-19 who received IVT. RESULTS: Seventy-five invited centers agreed to participate. Thirty patients received IVT alone and 17 received bridging therapy between 21 February 2020 and 30 April 2020 in 20 centers (n = 18, Northern Italy; n = 2, Central Italy). At 1 month, 14 (30.4%) patients died and 20 (62.5%) survivors had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 3 to 5. At 24 to 36 hours, asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was reported in eight (17.4%) patients and symptomatic ICH (sICH) in two (4.3%) patients. Causes of death were severe ischaemic stroke (n = 8), a new ischaemic stroke (n = 2), acute respiratory failure (n = 1), acute renal failure (n = 1), acute myocardial infarction (n = 1), and endocarditis (n = 1). In survivors with a 1-month mRS score of 3 to 5, baseline glucose level was higher, whereas endovascular procedure time in cases of bridging therapy was longer. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale glucose and creatinine levels were higher in patients who died. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous thrombolysis for patients with stroke and Covid-19 was not a rare event in the most affected areas by pandemic, and rates of 1-month unfavorable outcomes were high compared to previous data from the pre-Covid-19 literature. However, risk of sICH was not increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Creatinine/blood , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Survival Analysis , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL