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1.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 50-59, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612730

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence rates are 2- to 5-fold higher among persons incarcerated in the United States than in the general population. PROGRAM OR POLICY: We describe an outbreak investigation of COVID-19 at a jail (jail A) in Alameda County during March 2020-March 2021. IMPLEMENTATION: To prevent COVID-19 cases among incarcerated persons and employees, staff at jail A and the county public health department worked to develop and recommend infection control measures implemented by jail A including, but not limited to, face covering use among incarcerated persons and staff; cohorting incarcerated persons at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 in dedicated housing units; quarantining all newly detained individuals for 14 days; and offering testing for all symptomatic incarcerated persons, newly incarcerated persons at day 2 and day 10, and all persons who resided in a housing unit where a COVID-19 case was detected. EVALUATION: A total of 571 COVID-19 cases were detected among incarcerated persons at jail A during March 2020-March 2021, which represented a total incidence of 280 per 1000 population, 5 times higher than the rate in Alameda County. Of the 571 cases among incarcerated persons, 557 (98%) were male; 415 (73%) were aged 18 to 40 years; 249 (44%) were Latino; and 180 (32%) were African American; 354 (62%) were not symptomatic; and 220 (39%) had no comorbidities. Less than 2% of infected incarcerated persons were hospitalized, and no deaths were reported. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 disproportionately impacted persons incarcerated at jail A, with higher numbers among Latinos and African Americans. Implementation of COVID-19 infection control and testing measures, and collaboration between public health, law enforcement, and health care providers may have, in part, led to reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 at jail A.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Jails , California/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prisons , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(4): 621-626, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1539027

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Due to the specificity of conditions in penitentiary establishments, there is an increased risk of rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus infections. In addition, there is a high prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases among inmates, which increases the risk of the severe course of COVID-19. The objectives of the study are to present the number and percentage of officers and employees of the Prison Service (PS), and inmates quarantined and infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the period from March to the end of December 2020, as well as to present solutions aimed at limiting the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on the number of PS officers, employees and inmates quarantined and infected, as well as information on the solutions introduced by the Prison Service Management Bard,was obtained from the Ministry of Justice pursuant to the provisions of the Act on Access to Public Information. RESULTS: From1 March 2020 - 31 December 2020, the number of cases of infection detected among PS officers and employees was 3,666, and among inmates - 599. 97.7% of all cases among PS officers and employees and 93.8% among inmates were reported in the last 3 months of the year. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid introduction of solutions aimed at limiting the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and proper monitoring of the epidemic in penitentiary establishments resulted in a low number of infections in the period from March to the end of December 2020. Infections among PS officers and employees, as well as inmates, seem to be parallel to the epidemiological situation in the population of the entire country. Further analysis of the epidemic will confirm the impact of the measures taken on the incidence of COVID-19 among PS officers, employees and inmates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Jails , Prisons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Poland/epidemiology
3.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467465

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of management of the COVID-19 epidemic in a French immigration detention center. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: During containment in France because of COVID-19, the judicial authorities had to deal with the risk of contamination within immigration detention centers (IDC). In the Paris IDC, which can usually receive up to 240 individuals, measures have been taken to limit the risk of contamination by releasing individuals without prior judicial conviction and testing the others by a nasal swab. FINDINGS: The test was done for all the present individuals (48), except two who refused. Eight tests (17.4%) were positive and only one was symptomatic. Individuals testing positive for COVID-19 were transferred into COVID-centers specially created during this health crisis. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Management of the COVID-19 epidemic in this French IDC illustrates the necessity of good cooperation between judicial authorities and medical teams in charge of those centers and the difficulty of balancing public health actions with state security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emigrants and Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence , Jails , Public Health , Adult , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2123405, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391522

ABSTRACT

Importance: Mass incarceration is known to foster infectious disease outbreaks, amplification of infectious diseases in surrounding communities, and exacerbation of health disparities in disproportionately policed communities. To date, however, policy interventions intended to achieve epidemic mitigation in US communities have neglected to account for decarceration as a possible means of protecting public health and safety. Objective: To evaluate the association of jail decarceration and government anticontagion policies with reductions in the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used county-level data from January to November 2020 to analyze COVID-19 cases, jail populations, and anticontagion policies in a panel regression model to estimate the association of jail decarceration and anticontagion policies with COVID-19 growth rates. A total of 1605 counties with data available on both jail population and COVID-19 cases were included in the analysis. This sample represents approximately 51% of US counties, 72% of the US population, and 60% of the US jail population. Exposures: Changes to jail populations and implementation of 10 anticontagion policies: nursing home visitation bans, school closures, mask mandates, prison visitation bans, stay-at-home orders, and closure of nonessential businesses, gyms, bars, movie theaters, and restaurants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Daily COVID-19 case growth rates. Results: In the 1605 counties included in this study, the mean (SD) prison population was 283.38 (657.78) individuals, and the mean (SD) population was 315.24 (2151.01) persons per square mile. An estimated 80% reduction in US jail populations, achievable through noncarceral management of nonviolent alleged offenses and in line with average international incarceration rates, would have been associated with a 2.0% (95% CI, 0.8%-3.1%) reduction in daily COVID-19 case growth rates. Jail decarceration was associated with 8 times larger reductions in COVID-19 growth rates in counties with above-median population density (4.6%; 95% CI, 2.2%- 7.1%) relative to those below this median (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.1%-0.9%). Nursing home visitation bans were associated with a 7.3% (95% CI, 5.8%-8.9%) reduction in COVID-19 case growth rates, followed by school closures (4.3%; 95% CI, 2.0%-6.6%), mask mandates (2.5%; 95% CI, 1.7%-3.3%), prison visitation bans (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.2%-2.2%), and stay-at-home orders (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.1%-1.6%). Conclusions and Relevance: Although many studies have documented that high incarceration rates are associated with communitywide health harms, this study is, to date, the first to show that decarceration is associated with population-level public health benefits. Its findings suggest that, among other anticontagion interventions, large-scale decarceration and changes to pretrial detention policies are likely to be important for improving US public health, biosecurity, and pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Jails/organization & administration , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
J Behav Health Serv Res ; 48(4): 610-616, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227895

ABSTRACT

Individuals recently released from jail or prison with serious mental illnesses may be vulnerable to the coronavirus pandemic. This study aims to understand how they experienced the pandemic during initial stay-at-home orders in New York City. Structured surveys and in-depth semi-structured interviews examined the impact of the pandemic on participants. Survey responses are presented as percentages. Thematic analysis was used to code and analyze in-depth interviews. All participants (N = 5) knew about the coronavirus pandemic, and most took steps to minimize risk. Participants experienced changes to their services, including suspensions of some supportive services. They also reported an increase in psychiatric symptoms but utilized a variety of coping mechanisms in response. Community reintegration was essentially on hold as supportive services were suspended. Comprehensive reentry services may need to be adapted during the pandemic to address the multiple needs of individuals and to facilitate community reintegration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , Jails , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health , Prisons , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Public Health Nurs ; 38(5): 892-896, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223541

ABSTRACT

In many correctional facilities across the United States, COVID-19 vaccine refusal rates are as high as 50%. Most women leaving jails have low SES, health literacy, and mistrust of governmental institutions, thus exacerbating existing health disparities and making women leaving jail vulnerable. Data from 25 interviews with recently released women suggest that interventions to promote vaccines to this population will have to address health education and mitigate mistrust, misinformation, and conspiracy theories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Prisoners , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Jails , Prisoners/psychology , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Qualitative Research , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(21)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223142

ABSTRACT

Black and Hispanic communities are disproportionately affected by both incarceration and COVID-19. The epidemiological relationship between carceral facilities and community health during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, remains largely unexamined. Using data from Cook County Jail, we examine temporal patterns in the relationship between jail cycling (i.e., arrest and processing of individuals through jails before release) and community cases of COVID-19 in Chicago ZIP codes. We use multivariate regression analyses and a machine-learning tool, elastic regression, with 1,706 demographic control variables. We find that for each arrested individual cycled through Cook County Jail in March 2020, five additional cases of COVID-19 in their ZIP code of residence are independently attributable to the jail as of August. A total 86% of this additional disease burden is borne by majority-Black and/or -Hispanic ZIPs, accounting for 17% of cumulative COVID-19 cases in these ZIPs, 6% in majority-White ZIPs, and 13% across all ZIPs. Jail cycling in March alone can independently account for 21% of racial COVID-19 disparities in Chicago as of August 2020. Relative to all demographic variables in our analysis, jail cycling is the strongest predictor of COVID-19 rates, considerably exceeding poverty, race, and population density, for example. Arrest and incarceration policies appear to be increasing COVID-19 incidence in communities. Our data suggest that jails function as infectious disease multipliers and epidemiological pumps that are especially affecting marginalized communities. Given disproportionate policing and incarceration of racialized residents nationally, the criminal punishment system may explain a large proportion of racial COVID-19 disparities noted across the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Jails/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Racism/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Chicago/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
Am J Public Health ; 111(6): 1035-1039, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216999

ABSTRACT

We report on data we collected from a 2018 survey examining jails' human papillomavirus virus vaccine delivery capacity and on a secondary analysis we conducted to describe factors similarly associated with delivery planning for the COVID-19 vaccine. We provide recommendations for delivering the COVID-19 vaccine in jails, based on evidence from Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, and Missouri. Our key finding is that jails have limited staff to implement vaccination and will require collaboration between jail administrators, jail medical staff, and local health departments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Personnel , Immunization Programs , Jails , Public Health , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Iowa , Kansas , Male , Missouri , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage
12.
Am J Public Health ; 111(1): 110-115, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216985

ABSTRACT

Immigration detention centers are densely populated facilities in which restrictive conditions limit detainees' abilities to engage in social distancing or hygiene practices designed to prevent the spread of COVID-19. With tens of thousands of adults and children in more than 200 immigration detention centers across the United States, immigration detention centers are likely to experience COVID-19 outbreaks and add substantially to the population of those infected.Despite compelling evidence indicating a heightened risk of infection among detainees, state and federal governments have done little to protect the health of detained im-migrants. An evidence-based public health framework must guide the COVID-19 response in immigration detention centers.We draw on the hierarchy of controls framework to demonstrate how immigration detention centers are failing to implement even the least effective control strategies. Drawing on this framework and recent legal and medical advocacy efforts, we argue that safely releasing detainees from immigration detention centers into their communities is the most effective way to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in immigration detention settings. Failure to do so will result in infection and death among those detained and deepen existing health and social inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigration and Immigration/legislation & jurisprudence , Jails/statistics & numerical data , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Humans , United States
14.
15.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(9): 1129-1135, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Correctional and detention facilities are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 due to shared space, contact between staff and detained persons, and movement within facilities. On March 18, 2020, Cook County Jail, one of the United States' largest, identified its first suspected case of COVID-19 in a detained person. METHODS: This analysis includes SARS-CoV-2 cases confirmed by molecular detection among detained persons and Cook County Sheriff's Office staff. We examined occurrence of symptomatic cases in each building and proportions of asymptomatic detained persons testing positive, and timing of interventions including social distancing, mask use, and expanded testing and show outbreak trajectory in the jail compared to case counts in Chicago. RESULTS: During March 1-April 30, 907 symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were detected among detained persons (n = 628) and staff (n = 279). Among asymptomatic detained persons in quarantine, 23.6% tested positive. Programmatic activity and visitation stopped March 9, cells were converted into single occupancy beginning March 26, and universal masking was implemented for staff (April 2) and detained persons (April 13). Cases at the jail declined while cases in Chicago increased. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive intervention strategies coupled with widespread diagnostic testing of detained and staff populations can limit introduction and mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in correctional and detention facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Jails , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
16.
J Health Polit Policy Law ; 46(5): 861-887, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150456

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Carceral institutions are among the largest clusters of COVID-19 in the United States. In response, activists and detainees have rallied around decarceration demands: the release of detainees and inmates to prevent exposure to COVID-19. This article theorizes the compounding racial vulnerability that has led to such a marked spread behind bars, mainly among race-class subjugated (RCS) communities. METHODS: The authors provide an in-depth account of COVID-19 in American correctional facilities and the mobilization to reduce contagions. They also use two survey experiments to describe public support for harm reduction and decarceration demands and to measure the effects of information about racial inequalities in prison and poor conditions inside migrant detention centers. FINDINGS: The authors found only one-third to one-half of respondents believe that response to COVID-19 in prisons and immigrant detention centers should be a high priority. They also found Americans are more supportive of harm reduction measures than decarceration efforts. Information about racial disparities increases support decarceration. They did not find any significant effect of information about poor conditions in migrant detention centers. CONCLUSIONS: The conditions in carceral institutions during the pandemic-and public opinion about them-highlight the realities of compounding racialized vulnerability in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Jails , Prisons , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
Public Health Rep ; 136(3): 375-383, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119366

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: People detained in correctional facilities are at high risk for infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We described the epidemiology of the COVID-19 outbreak in a large urban jail system, including signs and symptoms at time of testing and risk factors for hospitalization. METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study included all patients aged ≥18 years who were tested for COVID-19 during March 11-April 28, 2020, while in custody in the New York City jail system (N = 978). We described demographic characteristics and signs and symptoms at the time of testing and performed Cox regression analysis to identify factors associated with hospitalization among those with a positive test result. RESULTS: Of 978 people tested for COVID-19, 568 received a positive test result. Among symptomatic patients, the most common symptoms among those who received a positive test result were cough (n = 293 of 510, 57%) and objective fever (n = 288 of 510, 56%). Of 257 asymptomatic patients who were tested, 58 (23%) received a positive test result. Forty-five (8%) people who received a positive test result were hospitalized for COVID-19. Older age (aged ≥55 vs 18-34) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 13.41; 95% CI, 3.80-47.33) and diabetes mellitus (aHR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.00-3.95) were significantly associated with hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of people tested in New York City jails received a positive test result for COVID-19, including a large proportion of people tested while asymptomatic. During periods of ongoing transmission, asymptomatic screening should complement symptom-driven COVID-19 testing in correctional facilities. Older patients and people with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored after COVID-19 diagnosis because of their increased risk for hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Jails , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 23(4): 863-866, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117007

ABSTRACT

Conditions in immigrant detention centers facilitate the spread of infectious diseases like COVID-19. However, there is no publicly-available data on detainees' health characteristics, making it difficult to estimate the prevalence of risk among detained people. We use cross-sectional survey data from the only survey of detained immigrants, conducted in California in 2013-2014, to assess the prevalence and health-related correlates of health conditions among detained immigrants. We calculated the proportion of detained immigrants with chronic conditions, their interruptions in care, and stratified by sociodemographic characteristics, evaluating differences using two-tailed tests. Among 529 detained immigrants, 42.5% had at least one chronic health condition; 15.5% had multiple chronic conditions. 20.9% experienced disruption in care upon entering detention. 95.6% had access to stable housing in the U.S. Many detained people face health conditions that confer greater risk for poor outcomes with COVID-19. Stable residence can facilitate release of detainees via Alternatives to Detention programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Jails , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Male , Medicare , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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