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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(3): 106987, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies from early in the COVID-19 pandemic showed that patients with ischemic stroke and concurrent SARS-CoV-2 infection had increased stroke severity. We aimed to test the hypothesis that this association persisted throughout the first year of the pandemic and that a similar increase in stroke severity was present in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: Using the National Institute of Health National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) database, we identified a cohort of patients with stroke hospitalized in the United States between March 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021. We propensity score matched patients with concurrent stroke and SARS-COV-2 infection and available NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores to all other patients with stroke in a 1:3 ratio. Nearest neighbor matching with a caliper of 0.25 was used for most factors and exact matching was used for race/ethnicity and site. We modeled stroke severity as measured by admission NIHSS and the outcomes of death and length of stay. We also explored the temporal relationship between time of SARS-COV-2 diagnosis and incidence of stroke. RESULTS: Our query identified 43,295 patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke (5765 with SARS-COV-2, 37,530 without) and 18,107 patients hospitalized with hemorrhagic stroke (2114 with SARS-COV-2, 15,993 without). Analysis of our propensity matched cohort revealed that stroke patients with concurrent SARS-COV-2 had increased NIHSS (Ischemic stroke: IRR=1.43, 95% CI:1.33-1.52, p<0.001; hemorrhagic stroke: IRR=1.20, 95% CI:1.08-1.33, p<0.001), length of stay (Ischemic stroke: estimate = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.61, p<0.001; hemorrhagic stroke: estimate = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.47, p=0.007) and higher odds of death (Ischemic stroke: OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.79-2.68, p<0.001; hemorrhagic stroke: OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.79-2.68, p<0.001). We observed the highest incidence of stroke diagnosis on the same day as SARS-COV-2 diagnosis with a logarithmic decline in counts. CONCLUSION: This retrospective observational analysis suggests that stroke severity in patients with concurrent SARS-COV-2 was increased throughout the first year of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Stroke , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Hemorrhagic Stroke/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Stroke/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(6): 106483, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients with acute ischemic stroke which were previously vaccinated against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and determine whether the vaccine had impact on outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational cohort study we analyzed the clinical characteristics of 58 patients with ischemic stroke, previously vaccinated against COVID-19. We analyzed demographic characteristics, risk factors, type of stroke and outcome. We also compared outcome of those patients with outcome in stroke patients hospitalized in the same period but not vaccinated, patients hospitalized during the pandemic, before vaccination began, and stroke patients hospitalized before the pandemic. Further, we compared mortality rate with mortality rate in patients who had acute ischemic stroke and COVID-19 simultaneously. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 71.0 years, most were male (58.6%), mostly with risk factors for stroke. In the largest number of patients, 17 (29.3%), the etiopathogenetic mechanism of stroke was atherosclerosis of the large arteries. Mortality in vaccinated patients was identical to mortality in stroke patients before pandemic, without significant difference from mortality in unvaccinated patients (13.8% versus 8.6%; p= 0.23). The mean NIHSS and mRS score at discharge for all examined groups were without significant difference. A significant difference in mortality was found between COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative stroke patients (37.8% versus 18.1%; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There are no significant differences in clinical characteristics of stroke in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated patients. We did not find a connection between vaccination and stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Pandemics , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(6): 106455, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hospitalizations for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared the quality of care and outcomes for patients with AIS/TIA before vs. during the COVID-19 pandemic across the United States Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare system. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared AIS/TIA care quality before (March-September 2019) vs. during (March-September 2020) the pandemic. Electronic health record data were used to identify patient characteristics, quality of care and outcomes. The without-fail rate was a composite measure summarizing whether an individual patient received all of the seven processes for which they were eligible. Mixed effects logistic regression modeling was used to assess differences between the two periods. RESULTS: A decrease in presentations occurred during the pandemic (N = 4360 vs. N = 5636 patients; p = 0.003) and was greater for patients with TIA (-30.4%) than for AIS (-18.7%). The without-fail rate improved during the pandemic (56.2 vs. before 50.1%). The use of high/moderate potency statins increased among AIS patients (OR 1.26 [1.06-1.48]) and remained unchanged among those with TIA (OR 1.04 [0.83,1.29]). Blood pressure measurement within 90-days of discharge was less frequent during the pandemic (57.8 vs. 89.2%, p < 0.001). Hypertension control decreased among patients with AIS (OR 0.73 [0.60-0.90]) and TIA (OR 0.72 [0.54-0.96]). The average systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 1.9/1.4 mmHg higher during the pandemic than before (p < 0.001). Compared to before, during the pandemic fewer AIS patients had a primary care visit (52.5% vs. 79.8%; p = 0.0001) or a neurology visit (27.9 vs. 41.1%; p = 0.085). Both 30- and 90-day unadjusted all-cause mortality rates were higher in 2020 (3.6% and 6.7%) vs. 2019 (2.9, 5.4%; p = 0.041 and p = 0.006); but these differences were not statistically significant after risk adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Overall quality of care for patients with AIS/TIA did not decline during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , United States/epidemiology
4.
CMAJ ; 194(12): E444-E455, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemics may promote hospital avoidance, and added precautions may exacerbate treatment delays for medical emergencies such as stroke. We sought to evaluate ischemic stroke presentations, management and outcomes during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study, using linked administrative and stroke registry data from Alberta to identify all patients presenting with stroke before the pandemic (Jan. 1, 2016 to Feb. 27, 2020) and in 5 periods over the first pandemic year (Feb. 28, 2020 to Mar. 31, 2021), reflecting changes in case numbers and restrictions. We evaluated changes in hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, thrombolysis, endovascular therapy, workflow times and outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 19 531 patients in the prepandemic period and 4900 patients across the 5 pandemic periods. Presentations for ischemic stroke dropped in the first pandemic wave (weekly adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50 to 0.59). Population-level incidence of thrombolysis (adjusted IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.62) and endovascular therapy (adjusted IRR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.84) also decreased during the first wave, but proportions of patients presenting with stroke who received acute therapies did not decline. Rates of patients presenting with stroke did not return to prepandemic levels, even during a lull in COVID-19 cases between the first 2 waves of the pandemic, and fell further in subsequent waves. In-hospital delays in thrombolysis or endovascular therapy occurred in several pandemic periods. The likelihood of in-hospital death increased in Wave 2 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.74) and Wave 3 (adjusted OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.00). Out-of-hospital deaths, as a proportion of stroke-related deaths, rose during 4 of 5 pandemic periods. INTERPRETATION: The first year of the COVID-19 pandemic saw persistently reduced rates of patients presenting with ischemic stroke, recurrent treatment delays and higher risk of in-hospital death in later waves. These findings support public health messaging that encourages care-seeking for medical emergencies during pandemic periods, and stroke systems should re-evaluate protocols to mitigate inefficiencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Pandemics
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(5): 106315, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the pandemic, stroke care suffered globally and there were reduced stroke admissions and delays in time metrics. Stroke care was reorganized during the second wave learning from the experience of previous wave. This study shares our experience in stroke time metrics during the second wave of pandemic compared to the first wave. METHODS: We did a single-center prospective study, where consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms and aged more than 18 years, who presented to Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram from June 1st to 31st August, 2020 and June 1st to 31st August in 2021 were included. In-hospital time metrics (door to CT time and door to Needle time) were compared during the two time periods. We also compared functional outcomes at discharge and in-hospital mortality during the two periods. Functional outcome at discharge was assessed by modified Rankin scale (mRS). RESULTS: From June to August 2021 (second wave of the COVID 19 pandemic), compared to the same months during the first wave (2020), our study demonstrated better in-hospital time metrics (door to CT time and door to needle time). We also found lower admission systolic blood pressure and higher baseline CT early ischemic changes during the second wave. There was no difference in functional outcome at discharge and in-hospital mortality. Intravenous thrombolysis rates also remained the same during the two periods. CONCLUSION: Our study has confirmed that time metrics in stroke care can be improved through system rearrangement even during the pandemic. Acute stroke treatments are time-dependent and hospital administrators must stick to the maxim "Time is Brain" while restructuring stroke workflows during future challenges.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Benchmarking , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Prospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 123, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571835

ABSTRACT

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a member of the NLR family of inherent immune cell sensors. The NLRP3 inflammasome can detect tissue damage and pathogen invasion through innate immune cell sensor components commonly known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs promote activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, thus increasing the transcription of genes encoding proteins related to the NLRP3 inflammasome. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a complex with multiple components, including an NAIP, CIITA, HET-E, and TP1 (NACHT) domain; apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC); and a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. After ischemic stroke, the NLRP3 inflammasome can produce numerous proinflammatory cytokines, mediating nerve cell dysfunction and brain edema and ultimately leading to nerve cell death once activated. Ischemic stroke is a disease with high rates of mortality and disability worldwide and is being observed in increasingly younger populations. To date, there are no clearly effective therapeutic strategies for the clinical treatment of ischemic stroke. Understanding the NLRP3 inflammasome may provide novel ideas and approaches because targeting of upstream and downstream molecules in the NLRP3 pathway shows promise for ischemic stroke therapy. In this manuscript, we summarize the existing evidence regarding the composition and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, the molecules involved in inflammatory pathways, and corresponding drugs or molecules that exert effects after cerebral ischemia. This evidence may provide possible targets or new strategies for ischemic stroke therapy.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes/drug effects , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Animals , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Humans
7.
Stroke ; 52(12): 3908-3917, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We evaluated whether stroke severity, functional outcome, and mortality are different in patients with ischemic stroke with or without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicentre cohort study in Catalonia, Spain. Recruitment was consecutive from mid-March to mid-May 2020. Patients had an acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours and a previous modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 to 3. We collected demographic data, vascular risk factors, prior mRS score, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, rate of reperfusion therapies, logistics, and metrics. Primary end point was functional outcome at 3 months. Favourable outcome was defined depending on the previous mRS score. Secondary outcome was mortality at 3 months. We performed mRS shift and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: We evaluated 701 patients (mean age 72.3±13.3 years, 60.5% men) and 91 (13%) had COVID-19 infection. Median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was higher in patients with COVID-19 compared with patients without COVID-19 (8 [3-18] versus 6 [2-14], P=0.049). Proportion of patients with a favourable functional outcome was 33.7% in the COVID-19 and 47% in the non-COVID-19 group. However, after a multivariable logistic regression analysis, COVID-19 infection did not increase the probability of unfavourable functional outcome. Mortality rate was 39.3% among patients with COVID-19 and 16.1% in the non-COVID-19 group. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, COVID-19 infection was a risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio, 3.14 [95% CI, 2.10-4.71]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ischemic stroke and COVID-19 infection have more severe strokes and a higher mortality than patients with stroke without COVID-19 infection. However, functional outcome is comparable in both groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Functional Status , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy
8.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 212: 107027, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520782

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the impact of home quarantine in older patients without COVID-19 hospitalized due to neurological disorders. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 255 elderly patients(median age: 75 years, female: 54%), including 180 (70%) in the pre-home quarantine period and 75 (30%) home quarantine period from January to May 2020 (ten weeks before and ten weeks after the March 21, 2020, lockdown for older patients in Turkey) in a tertiary referral neurological center. RESULTS: In the home quarantine period, we documented a fall in the number of neurological admissions by 58.3%, but an increased need for intensive care in older patients. Patients in the home quarantine period were younger [73 (65-91) vs 76 (65-95), p = 0.005], had worse Glasgow Coma Scores (12.3 ± 3.6 vs 13.7 ± 2.5, p = 0.007), higher in-hospital mortality rate (21.3% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.001), had a lower prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, and chronic neurologic disease, albeit had a higher prevalence of the acute cerebrovascular disease (hemorrhagic/ ischemic stroke)(90.7% vs 78.9, p = 0.025). In this period, even there was an increase in the proportion of the patients undergoing reperfusion therapy, it wasn't statistically significant (20.3% vs. 10.1%, p: 0.054). Multivariate analysis revealed that high NIHSS (The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score (OR=1.25; p < 0.001) and hospitalization in the home quarantine period (OR=3.21; p = 0.043) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that during the COVID-19 home quarantine period, despite a significantly fewer number of patients admitted to the hospitalization, there was a higher percentage of those hospitalized needing intensive care and an overall worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Quarantine , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Female , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Male , Turkey
9.
Pediatr Neurol ; 126: 104-107, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is rare in children, and diagnosis is often delayed. Neurological involvement may occur in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), but very few cases of AIS in patients with MIS-C have been reported. PATIENT DESCRIPTIONS: We two patients with AIS presenting with large vessel occlusive disease in previously healthy adolescents recently exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Both patients were subsequently diagnosed with and treated for MIS-C. Here, we discuss the course of their treatments and clinical responses. CONCLUSION: Early recognition and diagnosis of AIS with large vessel occlusion in children with MIS-C is critical to make available all treatment options to improve clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106152, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506161

ABSTRACT

Cerebrovascular diseases attributed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are uncommon but can result in devastating outcomes. Pediatric acute ischemic strokes are themselves rare and with very few large vessel occlusion related acute ischemic strokes attributed to COVID-19 described in the literature as of date. COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to acute stroke care delays across the world and with pediatric endovascular therapy still in its infancy, it poses a great challenge in facilitating good outcomes in children presenting with acute ischemic strokes in the setting of COVID-19. We present a pediatric patient who underwent endovascular therapy for an internal carotid artery occlusion related acute ischemic stroke in the setting of active COVID-19 and had an excellent outcome thanks to a streamlined stroke pathway involving the vascular neurology, neuro-interventional, neurocritical care, and anesthesiology teams.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/therapy , Carotid Artery, Internal , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Child , Endovascular Procedures/instrumentation , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Stents , Treatment Outcome
11.
Stroke ; 53(3): 800-807, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke. We present prevalence and characteristics of strokes in patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection enrolled in the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry. METHODS: In this quality improvement registry study, we examined demographic, baseline clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The primary outcomes were ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and in-hospital death. RESULTS: Among 21 073 patients with COVID-19 admitted at 107 hospitals between January 29, 2020, and November 23, 2020, 160 (0.75%) experienced acute ischemic stroke/TIA (55.3% of all acute strokes) and 129 (0.61%) had other types of stroke. Among nonischemic strokes, there were 44 (15.2%) intracerebral hemorrhages, 33 (11.4%) subarachnoid hemorrhages, 21 (7.3%) epidural/subdural hemorrhages, 2 (0.7%) cerebral venous sinus thromboses, and 24 (8.3%) strokes not otherwise classified. Asians and non-Hispanic Blacks were overrepresented among ischemic stroke/TIA patients compared with their overall representation in the registry, but adjusted odds of stroke did not vary by race. Median time from COVID-19 symptom onset to ischemic stroke was 11.5 days (interquartile range, 17.8); median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 11 (interquartile range, 17). COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke/TIA had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation compared with those without stroke. Intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation were associated with higher odds of acute ischemic stroke/TIA, but older age was not a predictor. In adjusted models, acute ischemic stroke/TIA was not associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic stroke risk did not vary by race. In contrast to the association between older age and death from COVID-19, ischemic stroke risk was the highest among middle-aged adults after adjusting for comorbidities and illness severity, suggesting a potential mechanism for ischemic stroke in COVID-19 independent of age-related atherosclerotic pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/mortality , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(14): e021046, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463078

ABSTRACT

Background Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the context of COVID-19 has received considerable attention for its propensity to affect patients of all ages. We aimed to evaluate the effect of age on functional outcome and mortality following an acute ischemic event. Methods and Results A prospectively maintained database from comprehensive stroke centers in Canada and the United States was analyzed for patients with AIS from March 14 to September 30, 2020 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The primary outcome was Modified Rankin Scale score at discharge, and the secondary outcome was mortality. Baseline characteristics, laboratory values, imaging, and thrombectomy workflow process times were assessed. Among all 126 patients with COVID-19 who were diagnosed with AIS, the median age was 63 years (range, 27-94). There were 35 (27.8%) patients with AIS in the aged ≤55 years group, 47 (37.3%) in the aged 56 to 70 group, and 44 (34.9%) in the aged >70 group. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and thrombectomy rates were comparable across these groups, (P=0.331 and 0.212, respectively). There was a significantly lower rate of mortality between each group favoring younger age (21.9% versus 45.0% versus 48.8%, P=0.047). After multivariable adjustment for possible confounders, a 1-year increase in age was significantly associated with fewer instances of a favorable outcome of Modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2 (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95 CI%, 0.90-0.99; P=0.048) and higher mortality (OR, 1.06; 95 CI%, 1.02-1.10; P=0.007). Conclusions AIS in the context of COVID-19 affects young patients at much greater rates than pre-pandemic controls. Nevertheless, instances of poor functional outcome and mortality are closely tied to increasing age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , United States
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(11): 106072, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377775

ABSTRACT

Recently cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) and thrombosis following the adenoviral vector vaccine against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were reported. A mechanism similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was proposed with antibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4). Vaccine related arterial thrombosis in the brain is rare but life-threatening and optimal treatment is not established. We report clinical, laboratory, imaging findings and treatment in a 51-year-old female presenting with acute left middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion 7 days after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Due to low platelet count and suspicion of VITT she was not eligible for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and proceeded to mechanical thrombectomy (MER) with successful recanalization four hours after onset of symptoms. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and heparin pentasaccharide fondaparinux was initiated. Presence of anti-PF4 antibodies was confirmed. The patient improved clinically with normalization of platelet count. Clinicians should be alert of VITT in patients with acute ischemic stroke after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination and low platelet counts. MER showed to be feasible and effective. We propose considering MER in patients with VITT and large vessel occlusion despite thrombocytopenia. High-dose IVIG should be started immediately. Alternative anticoagulation to heparin should be started 24 hours after stroke onset unless significant hemorrhagic transformation occurred. Platelet transfusion is contraindicated and should be considered only in severe hemorrhagic complications. Restenosis or reocclusion of the revascularized artery is possible due to the hypercoagulable state in VITT and angiographic surveillance after the procedure is reasonable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/chemically induced , Ischemic Stroke/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/immunology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/immunology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Middle Aged , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
14.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(2): 185-199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posterior circulation stroke is characterized by poor prognosis because its optimal thrombolysis "time window" is always missed. After mechanical thrombectomy (MT), the recanalization rate of posterior circulation obstruction is significantly increased, but prognosis remains poor. To best manage patients, prognostic factors are needed to inform MT triaging after posterior circulation stroke. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done for the period through April 2020. Studies included those with posterior circulation stroke cases that underwent MT. The primary outcome measure in this study was the modified Rankin Scale on day 90. RESULTS: No outcome differences were found in gender, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and coronary artery disease (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28; OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.82-1.26; OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.94-1.68; and OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.58-1.22, respectively). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke correlated with poorer prognosis (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.77; OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.50-0.73; and OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.99, respectively). However, hyperlipidemia correlated with better prognosis (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.58). CONCLUSION: Our analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or previous stroke correlate with poorer outcomes. Intriguingly, hyperlipidemia correlates with better prognosis. These factors may help inform triage decisions when considering MT for posterior circulation stroke patients. However, large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Thrombectomy/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Recovery of Function , Referral and Consultation/trends , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombectomy/mortality , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 33(3): 268-272, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is currently a major challenge for health care systems around the world. For a time-sensitive emergency such as acute ischemic stroke (AIS), streamlined workflow times are essential to ensure good clinical outcomes. METHODS: The aim of this single-center, retrospective, observational study was to describe changes in stroke workflow patterns and clinical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data from AIS patients undergoing emergent endovascular treatment (EVT) between 23 January and 8 April 2020 were retrospectively collected and compared with data from patients admitted during a similar period in 2019. The primary outcome was difference in time from symptom onset to recanalization. Secondary outcomes included workflow times, clinical management, discharge outcomes, and health-economic data. RESULTS: In all, 21 AIS patients were admitted for emergent EVT during the 77-day study period, compared with 42 cases in 2019. Median time from symptom onset to recanalization was 132 minutes longer during the pandemic compared with the previous year (672 vs. 540 min, P=0.049). Patients admitted during the pandemic had a higher likelihood of endotracheal intubation (84.6% vs. 42.4%, P<0.05) and a higher incidence of delayed extubation after EVT (69.2% vs. 45.5%, P<0.05). National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at hospital discharge was similar in the 2 cohorts, whereas neurointensive care unit stay was longer in patients admitted during the pandemic (10 vs. 7 days, P=0.013) and hospitalization costs were higher (123.9 vs. 95.2 thousand Chinese Yuan, P=0.052). CONCLUSION: Disruptions to medical services during the COVID-19 pandemic has particularly impacted AIS patients undergoing emergent EVT, resulting in increased workflow times. A structured and multidisciplinary protocol should be implemented to minimize treatment delays and maximize patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Acute Disease , Aged , Beijing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 238, 2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to analyse endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients presenting acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion (AIS-LVO) during the pandemic and post-epidemic periods. METHODS: Patients with AIS-LVO of the anterior circulation who underwent EVT were enrolled. According to the times of Wuhan closure and reopening, patients were divided into a pre-pandemic group (from November 8, 2019, to January 22, 2020), pandemic group (from January 23, 2020, to April 8, 2020) and post-epidemic group (from April 9, 2020, to June 24, 2020). The primary endpoints were the time delay among symptom onset to arriving hospital door, to groining puncture and to vascular reperfusion. Secondary endpoints were the functional outcomes evaluated by 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS) score. RESULTS: In total, the times from onset to reperfusion (OTR, median 356 min vs. 310 min, p = 0.041) and onset to door (OTD, median 238 min vs. 167 min, p = 0.017) were prolonged in the pandemic group compared to the pre-pandemic group, and the delay continue in the post-epidemic period. In the subgroup analysis, the time from door to imaging (DTI) was significantly prolonged during the pandemic period. Interestingly, the prolonged DTI was corrected in the directly admitted subgroup during post-epidemic period. In addition, the functional outcomes showed no significant differences across the three periods. CONCLUSIONS: Total time and prehospital time were prolonged during the pandemic and post-epidemic periods. Urgent public education and improved in-hospital screening processes are necessary to decrease time delays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reperfusion/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105942, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281474

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is a rare syndrome following the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Reported patients developed mainly venous thrombosis. We describe a case of a young healthy women suffering from acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion without cerebral venous thrombosis 8 days after vaccination and its consequences on recanalization strategy. Considering the thrombocytopenia, intravenous thrombolysis was contraindicated. She underwent mechanical thrombectomy with complete recanalization and dramatically improved clinically. Positive detection of anti-PF4-heparin-antibodies confirmed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia diagnosis. In case of acute ischemic stroke after recent ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccine, platelet count should be systematically checked before giving thrombolysis, and direct mechanical thrombectomy should be proposed in patients with large vessel occlusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , Thrombectomy , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Antibodies/blood , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Heparin/immunology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/chemically induced , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105919, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in acute ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection have not been fully clarified. We prospectively studied the phenotypic and etiological features of acute stroke occurring in COVID-19 infection. PATIENTS & METHODS: Within nine months starting from April-2020, the presence of COVID-19 infection was determined by thoracic CT and SARS-CoV-2 PCR in all acute stroke cases managed in a single tertiary center. Consecutive and prospective data on vascular risk factors/comorbidities, in-hospital quality metrics, discharge outcomes, etiological subclassification and blood markers of thrombosis / inflammation were compared in 44 COVID-19 positive cases (37 acute ischemic stroke, 5 TIA, 2 intracerebral hematoma) and 509 COVID-19 negative patients (355 ischemic, 105 TIA, 44 hematoma and 5 stroke mimic). RESULTS: COVID-19 positive patients had more severe strokes, delayed hospital admission, longer hospital stay, higher mortality rates, but had similar vascular risk factors/comorbidities frequency, thrombolysis/thrombectomy utilization rates, metrics, and stroke etiological subtype. They had significantly higher CRP, fibrinogen, ferritin, leukocyte count and lower lymphocyte count. No difference was detected in aPTT, INR, D-dimer, platelet, hemoglobin, homocysteine levels and ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and ENA panel positivity rates. Anti-phospholipid antibodies have been studied in 70% of COVID-19 positive and all cryptogenic patients, but were never found positive. Tests for coagulation factor levels and hereditary thrombophilia did not show major thrombophilia in any of the stroke patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We documented that there is no significant difference in etiological spectrum in acute stroke patients with COVID-19 infection. In addition, cryptogenic stroke and antiphospholipid antibody positivity rates did not increase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhagic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hemorrhagic Stroke/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
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