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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e022433, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511553

ABSTRACT

Background The relationship between COVID-19 and ischemic stroke is poorly understood due to potential unmeasured confounding and reverse causation. We aimed to leverage genetic data to triangulate reported associations. Methods and Results Analyses primarily focused on critical COVID-19, defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support or resulting in death. Cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to estimate genetic correlations of critical COVID-19 with ischemic stroke, other related cardiovascular outcomes, and risk factors common to both COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease (body mass index, smoking and chronic inflammation, estimated using C-reactive protein). Mendelian randomization analysis was performed to investigate whether liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of any cardiovascular outcome for which genetic correlation was identified. There was evidence of genetic correlation between critical COVID-19 and ischemic stroke (rg=0.29, false discovery rate [FDR]=0.012), body mass index (rg=0.21, FDR=0.00002), and C-reactive protein (rg=0.20, FDR=0.00035), but no other trait investigated. In Mendelian randomization, liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratio [OR] per logOR increase in genetically predicted critical COVID-19 liability 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P-value=0.03). Similar estimates were obtained for ischemic stroke subtypes. Consistent estimates were also obtained when performing statistical sensitivity analyses more robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants, including multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses adjusting for potential genetic confounding through body mass index, smoking, and chronic inflammation. There was no evidence to suggest that genetic liability to ischemic stroke increased the risk of critical COVID-19. Conclusions These data support that liability to critical COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The host response predisposing to severe COVID-19 is likely to increase the risk of ischemic stroke, independent of other potentially mitigating risk factors.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Body Mass Index , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/virology , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Inflammation , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/genetics , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Smoking
3.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211028389, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285174

ABSTRACT

Stroke is an identified sequela of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. While the pathophysiology remains poorly understood, endothelial dysfunction and intravascular thrombosis secondary to sepsis-induced hypercoagulability likely increase the risk of stroke. This report describes the rare case of an otherwise healthy 42-year-old male who developed large bilateral ischemic infarcts during admission for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to COVID pneumonia. This report adds to scarce literature describing massive cerebrovascular injury in COVID patients and emphasizes the importance of increased clinical suspicion for stroke in patients who exhibit acute change in mental status or motor function, as well as rapid clinical deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 61(7): 486-490, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278670

ABSTRACT

A 63-year-old man, who had persistent fever for a month, was admitted to the hospital with sudden left arm palsy with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3. Consequently, brain MRI showed hyperintensity of the bilateral occipital, right parietal, and right frontal lobes on diffusion-weighted imaging. Moreover, FLAIR presented hyperintensity of the left occipital lobe. Magnetic resonance angiography detected the deficit of the blood-flow signal of the horizontal segment of the middle cerebral artery. He was diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. In addition, chest CT showed ground-glass opacities, and test to detect SARS-CoV-2 was positive. Cerebral embolism was suspected. However, the source was unknown. His ischemic stroke was possibly associated with coagulation abnormality caused by coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Intracranial Embolism/virology , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Middle Aged , Middle Cerebral Artery
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190642

ABSTRACT

Since the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, cardiovascular complications are interestingly increasing, particularly thrombotic events, especially in those requiring intensive care. Venous thromboembolism is well known to occur in patients infected by the SARS-CoV-2, but only a few arterial thromboembolism cases have been previously reported. Herein, we report the case of a COVID-19 complicated by a concomitant acute right limb ischemia and multiple acute ischemic strokes. This rare case emphasizes the hypercoagulable state described in COVID-19 patients and the need for anticoagulation therapy to prevent these severe complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Aged , Humans , Ischemia/virology , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Male , Thromboembolism/virology
6.
Stroke ; 52(5): 1885-1894, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166635

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised concerns about the correlation with this viral illness and increased risk of stroke. Although it is too early in the pandemic to know the strength of the association between COVID-19 and stroke, it is an opportune time to review the relationship between acute viral illnesses and stroke. Here, we summarize pathophysiological principles and available literature to guide understanding of how viruses may contribute to ischemic stroke. After a review of inflammatory mechanisms, we summarize relevant pathophysiological principles of vasculopathy, hypercoagulability, and hemodynamic instability. We will end by discussing mechanisms by which several well-known viruses may cause stroke in an effort to inform our understanding of the relationship between COVID-19 and stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Acute Disease , Blood Coagulation , Brain Ischemia/virology , Hemodynamics , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Pandemics , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/physiopathology , Risk , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Vascular Diseases/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
7.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a small but clinically significant risk of stroke, the cause of which is frequently cryptogenic. In a large multinational cohort of consecutive COVID-19 patients with stroke, we evaluated clinical predictors of cryptogenic stroke, short-term functional outcomes and in-hospital mortality among patients according to stroke etiology. METHODS: We explored clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of consecutively evaluated patients 18 years of age or older with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 31 hospitals in 4 countries (3/1/20-6/16/20). RESULTS: Of the 14.483 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19, 156 (1.1%) were diagnosed with AIS. Sixty-one (39.4%) were female, 84 (67.2%) white, and 88 (61.5%) were between 60 and 79 years of age. The most frequently reported etiology of AIS was cryptogenic (55/129, 42.6%), which was associated with significantly higher white blood cell count, c-reactive protein, and D-dimer levels than non-cryptogenic AIS patients (p

Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Registries , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke , United States/epidemiology
8.
Neuroradiol J ; 34(4): 308-312, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033523

ABSTRACT

The disease caused by the new coronavirus, initially described in China in December 2019, became known as coronavirus disease 2019 and quickly spread to countries on all continents, becoming a pandemic with an important global impact. Despite being a virus that typically affects the respiratory tract, some studies have already described neurological manifestations associated with this infection, including acute ischaemic vascular insult. We report a case series including 30 patients, who presented with neurological symptoms during admission to our service, being diagnosed with ischaemic stroke and, concomitantly, coronavirus disease 2019. In the subgroup of patients analysed, a state of hypercoagulability and pro thrombosis was observed through laboratory tests, probably related to the cytokine storm syndrome associated with infection by this virus. With that, we discussed the possibility of this finding being an aggravating factor in the occurrence of stroke in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Neuroimaging/methods , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Brazil , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e928852, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily affects the lungs but can involve any organ. The medical community is struggling to cope with the critical illness associated with the disease. On top of that, patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have presented with complications such as thrombotic episodes in various organs both during and after being infected with SARS-CoV-2. A COVID-19-associated prothrombotic state has been mentioned in multiple recent research articles. The role of anticoagulants is debatable, because even after receiving them prophylactically, many patients have experienced thrombotic episodes. The situation, therefore, represents a challenge to the medical community. CASE REPORT We report on a COVID-19-associated prothrombotic state in a 65-year-old man with no history of comorbid illness. Initially, he presented with right-sided weakness and was found to have had an acute ischemic stroke. Urgent imaging after the stroke revealed changes on electrocardiography that were remarkable for left bundle branch block. The patient's elevated cardiac enzyme levels correlated with a silent acute myocardial infarction (MI). His echocardiogram revealed a left ventricular (LV) thrombus. He was managed with a multidisciplinary approach involving Neurology, Cardiology, and Medicine. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19-associated prothrombotic episodes involving arterial and venous systems have been reported in the literature. But concomitant stroke, acute MI, and LV thrombus rarely have been documented. The role of prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation is still unclear because even when patients are on these drugs, they continue to develop thrombotic episodes. Indeed, further studies are required to develop a standard management plan for what can be a fatal situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Myocardial Infarction/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Aged , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , Bundle-Branch Block/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Echocardiography , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Male , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
CEN Case Rep ; 10(2): 250-254, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932659

ABSTRACT

Patients on dialysis may have an elevated risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its complications due to their high prevalence of comorbidities. Here we describe the case of an 80-year-old male undergoing peritoneal dialysis with a moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection who developed a purpuric dermatitis and ischemic stroke after successful recovery from his bilateral pneumonia. Erythemato-papular lesions affecting trunk and lower limbs appeared 17 days after the onset of SARS-CoV-2 symptoms. These kind of lesions are an infrequent cutaneous manifestation of COVID-19. The pathology revealed a moderate purpuric dermatitis affecting superficial dermis and corticoesteroids were prescribed achieving complete resolution. Arterial thrombosis affecting cerebellar vermis emerged 30 days after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. It occurred 5 days after withdrawal of antithrombotic prophylaxis that the patient received from his admission until 2 weeks after discharge. He completely recovered from his paresis and continued on his regular antiaggregation therapy. This is the first case report published of a patient with PD with such COVID-19-related complications. More experience is needed to determine the appropriate length of antithrombotic prophylaxis especially in high-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dermatitis/virology , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Peritoneal Dialysis , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Dermatitis/diagnosis , Dermatitis/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 65, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886479

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus is a virus with potential to target the nervous and respiratory systems. The aim of this work is to establish the prevalence of strokes in COVID19 positive patients in Guinea. Methods: All patients with stroke confirmed by brain imaging and COVID-positive PCR were included in this study. Retrospective patient data were obtained from medical records. Informed consent was obtained. Results: The RT-PCR confirmed the initial diagnosis and the chest CT scan provided a good diagnostic orientation. Brain imaging identified ischemic brain lesions. We report the case of four patients with stroke and a COVID-19 incidental finding in Guinea. Conclusion: This work shows that the onset of ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19 is generally delayed, but can occur both early and late in the course of the disease. More attention is needed because the early symptoms of viral attack are not just pulmonary.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Brain Ischemia/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Guinea , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
12.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(1): 62-66, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 causes multiorgan disease due to altered coagulability and microangiopathy. Patients may have an increased risk of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). Our objective was to analyze clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of patients with ischemic CVA during the pandemic peak in our region, in order to identify atypical presentations. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of patients admitted under code-stroke protocol to our center with a final diagnosis of ischemic brain infarction. We analyzed the main imaging and demographic characteristics and reviewed neuroimaging for atypical presentations. RESULTS: One-hundred patients with confirmed ischemic CVA were included. Nineteen had positive polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2 on admission. These patients had a lower prevalence of proximal arterial occlusion on imaging, higher in-hospital mortality, and worse baseline disability. No differences were identified in affected vascular territory, volume of infarction, initial CT stroke score, prevalence of hemorrhagic transformation, gender, age, cardiovascular risk factors, time to admission, symptom severity on entry, or decision to treat with thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy. Prevalence of COVID-19 in our code-stroke sample was higher than that for our province during this time period. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 group had more in-hospital mortality, less proximal arterial occlusion on CT or MR angiography, and lower baseline modified Rankin Scale score. We suggest a possibly higher proportion of microangiopathic involvement or undetected distal large-vessel occlusion in the COVID-19 stroke group. Excess mortality was explained by severe respiratory failure. Otherwise, stroke patients with COVID-19 did not differ demographically or clinically from those without the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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