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1.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(9): e577-e586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple voluntary surveillance platforms were developed across the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a real-time understanding of population-based COVID-19 epidemiology. During this time, testing criteria broadened and health-care policies matured. We aimed to test whether there were consistent associations of symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 test status across three surveillance platforms in three countries (two platforms per country), during periods of testing and policy changes. METHODS: For this observational study, we used data of observations from three volunteer COVID-19 digital surveillance platforms (Carnegie Mellon University and University of Maryland Facebook COVID-19 Symptom Survey, ZOE COVID Symptom Study app, and the Corona Israel study) targeting communities in three countries (Israel, the UK, and the USA; two platforms per country). The study population included adult respondents (age 18-100 years at baseline) who were not health-care workers. We did logistic regression of self-reported symptoms on self-reported SARS-CoV-2 test status (positive or negative), adjusted for age and sex, in each of the study cohorts. We compared odds ratios (ORs) across platforms and countries, and we did meta-analyses assuming a random effects model. We also evaluated testing policy changes, COVID-19 incidence, and time scales of duration of symptoms and symptom-to-test time. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and July 31, 2020, 514 459 tests from over 10 million respondents were recorded in the six surveillance platform datasets. Anosmia-ageusia was the strongest, most consistent symptom associated with a positive COVID-19 test (robust aggregated rank one, meta-analysed random effects OR 16·96, 95% CI 13·13-21·92). Fever (rank two, 6·45, 4·25-9·81), shortness of breath (rank three, 4·69, 3·14-7·01), and cough (rank four, 4·29, 3·13-5·88) were also highly associated with test positivity. The association of symptoms with test status varied by duration of illness, timing of the test, and broader test criteria, as well as over time, by country, and by platform. INTERPRETATION: The strong association of anosmia-ageusia with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 test was consistently observed, supporting its validity as a reliable COVID-19 signal, regardless of the participatory surveillance platform, country, phase of illness, or testing policy. These findings show that associations between COVID-19 symptoms and test positivity ranked similarly in a wide range of scenarios. Anosmia, fever, and respiratory symptoms consistently had the strongest effect estimates and were the most appropriate empirical signals for symptom-based public health surveillance in areas with insufficient testing or benchmarking capacity. Collaborative syndromic surveillance could enhance real-time epidemiological investigations and public health utility globally. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Health Research, Alzheimer's Society, Wellcome Trust, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19 , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Digital Technology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Euro Surveill ; 27(40)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115033

ABSTRACT

BackgroundData regarding the long-term protection afforded by vaccination for the SARS-CoV-2 infection are essential for allocation of scarce vaccination resources worldwide.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study aimed at studying the kinetics of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19-naïve patients fully vaccinated with two doses of Comirnaty mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibody levels were reported. Linear models were used to assess antibody levels after full vaccination and their decline over time.ResultsThe study included 4,740 patients and 5,719 serological tests. Unadjusted GMCs peaked 28-41 days after the first dose at 10,174 AU/mL (95% CI: 9,211-11,237) and gradually decreased but remained well above the positivity cut-off. After adjusting for baseline characteristics and repeated measurements, the antibodies half-life time was 34.1 days (95% CI: 33.1-35.2), and females aged 16-39 years with no comorbidities had antibody levels of 20,613 AU/mL (95% CI: 18,526-22,934) on day 28 post-first-dose. Antibody levels were lower among males (0.736 of the level measured in females; 95% CI: 0.672-0.806), people aged 40-59 (0.729; 95% CI: 0.649-0.818) and ≥ 60 years (0.452; 95% CI: 0.398-0.513), and patients having haematological (0.241; 95% CI: 0.190-0.306) or solid malignancies (0.757; 95% CI: 0.650-0.881), chronic kidney disease with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥ 30 (0.434; 95% CI: 0.354-0.532) or with GFR < 30 mL/min (0.176; 95% CI: 0.109-0.287), and immunosuppression (0.273; 95% CI: 0.235-0.317). Body mass index, cardiovascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and inflammatory bowel diseases were not associated with antibody levels.ConclusionsVaccination with two doses resulted in persistently high levels of antibodies (≥ cut-off of 50 AU/mL) up to 137 days post-first-dose. Risk factors for lower antibody levels were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Israel/epidemiology , Male , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277757, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119324

ABSTRACT

Grounded in an ecodevelopment perspective, in the current study we examined unique and moderating effects of daily COVID-19 prevalence (social contexts) on effects of COVID-19 related risk and protective factors such as emotional distress (individual contexts) and employment (working from home and unemployment status; family contexts) on family functioning among 160 recent immigrant families in Israel. In general, results indicate several unique effects of COVID-19 related factors (such as COVID-19 emotional distress, unemployment, and remote work arrangements) on both parents' and adolescents' reports of family functioning. However, results indicated that there were more significant associations between COVID-19 factors (e.g., emotional distress and COVID-19 prevalence) and family functioning indicators with adolescents, than with parents. The effects of COVID-19 factors (e.g., emotional distress and remote work arrangements) were moderated by daily COVID-19 prevalence (new cases and deaths). We discuss ways in which interventionists can contribute to pandemic-related research to promote optimal family functioning among immigrant families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Humans , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Israel/epidemiology , Employment , Disease Outbreaks
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6961, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119270

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine for pregnant women, although data regarding effectiveness during pregnancy are lacking. This national, population-based, historical cohort study of pregnant women in Israel, delivering between August 1, 2021 and March 22, 2022, aims to analyze and compare the third and second doses' vaccine effectiveness in preventing COVID-19-related hospitalizations during pregnancy during two COVID-19 waves (Delta variant in the summer of 2021 and Omicron, BA.1, variant in the winter of 2022). Time-dependent Cox proportional-hazards regression models estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for COVID-related outcomes according to vaccine dose, and vaccine effectiveness as 1-HR. Study includes 82,659 and 33,303 pregnant women from the Delta and Omicron waves, respectively. Compared with the second dose, the third dose effectively prevents overall hospitalizations with SARS-CoV-2 infections, with estimated effectiveness of 92% (95% CI 83-96%) during Delta, and enhances protection against significant disease during Omicron, with effectiveness of 92% (95% CI 26-99%), and 48% (95% CI 37-57%) effectiveness against hospitalization overall. A third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, given at least 5 months after the second vaccine dose, enhances protection against adverse COVID-19-related outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Israel/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
5.
J Addict Med ; 16(6): 639-644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, and stringent lockdown measures implemented to curb transmission, might be related to increased cannabis use risk behaviors. This rapid response short-term longitudinal study investigated predictors of increased cannabis use risk behaviors and their association with severity of cannabis dependence during 2 separate COVID-19 lockdown periods. METHODS: Analyses were based on data from 116 monthly cannabis users who responded to 2 survey waves, corresponding to the first and the second lockdown periods in Israel. Multinomial regressions predicted risk of increased cannabis use, solitary use, and morning use during 1 or both of the lockdown periods as a function of sociodemographic factors and coping motives. Robust regression analyses assessed whether changes in cannabis use risk behaviors predicted severity of cannabis dependence at wave 2. RESULTS: A substantial proportion reported increased cannabis use, solitary use, and use before noon during both lockdown periods. Coping motives were related to reported increases in cannabis use and more frequent use before noon at 1 and both lockdown periods. Respondents who reported increases in cannabis use and use before noon at both lockdown periods, but not those who reported increases at only 1 lockdown period, had more severity of cannabis dependence at wave 2. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have ongoing and long-term effects on the health of the population, including those related to increased cannabis use risk behaviors. Continued monitoring of individual differences and long-term changes in cannabis use is needed to assess consequences of lockdown restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Marijuana Abuse , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , Israel/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Risk-Taking
6.
Euro Surveill ; 27(44)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109636

ABSTRACT

We evaluated neutralising antibody titres against wild type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and four Omicron variants (BA.1, BA.2, BA.5 and BA.2.75) in fully vaccinated (three doses of Comirnaty vaccine) healthcare workers (HCW) in Israel who had breakthrough BA.1/BA5 infections. Omicron breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals resulted in increased neutralising antibodies against the WT and Omicron variants compared with vaccinated uninfected HCW. HCW who recovered from BA.1 or BA.5 infections showed similar neutralising antibodies levels against BA.2.75.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 90-91: 101905, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095170

ABSTRACT

Domestic cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and can transmit the virus to other felines. A high number of COVID-19 human cases within the military personnel and a high density of stray cats living close to soldiers raised the need to perform active animal surveillance. We validated a novel quantitative serological microarray for use in cats, that enables simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM responses; in addition, molecular genetic SARS-CoV-2 detection was performed. Three out of 131 cats analyzed, showed IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 RBD and S2P (2.3 %). None of cats were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in soldiers ranged from 4.7 % to 16 % (average rate=8.9 %). Further investigations on a larger cohort are necessary, in the light of the emerging new viral variants in other animal species and in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Military Personnel , Cats , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , RNA, Viral/genetics , Israel/epidemiology , Military Facilities , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 34(4)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2019, several countries have reported a substantial drop in the number of patients admitted with non-ST-segment myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the changes in admissions, in-hospital management and outcomes of patients with NSTEMI in the COVID-19 era in a nationwide survey. METHOD: A prospective, multicenter, observational, nationwide study involving 13 medical centers across Israel aimed to evaluate consecutive patients with NSTEMI admitted to intensive cardiac care units over an 8-week period during the COVID-19 outbreak and to compare them with NSTEMI patients admitted at the same period 2 years earlier (control period). RESULTS: There were 624 (43%) NSTEMI patients, of whom 349 (56%) were hospitalized during the COVID-19 era and 275 (44%) during the control period. There were no significant differences in age, gender and other baseline characteristics between the two study periods. During the COVID-19 era, more patients arrived at the hospital via an emergency medical system compared with the control period (P = 0.05). Time from symptom onset to hospital admission was longer in the COVID-19 era as compared with the control period [11.5 h (interquartile range, IQR, 2.5-46.7) vs. 2.9 h (IQR 1.7-6.8), respectively, P < 0.001]. Nevertheless, the time from hospital admission to reperfusion was similar in both groups. The rate of coronary angiography was also similar in both groups. The in-hospital mortality rate was similar in both the COVID-19 era and the control period groups (2.3% vs. 4.7%, respectively, P = 0.149) as was the 30-day mortality rate (3.7% vs. 5.1%, respectively, P = 0.238). CONCLUSION: In contrast to previous reports, admission rates of NSTEMI were similar in this nationwide survey during the COVID-19 era. With longer time from symptoms to admission, but with the same time from hospital admission to reperfusion therapy and with similar in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates. Even in times of crisis, adherence of medical systems to clinical practice guidelines ensures the preservation of good clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Prospective Studies , Israel/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081833

ABSTRACT

The mental health and well-being of higher-education students is a topic of growing interest. COVID-19 impacted higher education in many ways and the challenges were especially pronounced for minority students. This study examines the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of Arab minority students in Israel in relation to social, academic, and financial factors. We recruited 420 Arab higher-education students enrolled in academic colleges or universities in Israel who completed a battery of online questionnaires. Mental health status was measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21). Moderate to severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were reported by 49.3%, 45.2%, and 54% of Arab students, respectively. Analyses indicate that low quality of online learning, academic difficulties, and negative economic effects of COVID-19 predicted stress, anxiety, and depression. Women reported higher levels of depression and stress; job loss predicted depression and anxiety; low income predicted depression; and COVID-19-related health concerns predicted anxiety. This study highlights the unique and multiple challenges faced by minority students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Campus programs are needed to address the emotional needs of students. Longitudinal research is needed to more fully understand the impact of COVID-19 on higher-education students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Arabs/psychology , Israel/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Students/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Universities
11.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 11(1): 36, 2022 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079545

ABSTRACT

Mathematical and statistical models have played an important role in the analysis of data from COVID-19. They are important for tracking the progress of the pandemic, for understanding its spread in the population, and perhaps most significantly for forecasting the future course of the pandemic and evaluating potential policy options. This article describes the types of models that were used by research teams in Israel, presents their assumptions and basic elements, and illustrates how they were used, and how they influenced decisions. The article grew out of a "modelists' dialog" organized by the Israel National Institute for Health Policy Research with participation from some of the leaders in the local modeling effort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Israel/epidemiology , Models, Statistical
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic generated an extraordinary need for telemedicine. OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors and multi-way interactions associated with telemedicine use in primary healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This population-based study included all members (2,722,773) aged ≥18 years of the largest healthcare organization in Israel who used primary care clinic services between 1 March 2020 and 31 December 2021. Individuals were classified as telemedicine users (≥1 phone/video visits or asynchronous encounters) or non-telemedicine users (only in-person encounter/s). RESULTS: Ethnicity was the most discriminative variable associated with telemedicine use, with 85% and 52% users among Jews and Arabs, respectively. Higher odds for telemedicine utilization were observed among women, residents of urban areas, those confined to home, individuals with high level of technology literacy, residents of the central area (in Jews only), young Jews, and older Arabs. Based on decision tree analysis, the segments of the population with the lowest telemedicine use were characterized by lower primary care needs and comorbidities, as well as low technology literacy. The proportion of telemedicine use in these groups was 56% and 27% in Jews and in Arabs, respectively. CONCLUSION: A proactive intervention program should be applied among populations who are less likely to use telemedicine in the primary care clinics, including Arabs, Jews who live in the distant periphery, and individuals with low technology literacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Israel/epidemiology , Primary Health Care
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071430

ABSTRACT

During the first lockdown in Israel, citizens were instructed to visit community clinics only for urgent cases. However, they were not informed that emergency departments (EDs) were safe. Reports from the National Ambulance Services showed a 22% increase in at-home deaths during the lockdown. Perhaps, the reason is because some critically ill patients postponed referrals and came "at the last minute". After the first lockdown, the Ministry of Health (MOH) declared that hospital EDs were safe. The objective of the study was to examine the rates of admission from EDs to hospital wards, and non-COVID-19 in-hospital deaths during the first lockdown in Israel, compared with the second and third lockdowns. From the business intelligence software of the Rambam Medical Center in Israel, we collected data about the rates of admission to the ED, the non-COVID-19 in-hospital deaths during the three lockdowns, during the same periods in the previous three years, and the main five causes of non-COVID-19 deaths. Data comparison was done using multiple chi-square tests. ED admission numbers were significantly higher during the first lockdown than during the second (χ2 (1, n = 36,245) = 24.774, p = 0.00001) and third lockdowns (χ2 (1, n = 36,547) = 8.7808, p = 0.0030). We found a significantly higher number of non-COVID-19 in-hospital deaths vs. discharges during the first lockdown than in the second and third lockdowns (χ2 (2, n = 26,268) = 7.794, p = 0.0203) The number of deaths due to respiratory diseases was significantly higher during the first lockdown than in the second lockdown (χ2 (1, n = 572) = 8.8185, p = 0.0029) and in the third lockdown (χ2 (1, n = 624) = 9.0381, p = 0.0026), and deaths from infectious diseases were higher during the first lockdown than during both the second and third lockdowns (χ2 (1, n = 566) = 5.9479, p = 0.0147, and χ2 (1, n = 624) = 9.5978, p = 0.0019), respectively. The onset of CVA and CVD are abrupt, while respiratory and infectious diseases may have an insidious pattern; this may have led patients to postpone referrals to hospitals to the "last minute" during the first lockdown, perhaps due to fears of contracting COVID-19, and as a result of vague instructions. Citizens and policymakers must be made aware of this point during future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Israel/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics , Emergency Service, Hospital , Retrospective Studies
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115445, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069698

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on the impact of confinement and economic support measures on the mental health of the older population (aged 50 and above) across twenty-five European countries and Israel. While studies evaluating the effect of confinement measures on mental health exist, they largely ignore the potentially offsetting effects of economic support measures. Moreover, previous findings on the effect of confinement measures are inconsistent, and many studies are based solely on cross-sectional designs. Using data from the Corona Survey wave (2020) of the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we leverage the date of interview information to vary individual exposure to different policy contexts within countries. Overall, we do not find support for the negative effect of confinement measures on older adults' mental health. If anything, both confinement and support measures worked in tandem to soothe mental distress, resulting from the pandemic. The confinement effects, however, are contingent on age, potentially indicating that younger people are more likely to be negatively affected by lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Israel/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Europe/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies indicate that ethnic minority women, including women from the disadvantaged Palestinian-Arab minority in Israel, experience higher rates of psychological distress but are less likely to use mental health services. This study examined psychological distress and its role as a moderator in the relationship between mental health service use and stigma-related, attitudinal, and instrumental barriers. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of 146 Palestinian-Arab women who completed measures of psychological distress, mental health service use, the Barriers to Care Evaluation scale, and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Participants who did not utilize mental health services reported higher levels of all barrier types compared to participants who reported previous use, but lower levels of psychological distress. Psychological distress was a significant moderator only in the relationship between attitudinal barriers and mental health service use. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the role of psychological distress in the relationship between barriers to and utilization of mental health services, helping professionals and policymakers increase mental health service use among Palestinian-Arab women in Israel and other vulnerable women elsewhere.


Subject(s)
Mental Health Services , Psychological Distress , Arabs/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnicity , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Minority Groups/psychology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055220

ABSTRACT

Although concerns about harm and side effects are among the most important factors determining vaccine hesitancy, research on the fear of vaccination is sparse. The purpose of this study is a validation the Fear of Coronavirus Vaccination Scale (FoCVVS), adapted from the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. A representative sample of 1723 young adults aged 20-40 from Poland, Israel, Slovenia, and Germany participated during two time-points of the third COVID-19 pandemic wave. The online survey included demographic variables and several well-being dimensions, including gender, vaccination status, fear of coronavirus (FoCV-19S), physical health (GSRH), life satisfaction (SWLS), and perceived stress (PSS-10), anxiety (GAD-7), and depression (PHQ-9). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed at T1, and confirmatory analysis (CFA) at T2. The second-order two-factor structure demonstrated the best fit and very good discriminant and convergent validation. The general factor of the FoCVVS included two subscales assessing the emotional and physiological symptoms of fear of vaccination. Unvaccinated people showed higher levels of fear of vaccination than those vaccinated. A vaccination status, fear of vaccination T1, and fear of COVID-19 T1 were significant predictors of fear of vaccination T2. Vaccination-promoting programs should be focused on decreasing fear and enhancing the beneficial effects of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fear/psychology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Young Adult
19.
Euro Surveill ; 27(39)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054868

ABSTRACT

We assess the immunogenicity and efficacy of Spikevax and Comirnaty as fourth dose COVID-19 vaccines. Six months post-fourth-dose, IgG levels were higher than pre-fourth dose at 1.58-fold (95% CI: 1.27-1.97) in Spikevax and 1.16-fold (95% CI: 0.98-1.37) in Comirnaty vaccinees. Nearly 60% (159/274) of vaccinees contracted SARS-CoV-2. Infection hazard ratios (HRs) for Spikevax (0.82; 95% CI: 0.62-1.09) and Comirnaty (0.86; 95% CI: 0.65-1.13) vaccinees were similar, as were substantial-disease HRs, i.e. 0.28 (95% CI: 0.13-0.62) and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.27-0.96), respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Israel/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Health Promot Int ; 37(5)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051402

ABSTRACT

Following the outbreak of the global COVID-19 pandemic, governments around the world issued guidelines designed to prevent contagion. This longitudinal study explored variables associated with citizens' adherence to these guidelines. Questionnaires were administered to a panel of Israeli citizens three times: in June (Time 1, n = 896), July (Time 2, n = 712) and August (Time 3, n = 662) 2020. The relationships of perceived loss of resources (e.g. stable employment) at Time 1 with adherence to guidelines at Time 2 and Time 3 were moderated by assumptions about controllability: The relationships were stronger for people who believed that appropriate behavior would lead to positive outcomes and prevent negative outcomes. The results indicate that messages about the pandemic should be accompanied by encouraging messages regarding the ability to control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Government , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control
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