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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(8): e19857, 2020 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest public health crisis of the last 100 years. Countries have responded with various levels of lockdown to save lives and stop health systems from being overwhelmed. At the same time, lockdowns entail large socioeconomic costs. One exit strategy under consideration is a mobile phone app that traces the close contacts of those infected with COVID-19. Recent research has demonstrated the theoretical effectiveness of this solution in different disease settings. However, concerns have been raised about such apps because of the potential privacy implications. This could limit the acceptability of app-based contact tracing in the general population. As the effectiveness of this approach increases strongly with app uptake, it is crucial to understand public support for this intervention. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the user acceptability of a contact-tracing app in five countries hit by the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a largescale, multicountry study (N=5995) to measure public support for the digital contact tracing of COVID-19 infections. We ran anonymous online surveys in France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We measured intentions to use a contact-tracing app across different installation regimes (voluntary installation vs automatic installation by mobile phone providers) and studied how these intentions vary across individuals and countries. RESULTS: We found strong support for the app under both regimes, in all countries, across all subgroups of the population, and irrespective of regional-level COVID-19 mortality rates. We investigated the main factors that may hinder or facilitate uptake and found that concerns about cybersecurity and privacy, together with a lack of trust in the government, are the main barriers to adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological evidence shows that app-based contact tracing can suppress the spread of COVID-19 if a high enough proportion of the population uses the app and that it can still reduce the number of infections if uptake is moderate. Our findings show that the willingness to install the app is very high. The available evidence suggests that app-based contact tracing may be a viable approach to control the diffusion of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Intention , Mobile Applications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Recenti Prog Med ; 111(6): 374-378, 2020 06.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768980

ABSTRACT

Bergamo is a rich and populous city of northern Italy and one of the epicentres of the worldwide pandemic CoViD-19. Despite the generosity of health workers, we are undergoing a severe humanitarian crisis that is stressing every aspect of daily life. From outside it is very hard to understand, because houses are closed for lockdown and are not destroyed as they would be in an earthquake. An outbreak is not "only" a sudden mass lethal incident, like a natural disaster, neither "only" a disease, to be treated by doctors, but a social phenomenon too. Historical and social elements are key factors for development (for example, intensive promiscuity between animals and humans) and spread of an epidemic (for example, health workers and ambulance rapidly become vector of the virus). Can medical responsibility change in times of pandemic? My answer, as anaesthetist and intensive care physician from Bergamo, is yes. When the global medical community is called on to face a pandemic of unprecedented scale, with little scientific evidence and "crazy numbers" describing the situation, honest and forthcoming advocacy is an ethical duty. Aim of this narrative report is to share a view point about the dilemma of moral responsibility.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology
3.
In Vivo ; 34(5): 3033-3038, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic imposed extraordinary restriction measures and a complete reorganization of the Health System. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on emergency surgical department accesses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients admitted to surgical emergency departments was retrospectively recorded during the Lockdown (March 11, 2020-May 3, 2020) and compared with the same number of days in 2019 and immediately before Lockdown (January 16, 2020-March 10, 2020). Diagnoses, priority levels, modes of patient's transportation, waiting times and outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: During the lockdown phase, we ob-served a reduction in the access to emergency surgical departments of 84.45% and 79.78%, com-pared with the Pre-Lockdown2019 and Pre-Lockdown2020 groups, respectively. Patient's transportation, hospitalization and patients discharge with indications to an outpatient visit, waiting and total times exhibited a significant difference during the lockdown (p<0.005). CONCLUSION: We observed a reduction of surgical emergency accesses during the lockdown. Implementing the use of the regional systems and preventing overcrowding of emergency departments could be beneficial for reducing waiting times and improving the quality of treatments for patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surgery Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Female , Health Systems Plans , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
4.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(3)2020 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740518

ABSTRACT

Lung Ultrasound (LUS) is regarded to be potentially useful to diagnose lung injury in older adults living in nursing homes with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed at evaluating presence lung injury among senior nursing home residents by LUS performed with portable wireless scanner echography. The study population consisted of 150 residents with a mean age of 88 years (85% female) residing in 12 nursing homes in Northern Italy. Subjects had to have a history of recent onset of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia or have been exposed to the contagion of patients carrying the disease. COVID-19 testing was performed with SARS-CoV-2 nasal-pharyngeal (NP) swabs. Positive subjects to LUS scanning were considered those with non-coascelent B-lines in >3 zones, coalescent B-lines in >3 zones and with iperdensed patchy non-consolidated lungs. Sixty-three percent had positive NP testing and 65% had LUS signs of pulmonary injury. LUS had a sensitivity of 79% in predicting positive NP testing. Sixteen percent of residents tested negative for SARSCoV-2 carried the signs of COVID-19 lung injury at LUS. There were 92 patients (61%) with current or recent symptoms.Positivity to LUS scanning was reported in 73% of residents with symptoms, while it was 53% in those without (P=0.016). A positive NP testing was observed in 66% of residents with symptoms and in 57% of those without (P=0.27). We conclude that assessment of LUS by portable wireless scanner echography can be profitability utilized to diagnose lung injury among senior nursing home residents with or without symptoms compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Ultrasonography , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography/instrumentation , Ultrasonography/methods , Wireless Technology
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4264, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733526

ABSTRACT

The pressing need to restart socioeconomic activities locked-down to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy must be coupled with effective methodologies to selectively relax containment measures. Here we employ a spatially explicit model, properly attentive to the role of inapparent infections, capable of: estimating the expected unfolding of the outbreak under continuous lockdown (baseline trajectory); assessing deviations from the baseline, should lockdown relaxations result in increased disease transmission; calculating the isolation effort required to prevent a resurgence of the outbreak. A 40% increase in effective transmission would yield a rebound of infections. A control effort capable of isolating daily  ~5.5% of the exposed and highly infectious individuals proves necessary to maintain the epidemic curve onto the decreasing baseline trajectory. We finally provide an ex-post assessment based on the epidemiological data that became available after the initial analysis and estimate the actual disease transmission that occurred after weakening the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Basic Reproduction Number , Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Forecasting , Geography , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Social Isolation
7.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 171, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733038

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has challenged hard the national health systems worldwide. According to the national policy issued in March 2020 in response to the evolving Covid-19 pandemic, several hospitals were re-configured as Covid-19 centers and elective surgery procedures were rescheduled according to the most recent recommendations. In addition, Covid-19 protected cancer hubs were established, including the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute of Rome, Central Italy. At our Institute, the Breast Surgery Department continued working under the sign of a multidisciplinary approach. The number of professional figures involved in case evaluation was reduced to a minimum and interactions took place in the full respect of the required safety measures. Treatments for benign disease, pure prophylactic surgery and elective reconstructive procedures were all postponed and priority was assigned to the histologically-proven malignant breast tumors and highly suspicious lesions. From March 15th though April 30th 2020, we treated a total of 79 patients. This number is fully consistent with the average quantitative standards reached by our Department under ordinary circumstances. Patients were mostly discharged the day after surgery and none was readmitted due to surgery-related late complications. More generally, post-operative complications rates were unexpectedly low, particularly in light of the relatively high number of reconstructive procedures performed in this emergency situation. A strict follow up was performed based on the close contact with the surgical staff by telephone, messaging apps and telemedicine.Patients ascertainment for their Covid-19 status prior to hospital admission and hospital discharge allowed to maintain the "no-Covid-19" status at our Institution. In addition, during the aforementioned time window, none of the care providers developed SARS-CoV-2 infection or disease, as shown by the results of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M and G profiling. In conclusions, elective breast cancer surgery procedures were successfully performed in a lockdown situation due to a novel viral pandemic. The well-coordinated regional and hospital efforts in terms of medical resource re-allocation and definition of clinical priorities allowed to maintain high quality standards of breast cancer care while ensuring safety to the cancer patients and care providers involved.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/surgery , Carcinoma, Lobular/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mastectomy/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/virology , Carcinoma, Lobular/pathology , Carcinoma, Lobular/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238281, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732997

ABSTRACT

This is a population-based prospective cohort study on archive data describing the age- and sex-specific prevalence of COVID-19 and its prognostic factors. All 2653 symptomatic patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from February 27 to April 2, 2020 in the Reggio Emilia province, Italy, were included. COVID-19 cumulative incidence, hospitalization and death rates, and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated according to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Females had higher prevalence of infection than males below age 50 (2.61 vs. 1.84 ‰), but lower in older ages (16.49 vs. 20.86 ‰ over age 80). Case fatality rate reached 20.7% in cases with more than 4 weeks follow up. After adjusting for age and comorbidities, men had a higher risk of hospitalization (HR 1.4 95% CI 1.2 to 1.6) and of death (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1). Patients over age 80 compared to age < 50 had HR 7.1 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.3) and HR 27.8 (95% CI 12.5 to 61.7) for hospitalization and death, respectively. Immigrants had a higher risk of hospitalization (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.81) than Italians and a similar risk of death. Risk of hospitalization and of death were higher in patients with heart failure, arrhythmia, dementia, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension, while COPD increased the risk of hospitalization (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) but not of death (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.7). Previous use of ACE inhibitors had no effect on risk of death (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.34). Identified susceptible populations and fragile patients should be considered when setting priorities in public health planning and clinical decision making.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution
9.
Pathog Glob Health ; 114(6): 309-317, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the successful emergency plan implemented by Padova University Hospital (AOUP) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The emergency plan included early implementation of procedures aimed at meeting the increasing demand for testing and care while ensuring safe and timely care of all patients and guaranteeing the safety of healthcare workers. RESULTS: From 21 February to 1 May 2020, there were 3,862 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Province of Padua. A total of 485 patients were hospitalized in AOUP, of which 91 were admitted to the ICU; 12 .6% of admitted patients died. The average bed occupancy rate in the ICU was 61.1% (IQR 43.6%:77.4%). Inpatient surgery and inpatient admissions were kept for 76% and 74%, respectively, compared to March 2019. A total of 123,077 swabs were performed, 19.3% of which (23,725 swabs) to screen AOUP workers. The screening of all staff showed that 137 of 7,649 (1.8%) hospital workers were positive. No healthcare worker died. DISCUSSION: AOUP strategy demonstrated effective management of the epidemic thanks to the timely implementation of emergency procedures, a well-coordinated effort shared by all hospital Departments, and their continuous adjustment to the ongoing epidemic. Timely screening of all hospital workers proved to be particularly important to defend the hospital, avoiding epidemic clusters due to unknown positive cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Emergencies , Female , Health Personnel , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(17)2020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724955

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Italy was one of the most affected countries in Europe. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is less frequent and less severe in children than in adults. This study analyzed the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection among all children aged <18 years in the Apulia region of southern Italy and the characteristics of the infected children. Clinical and demographic data were collected through the national platform for COVID-19 surveillance. Of the 166 infected children in the Apulia region, 104 (62.6%) were asymptomatic, 37 (22.3%) had mild infections, 22 (13.3%) had moderate infections, and 3 (1.8%) had severe infections. Only ten children (6.0%) were hospitalized, but none required intensive care support and none died. SARS-CoV-2 infection was transmitted mainly from parents or relatives to children. Because of school closure during the lockdown, infection was unlikely to have been transmitted among children. It is unclear whether school reopening would enhance virus spread, leading the Italian government to develop guidelines for safe school reopening. The actual role of children in virus transmission remains unclear. A sensitive surveillance system, prompt identification of cases, testing, and contact tracing will be key to reducing the further spread of infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
11.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(3): 32-39, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722917

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION On March 11, 2020, WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic and called on governments to impose drastic measures to fi ght it. It is vitally important for government health authorities and leaders to have reliable estimates of infected cases and deaths in order to apply the necessary measures with the resources at their disposal. OBJECTIVE Test the validity of the logistic regression and Gompertz curve to forecast peaks of confi rmed cases and deaths in Cuba, as well as total number of cases. METHODS An inferential, predictive study was conducted using lo-gistic and Gompertz growth curves, adjusted with the least squares method and informatics tools for analysis and prediction of growth in COVID-19 cases and deaths. Italy and Spain-countries that have passed the initial peak of infection rates-were studied, and it was inferred from the results of these countries that their models were ap-plicable to Cuba. This hypothesis was tested by applying goodness-of-fi t and signifi cance tests on its parameters.RESULTS Both models showed good fi t, low mean square errors, and all parameters were highly signifi cant. CONCLUSIONS The validity of models was confi rmed based on logis-tic regression and the Gompertz curve to forecast the dates of peak infections and deaths, as well as total number of cases in Cuba. KEYWORDS COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, logistic models, pandemic, mortality, Cuba.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Forecasting/methods , Logistic Models , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Cuba/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 713-720, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721539

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are significant differences in the active cases and fatality rates of Covid-19 for different European countries. METHODOLOGY: The present study employs Monte Carlo based transmission growth simulations for Italy, Germany and Turkey. The probabilities of transmission at home, work and social networks and the number of initial cases have been calibrated to match the basic reproduction number and the reported fatality curves. Parametric studies were conducted to observe the effect of social distancing, work closure, testing and quarantine of the family and colleagues of positively tested individuals. RESULTS: It is observed that estimates of the number of initial cases in Italy compared to Turkey and Germany are higher. Turkey will probably experience about 30% less number of fatalities than Germany due its smaller elderly population. If social distancing and work contacts are limited to 25% of daily routines, Germany and Turkey may limit the number of fatalities to a few thousands as the reproduction number decreases to about 1.3 from 2.8. Random testing may reduce the number of fatalities by 10% upon testing least 5/1000 of the population. Quarantining of family and workmates of positively tested individuals may reduce the total number of fatalities by about 50%. CONCLUSIONS: The fatality rate of Covid-19 is estimated to be about 1.5% based on the simulation results. This may further be reduced by limiting the number of non-family contacts to two, conducting tests more than 0.5% of the population and immediate quarantine of the contacts for positively tested individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Basic Reproduction Number , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Family Characteristics , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Monte Carlo Method , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Social Isolation , Social Networking , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721498

ABSTRACT

Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic on 11 March, severe lockdown measures have been adopted by the Italian Government. For over two months of stay-at-home orders, houses became the only place where people slept, ate, worked, practiced sports, and socialized. As consolidated evidence exists on housing as a determinant of health, it is of great interest to explore the impact that COVID-19 response-related lockdown measures have had on mental health and well-being. We conducted a large web-based survey on 8177 students from a university institute in Milan, Northern Italy, one of the regions most heavily hit by the pandemic in Europe. As emerged from our analysis, poor housing is associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms during lockdown. In particular, living in apartments <60 m2 with poor views and scarce indoor quality is associated with, respectively, 1.31 (95% CI: 1046-1637), 1.368 (95% CI: 1166-1605), and 2.253 (95% CI: 1918-2647) times the risk of moderate-severe and severe depressive symptoms. Subjects reporting worsened working performance from home were over four times more likely to also report depression (OR = 4.28, 95% CI: 3713-4924). Housing design strategies should focus on larger and more livable living spaces facing green areas. We argue that a strengthened multi-interdisciplinary approach, involving urban planning, public mental health, environmental health, epidemiology, and sociology, is needed to investigate the effects of the built environment on mental health, so as to inform welfare and housing policies centered on population well-being.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Housing , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology
14.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(8): e009413, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a fast and radical transformation in social, economic, and healthcare networks. COVID-19 outbreak may thus have profound indirect consequences on clinical presentation and management of patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Aim of this study was to assess clinical features of patients with STEMI during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This single-center, prospective study from a regional public service healthcare hub in Milan included all consecutive patients with STEMI admitted to our institute from February 21 to April 1, 2020 (during COVID-19 pandemic). These patients were compared with a historical cohort of patients admitted for STEMI during the analogous time period (February 21 to April 1) in 2018 and 2019, in terms of time from symptoms onset to hospital admission, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 26 patients were admitted for STEMI during the study period, and 7 (26.9%) of these patients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. On admission, medical therapy, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers use, was similar between cohorts. Median (interquartile range) time from symptoms onset to hospital admission was significantly longer in 2020 as compared to the historical cohort (15.0 [2.0-48.0] versus 2.0 [1.0-3.0] hours; P<0.01). A higher proportion of patients presenting with late presentation STEMI was observed in 2020 compared with the historical cohort (50.0% versus 4.8%; P<0.01). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention resulted indicated in 80.8% of patients in 2020 compared with 100% in the historical cohort (P=0.06). In-hospital death, thromboembolism, mechanical ventilation, or hemodynamic decompensation needing inotropic or mechanical support were similar between years. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results from a cardiovascular regional public service healthcare hub demonstrate a significantly longer time from symptoms onset to hospital admission among patients with STEMI during COVID-19 pandemic compared with the same time period in the previous 2 years.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Public Health Practice , Registries , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications
15.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 40(5): 285-286, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721004

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been spreading rapidly worldwide since late January 2020. The strict lockdown strategy prompted by the Italian government, to hamper severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) spreading, has reduced the possibility of performing either outdoor or gym physical activity (PA). This study investigated and quantified the reduction of PA in patients with automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for primary prevention of sudden death. METHODS: Daily PA of 24 patients was estimated by processing recorded data from ICD-embedded accelerometric sensors used by the rate-responsive pacing systems. RESULTS: During the forced 40-d in-home confinement, a mean 25% reduction of PA was observed as compared with the 40-d confinement-free period (1.2 ± 0.3 vs 1.6 ± 0.5 hr/d, respectively, P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: This objective quantification of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on PA determined by an ICD device showed an abrupt and statistically significant reduction of PA in primary prevention ICD patients, during the in-home confinement quarantine. To counteract the deleterious effects of physical inactivity during the COVID-19 outbreak, patients should be encouraged to perform indoor exercise-based personalized rehabilitative programs.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Defibrillators, Implantable , Exercise/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Telerehabilitation/organization & administration , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Cardiac Rehabilitation/trends , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Electric Countershock/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Needs Assessment , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13764, 2020 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720848

ABSTRACT

We develop a minimalist compartmental model to study the impact of mobility restrictions in Italy during the Covid-19 outbreak. We show that, while an early lockdown shifts the contagion in time, beyond a critical value of lockdown strength the epidemic tends to restart after lifting the restrictions. We characterize the relative importance of different lockdown lifting schemes by accounting for two fundamental sources of heterogeneity, i.e. geography and demography. First, we consider Italian Regions as separate administrative entities, in which social interactions between age classes occur. We show that, due to the sparsity of the inter-Regional mobility matrix, once started, the epidemic spreading tends to develop independently across areas, justifying the adoption of mobility restrictions targeted to individual Regions or clusters of Regions. Second, we show that social contacts between members of different age classes play a fundamental role and that interventions which target local behaviours and take into account the age structure of the population can provide a significant contribution to mitigate the epidemic spreading. Our model aims to provide a general framework, and it highlights the relevance of some key parameters on non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain the contagion.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Interpersonal Relations , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Social Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Time Factors , Travel , Young Adult
18.
Med Oncol ; 37(10): 85, 2020 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716386

ABSTRACT

Management of patients with head and neck cancers (HNCs) is challenging for the Radiation Oncologist, especially in the COVID-19 era. The Italian Society of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology (AIRO) identified the need of practice recommendations on logistic issues, treatment delivery and healthcare personnel's protection in a time of limited resources. A panel of 15 national experts on HNCs completed a modified Delphi process. A five-point Likert scale was used; the chosen cut-offs for strong agreement and agreement were 75% and 66%, respectively. Items were organized into two sections: (1) general recommendations (10 items) and (2) special recommendations (45 items), detailing a set of procedures to be applied to all specific phases of the Radiation Oncology workflow. The distribution of facilities across the country was as follows: 47% Northern, 33% Central and 20% Southern regions. There was agreement or strong agreement across the majority (93%) of proposed items including treatment strategies, use of personal protection devices, set-up modifications and follow-up re-scheduling. Guaranteeing treatment delivery for HNC patients is well-recognized in Radiation Oncology. Our recommendations provide a flexible tool for management both in the pandemic and post-pandemic phase of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Medical Oncology/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiotherapy/methods , Radiotherapy/standards , Societies, Medical/standards
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We tested whether the tendency to worry could affect psychological responses to quarantine by capitalizing on the opportunity of having collected data before the COVID-19 outbreak on measures of worry, anxiety, and trait mindfulness in a group of university students. METHODS: Twenty-five participants completed self-report measures assessing worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, PSWQ), anxiety (Anxiety Sensitivity Index, ASI-3), and trait mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS) at T0 (pre-lockdown, 4 November 2019-17 February 2020) and T1 (at the end of lockdown, 26 April-30 April 2020). We compared assessments at the two time points in the whole sample and in high and low worriers (defined at T0 by scores on PSWQ respectively above and below 1.5 SD from mean of the Italian normative sample). OUTCOMES: High worriers showed at T1 a significant increase of anxiety sensitivity and fear of mental health in comparison to low worriers. Moreover, in the whole sample, at T1 trait mindfulness was inversely related to worry and fear of mental health. INTERPRETATION: A valuable approach to support individuals experiencing anxiety related to the COVID-19 outbreak could be represented by mindfulness-based interventions improving the ability to focus attention and awareness on the present moment.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Fear , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mindfulness , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Psychometrics , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717733

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 pandemic, risk communication has often been ineffective, and from this perspective "fake news" has found fertile ground, both as a cause and a consequence of it. The aim of this study is to measure how much "fake news" and corresponding verified news have circulated in Italy in the period between 31 December 2019 and 30 April 2020, and to estimate the quality of informal and formal communication. We used the BuzzSumo application to gather the most shared links on the Internet related to the pandemic in Italy, using keywords chosen according to the most frequent "fake news" during that period. For each research we noted the numbers of "fake news" articles and science-based news articles, as well as the number of engagements. We reviewed 2102 articles. Links that contained fake news were shared 2,352,585 times, accounting for 23.1% of the total shares of all the articles reviewed. Our study throws light on the "fake news" phenomenon in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. A quantitative assessment is fundamental in order to understand the impact of false information and to define political and technical interventions in health communication. Starting from this evaluation, health literacy should be improved by means of specific interventions in order to improve informal and formal communication.


Subject(s)
Communications Media/statistics & numerical data , Communications Media/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Communication/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Health Literacy , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics
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