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2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2010-2015, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526149

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) "Delta" is currently defined by PANGOLIN as a cluster of 33 different AY sublineages. Delta (in particular B.1.617.2) is largely and rapidly replacing the Alpha VOC as the dominant clade in most countries. To date, variations in the Spike protein of the Delta VOC have largely been limited. We report here the results of a genomic surveillance programme from Northern Italy. We identified several Delta sublineages harbouring mutations previously reported in GISAID at extremely low frequencies and in different combinations. Two patients (one of them vaccinated) tested positive for a Delta sublineage harbouring S71F, T250I, T572I and K854N. More patients tested positive for G769 V plus C1248F, A352S, and R158G and C1248F, respectively. Genomic surveillance of Delta variants should be encouraged to anticipate immune escape and deploy countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adult , Aged , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
3.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: In press, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, specific characteristics of the infected subjects appeared to be associated with a severe disease, leading to hospitalization or death. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the association between three components of the metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension), alone and in combination, and risk of hospitalization in subjects with nasopharyngeal swab-confirmed COVID-19. DESIGN: cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study subjects were all COVID-19 cases diagnosed in the area of the Agency for Health Protection of the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy Region, Northern Italy) between 10.02.2020 and 25.04.2020, whose data were gathered with an ad hoc information system developed at the beginning of the pandemic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: the association between metabolic syndrome components (alone and in combination) and hospitalization (both in any ward and in intensive care unit) was measured by means of cause-specific Cox models with gender, age, and comorbidities as potential confounders. RESULTS: the cohort included 15,162 subjects followed from diagnosis up to 20.07.2020. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of hospitalization in any ward estimated by the Cox model were 1.26 for uncomplicated diabetes mellitus (95%CI 1.18-1.34); 1.21 for complicated diabetes mellitus (95%CI 1.05-1.39); 1.07 for dyslipidaemia (95%CI 1.00-1.14); and 1.11 for hypertension (95%CI 1.05-1.17). When all components coexisted in the same subject, the HR was 1.46 (95%CI 1.31-1.62). A significant increase in risk of hospitalization in intensive care unit was found for uncomplicated diabetes mellitus (HR 1.38; 95%CI 1.15-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: this population-based study confirms that metabolic syndrome components increase the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19. The HR increases in an additive manner when the three components are simultaneously present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Syndrome , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: In press, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524742

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to present an evaluation of the campaign for vaccination against COVID-19 in the territory covered by the Agency for Health Protection of the Metropolitan Area of Milan from 01.01.2021 to 30.09.2021. DESIGN: descriptive study of vaccine adherence; predictive study of the factors associated with vaccine adherence, efficacy of vaccination in terms of hospitalization and mortality, and factors that increase the risk of hospital admission following full vaccination. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: population-based study with subjects aged >18 years eligible for vaccination (N. 2,981,997). An information system obtained by integrating various administrative healthcare sources made it possible to analyse socioeconomic characteristics, COVID-19 related hospitalizations, and general mortality in subjects eligible for vaccination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: full vaccination (2 doses); COVID-19-related hospitalizations, COVID-19-related hospitalizations occurring more than 15 days after the second dose, general mortality. RESULTS: in the first nine months of the vaccination campaign, 74.7% of the subjects (N. 2,228,915) was fully vaccinated, whereas 15.6% (N. 465,829) did not even receive one dose. Women have a lower probability of getting vaccinated than men; the 50-59 years and 70+ years age groups emerge as the most problematic to reach, while the younger one (<40) is the most adherent. A social gradient emerged, with residents of more disadvantaged areas progressively less incline to get vaccinated than those living in more affluent areas. Adherence is greater in Italian citizenship and is likely to increase with an increase in the number of chronic conditions. Hospitalizations amounted to 1.22% (N. 5,672) in the unvaccinated population compared to 0.05% (N. 1,013) in the vaccinated population; general mortality was 4.51% (N. 15,198) in the unvaccinated population against 0.32% (N. 8.733) in the vaccinated population. Sociodemographic factors and the presence of previous health conditions are important predictors of hospitalization outcomes even within the fully vaccinated population. Specifically, the highest hazard ratios are found in subjects with heart failure (HR 2.15; 95%CI 1.83-2.53), in immunocompromised patients (HR 2.02; 95%CI 1.52-2.69), and in transplant recipients (HR 1.92; 95%CI 1.10-3.33). CONCLUSIONS: vaccination campaign adherence is affected by the sociodemographic characteristics of the population and is a determining factor in preventing hospitalizations for COVID-19 and death. The persistent higher risk of hospitalization in chronic subjects following the second dose emphasizes the need to direct booster doses to the more vulnerable. Information systems proved to be effective monitoring tools in the absence of specific trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: In press, 2021.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524741

ABSTRACT

Il "progetto Michelangelo" è nato dall'esigenza di rallentare la diffusione dei contagi da SARS-CoV-2 e alleggerire il carico a livello ospedaliero. Inizialmente, la maggior parte degli ospiti dell'hotel Michelangelo di Milano erano pazienti dimessi dagli ospedali con test molecolare ancora positivo che non avevano la possibilità di restare in isolamento domiciliare. Ben presto, però, il progetto è stato esteso e circa un ospite su quattro era un adulto/nucleo familiare in condizioni di grave disagio economico o sociale o una persona senza fissa dimora. Inoltre, la maggior parte degli ospiti era di nazionalità non italiana: persone che, a causa di barriere linguistiche, legali, culturali e sociali, hanno trovato maggiore difficoltà ad avere un rapido accesso ai servizi sanitari. Il "progetto Michelangelo" non ha solo contribuito a ridurre il sovraffollamento degli ospedali, ma è stato di supporto ai servizi rivolti al contrasto della grave marginalità.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 746387, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518573

ABSTRACT

Background: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the University of Bologna Medical School surveyed medical students to learn more about their preparation to confront challenges posed by the pandemic and whether it affects perceptions of viral infection risk. This information could help design risk-reduction interventions with training to mitigate possible viral exposure. Method: A cross-sectional online survey examining students' characteristics, volunteer status, adoption of evidence-based preventive measures, trust in information sources used, infectious disease training, and knowledge of PPE usage in relation to perceived risk of infection from SARS-CoV-2 in daily living, academic, and healthcare activities. A multivariate path model estimated the simultaneous influences of all exogenous factors on perceived risk. A Poisson regression model assessed the same multivariate effects on knowledge of PPE usage. Results: The analysis sample included 537 respondents. Perceived risk of infection was highest in hospital activities. On average, students were able to use only four out of seven types of PPE albeit they adopted most of the evidence-based preventive measures. Adoption of preventive measures was positively associated with perceived risk of COVID infection. Conversely, training on PPE usage and volunteer work were associated with lower perceived risk in healthcare setting and higher PPE knowledge. Conclusion: Implementing early safety-based educational programs remedy students' lack of knowledge in infectious disease prevention and mitigate their risk of infection. Voluntary work should be encouraged with potential benefit for both their continued medical training and strengthening the healthcare system's response to public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , Volunteers
7.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: In press, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 'Scuola sicura' (SS) programme aims to monitor the rate of COVID-19 and to contain its spread within the school population through early case isolation. OBJECTIVES: to describe the initial process and outcome evaluation results. DESIGN: descriptive study of an experimental screening testing programme in children in Piedmont Region (Northern Italy) in the period January-March 2021. The data used came from the COVID-19 platform and the Local Health Units, the archives of birth certificates (CedAP), and hospital discharge files (SDO). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the screening programme targeted second and third grade students in first level secondary schools. Participants were subdivided into four groups; one group each week underwent screening, yielding one test per student per month. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: it was calculated: 1. number of positive cases detected vs total number of students tested in the SS programme; 2. number of positive cases detected outside the SS program vs. total number of students in the target population. The number of quarantines due to SS and no-SS case identification were detected. To investigate the spread of COVID-19 in households, the mother-child pairs were identified through record linkage between the CedAP and SDO archives, and positive mothers were identified. RESULTS: sixty-nine percent of schools and 19.5% of the students participated in the programme. SS detected 114 positives cases for SARS-CoV-2. On 08.03.2021, the target classes started distance learning: 69 of the 114 positive students were identified before that date, leading to the activation of 67 quarantine measures. Only for 61 out of 69 of those students (88%) was possible to identify the mother; 46 mothers had performed a swab test after the positivity of their child with a positive result in 11 cases. Asymptomatic cases identified at screening during in-class learning period accounted for 26.5% of the total number of cases occurred in the participating classes. CONCLUSIONS: this is one of the few studies (and the first in Italy) to describe the functioning and predictive capacity of school screening testing for SARS-CoV-2 in a real-world situation. The findings provide data-driven suggestions for government agencies when planning large-scale school screening testing programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2069, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relation between the magnitude of successive waves of the COVID-19 outbreak within the same communities could be useful in predicting the scope of new outbreaks. METHODS: We investigated the extent to which COVID-19 mortality in Italy during the second wave was related to first wave mortality within the same provinces. We compared data on province-specific COVID-19 2020 mortality in two time periods, corresponding to the first wave (February 24-June 30, 2020) and to the second wave (September 1-December 31, 2020), using cubic spline regression. RESULTS: For provinces with the lowest crude mortality rate in the first wave (February-June), i.e. < 22 cases/100,000/month, mortality in the second wave (September-December) was positively associated with mortality during the first wave. In provinces with mortality greater than 22/100,000/month during the first wave, higher mortality in the first wave was associated with a lower second wave mortality. Results were similar when the analysis was censored at October 2020, before the implementation of region-specific measures against the outbreak. Neither vaccination nor variant spread had any role during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that provinces with the most severe initial COVID-19 outbreaks, as assessed through mortality data, faced milder second waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Retina ; 41(4): 701-705, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe our managing strategy for COVID-19 emergency, to evaluate the adherence to intravitreal treatment (AtT) rate during the outbreak in a referral hospital in Milan, and to correlate it with patients' clinical features. METHODS: The AtT rate of patients with scheduled intravitreal injections during the COVID-19 outbreak from February 23, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was compared with the previous trimester and with March 2019. The impact of age, sex, visual function, and diagnosis on the AtT rate during unlocked/locked weeks (from March 8th) was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 650 consecutive patients with scheduled intravitreal injections, the AtT rate during the COVID-19 outbreak was 0.37. This was significantly lower compared with AtT registered in the previous trimester (0.92) and in the same weeks in 2019 (0.90) (both P < 0.001). Patients adherent to treatment were significantly younger (P < 0.001) and had a lower best-corrected visual acuity in the fellow eye (P = 0.046). During the lockdown weeks, the AtT rate was significantly lower than in the two unlocked weeks (0.19 vs. 0.73, P < 0.001). In addition, the AtT rate in patients classified as "emergent" during the lockdown weeks was 0.60. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results can help the retina specialist community to foresee this unique scenario and to develop successful management strategies.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/epidemiology , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Macular Edema/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnostic imaging , Choroidal Neovascularization/physiopathology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intravitreal Injections , Italy/epidemiology , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Male , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnostic imaging , Wet Macular Degeneration/physiopathology
11.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021457, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health emergency. The aim of this study was to investigate cases characteristics and Real Time RT PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values distribution of COVID-19 in an Italian Northern area during three periods: first period, February-May 2020; second period, June-August 2020; third period, September 2020-February 2021. METHODS: Real Time RT PCR was used to detect SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory samples (oro/nasopharyngeal swabs). RESULTS: A total of 254,744 samples were tested during the study period. Out of 20,188 positive samples (7.92%), 10,303 were females (51.04%) and 9,885 were males (48.96%). The percentage of positivity varied during the three different periods: 14.1% in the first period, 1.4% in the second and 9.2% in the third. The lowest Ct values were observed in the first phase of pandemic, with an overall average of 25.64. Overall average of the Ct values was lower in males than in females, 26.29 ± 6.04 and 26.84 ± 5.99 respectively. The oldest patients recorded lower Ct values. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our study represent further evidence in support of the fact that male sex and older age showed lower Ct values, which means higher viral loads and higher infectious potential. These knowledges are useful to better understand the epidemiological aspects of COVID-19 and to perform effective Public Health Policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021388, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Italy and especially Lombardy region was the first European Country hit by the covid 19 pandemic, without a proper preparedness plan. Italy's health-care service is a regionally based National Health Service (NHS) that provides universal coverage, largely free of charge at the point of service. Aim of this paper is to analyse the national and especially the regional strategies put in place to face the pandemic, focusing on the impact of the overlap of the political and health competences among national and regional authority. METHODS: Italian hygiene and preventive medicine society (SITI) realized a questionnaire submitted to National Institute for Health and regional stakeholder to investigate the response to the epidemic analysing the strategies and actions put in place both by the national and regional governments and the regional health authorities. RESULTS: The national survey highlighted several critical points in the management of the covid 19 pandemic in the different regional contexts such as lack of personnel in preventive departments and preparadness. CONCLUSIONS: Lessons learnt during the pandemic should shape the future of the Italian health service. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
13.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021487, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The urgency of having rapidly safe and efficient COVID-19 vaccines called for the need to shorten trial phases, reduce sample sizes, and speed-up the approval process by the regulatory Agencies. In light of this, monitoring adverse effects (AEFI) (both immediate and at medium-long term) become of great importance. Aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations between several factors and risk of immediate AEFI. METHODS: Data come from the electronic dataset developed ad hoc to record demographic data, anamnesis and data related to immunization, set-up in the mass vaccination site in Novegro (Milan). Novegro mass vaccination site was one of the mass vaccinations sites with the highest flow in Lombardy Region, with a maximum capacity of 5,000 vaccinations/day. The center opened in April 2021 and closed the 1st of August 2021. A multivariable logistic regression model was used. Odds ratios adjusted (aOR) for age and sex are presented. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Analyses were conducting using STATA. RESULTS: Among the total of 314,671 subjects vaccinated, 0.5% developed an immediate AEFI, on average 17.0 ± 0.43 minutes after the administration. The three most frequent AEFI recorded were vagal response (30%), anxiety reaction (24%) and dizziness (21%). AEFI were more frequently observed among women [aOR= 2.24 (95%CI= 2.00 - 2.50)], and those with at least one previous disease [aOR= 1.47 (95%CI= 1.22-1.76)]. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, AEFI were less likely to occur for increasing age and after the second dose. Results from this large, complete and representative sample population regarding enrich the interesting scientific debate on potential adverse events following COVID-19 immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021398, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: After the first Italian case of Covid-19, the Government imposed the complete closure of all areas involved by the spread of the virus to contain transmissions. There was a massive reorganization of Hospitals, a stop of all elective activities and a convertion of many hospitals in "Covid Centers''. AITOG (Associazione Italiana Traumatologia e Ortopedia Geriatrica) conducted a retrospective study on all proximal femur fractures surgeries that occurred in this period, to find out whether the pandemic and the correlated lockdown somehow changed the incidence of these events.  Methods: 10 Italian orthopedic centers were involved in the study. Considering the geographic location, three groups were created (North, Centre and South). The considered period is the Italian "Phase 1" (February 23rd - May 3rd 2020). RESULTS: the cohort is composed of 412 patients, 116 male and 296 female (mean age 81.1 ± 9.1 years). The same period of 2019 has been used as control group, with 558 patients, 156 male and 402 female (mean age 84.2 ± 8.0 years). In 2020 we counted 323 (78.4%) fractures occurred at home, 61 (14.8%) in retirement houses and 28 (6.8%) in different locations. We mainly treated fractures with intramedullary nails (n.237 57.5%). Among all patients we had 46 (11.1%) Covid-19 positive. The mortality rate within 30 days was of 51 patients (12.4%); 23 of these died because of complications related to Covid-19 while 31 of  these were in treatment with anticoagulant/antiaggregant. CONCLUSIONS: AITOG analysis demonstrates a decrease in surgical interventions for proximal femur fractures from 2019 to 2020, a reduction in patients mean age and an increase in trauma occurred in domestic environment. We also registered a consistent difference between the North, Center and South of the Country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Femoral Fractures , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Femoral Fractures/epidemiology , Femoral Fractures/surgery , Femur , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021419, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Europe, Italy and Lombardy, in autumn 2020, there was a steep increase in reported cases due to the second epidemic wave of SARS-Cov-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of COVID-19 patients' admissions to the ED of the San Raffaele Hospital. METHODS: We compared data between the inter-wave period (IWP, from 1st to 30th September) and the second wave period (WP, 1st October to 15th November) focusing on the ED presentation, discharge priority colour code and outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 977 admissions with a SARS-Cov-2 positive swab, 6% were in the IWP and 94% in the WP. Red, yellow and white code increased (these latter from 1.8% to 5.4%) as well as self-presented in yellow and white code. Discharges home increased from 1.8% to 5.4%, while hospitalizations decreased from 63% to 51%. DISCUSSION: We found a rise in white codes (among self-presented patients), indicating inappropriateness of admissions. The increase in discharges suggests that several patients did not require hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic brought out the fundamental role of primary care to manage patients with low-intensity needs. The important increase in ED admissions of COVID-19 patients caused a reduction of NO-COVID-19 patients, with possible inadequate treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27418, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501202

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The occurrence of COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative effect on health care systems over the last year. Health care providers were forced to focus mainly on COVID-19 patients, neglecting in many cases equally important diseases, both acute and chronic. Therefore, also screening and diagnostic strategies for HIV could have been significantly impaired.This retrospective, multicenter, observational study aimed at assessing the number and characteristics of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and compared characteristics of people living with HIV at diagnosis between pre- and post-COVID-19 era (2019 vs 2020).Our results showed a significant reduction of HIV diagnoses during pandemic. By contrast, people living with HIV during pandemic were older and were diagnosed in earlier stage of disease (considering CD4+ T cell count) compared to those who were diagnosed the year before. Moreover, there was a significant decrease of new HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men, probably for the impact of social distancing and restriction applied by the Italian Government. Late presentation incidence, if numbers in 2020 were lower than those in 2019, is still an issue.Routinely performing HIV testing in patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection is identifying and linking to care underdiagnosed people living with HIV earlier. Thus, combined tests (HIV and SARS-CoV-2) should be implemented in patients with SARS-CoV-2 symptoms overlapping HIV's ones. Lastly, our results lastly showed how urgent implementation of a national policy for HIV screening is necessary.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: In press, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of Italian citizens during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, housing conditions, and lifestyles modifications. DESIGN: cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: between 21st April and 7th June 2020, a self-administered online questionnaire aiming at investigating mental well-being and lifestyle habits during the lockdown period was disseminated online. Respondents were recruited through a snowball sampling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PTSD symptoms were assessed using a validated screening tool, the SPAN (Startle, Physiological arousal, Anger, Numbness) questionnaire. RESULTS: the study population is composed of 6,687 participants, of whom 71.5% were females. The mean age of the sample was 48.7 years. Globally, 43.8% of the participants reported symptoms of PTSD, especially females. PTSD prevalence showed a decreasing trend across age groups. The likelihood of PTSD symptoms was higher among those who increased alcohol consumption, decreased physical activity, and experienced restless sleep. CONCLUSIONS: a high prevalence of PTSD symptoms emerged from this survey, especially among women and younger subjects. Preventive strategies should be implemented to protect the mental health of the most vulnerable citizens in a period of emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
18.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(9): 711-715, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496885

ABSTRACT

CoronaVIrus Disease-19 (COVID-19) had a huge impact on human health and economy. However, to this date, the effects of the pandemic on the training of young cardiologists are only partially known. To assess the consequences of the pandemic on the education of the cardiologists in training, we performed a 23-item national survey that has been delivered to 1443 Italian cardiologists in training, registered in the database of the Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC). Six hundred and thirty-three cardiologists in training participated in the survey. Ninety-five percent of the respondents affirmed that the training programme has been somewhat stopped or greatly jeopardized by the pandemic. For 61% of the fellows in training (FITs), the pandemic had a negative effect on their education. Moreover, 59% of the respondents believe that they would not be able to fill the gap gained during that period over the rest of their training. A negative impact on the psycho-physical well being has been reported by 86% of the FITs. The COVID-19 pandemic had an unparalleled impact on the education, formation and mental state of the cardiologists in training. Regulatory agencies, universities and politicians should make a great effort in the organization and reorganization of the teaching programs of the cardiologists of tomorrow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiologists , Cardiology/education , Communicable Disease Control , Education , Internship and Residency , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiologists/education , Cardiologists/psychology , Cardiologists/standards , Clinical Competence/standards , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Education/organization & administration , Education/standards , Fellowships and Scholarships/methods , Fellowships and Scholarships/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/standards , Italy/epidemiology , Needs Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e29820, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a traumatic individual and collective chronic experience, with tremendous consequences on mental and psychological health that can also be reflected in people's use of words. Psycholinguistic analysis of tweets from Twitter allows obtaining information about people's emotional expression, analytical thinking, and somatosensory processes, which are particularly important in traumatic events contexts. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the influence of official Italian COVID-19 daily data (new cases, deaths, and hospital discharges) and the phase of managing the pandemic on how people expressed emotions and their analytical thinking and somatosensory processes in Italian tweets written during the first phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. METHODS: We retrieved 1,697,490 Italian COVID-19-related tweets written from February 24, 2020 to June 14, 2020 and analyzed them using LIWC2015 to calculate 3 summary psycholinguistic variables: emotional tone, analytical thinking, and somatosensory processes. Official daily data about new COVID-19 cases, deaths, and hospital discharges were retrieved from the Italian Prime Minister's Office and Civil Protection Department GitHub page. We considered 3 phases of managing the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. We performed 3 general models, 1 for each summary variable as the dependent variable and with daily data and phase of managing the pandemic as independent variables. RESULTS: General linear models to assess differences in daily scores of emotional tone, analytical thinking, and somatosensory processes were significant (F6,104=21.53, P<.001, R2= .55; F5,105=9.20, P<.001, R2= .30; F6,104=6.15, P<.001, R2=.26, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic affects how people express emotions, analytical thinking, and somatosensory processes in tweets. Our study contributes to the investigation of pandemic psychological consequences through psycholinguistic analysis of social media textual data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Emotions , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(11): 894-899, 2021 Nov.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496712

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused 2.69 million deaths and 122 million infections. Great efforts have been made worldwide to promptly develop effective vaccines and reduce morbidity and mortality rates from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Available vaccines have proven highly effective at preventing symptomatic disease in clinical trials and real-world reports and are playing an essential role in flattening the epidemiology curve and, mostly, in reducing COVID-19 hospitalizations. Some concerns have been raised after very rare cases of myocarditis and pericarditis recently reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as potentially associated with COVID-19 mRNA vaccinations, namely the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) and the Moderna mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273). Therefore, the aim of this document is to explore the possible link between COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and the development of myocarditis and/or pericarditis by performing a critical analysis of available data and to provide indications for specific subgroups of individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Expert Testimony , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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