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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633311

ABSTRACT

The eligibility of COVID-19 vaccines has been expanded to children aged 12 and above in several countries including Japan, and there is a plan to further lower the age. This study aimed to assess factors related to parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. A nationwide internet-based cross-sectional study was conducted between May 25 and June 3, 2021 in Japan. The target population was parents of children aged 3-14 years who resided in Japan, and agreed to answer the online questionnaire. Parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (their intention to vaccinate their child) and related factors were analyzed using logistic regression models. Interaction effects of gender of parents and their level of social relationship satisfaction related to parental vaccine hesitancy was tested using log likelihood ratio test (LRT). Social media as the most trusted information source increased parental vaccine hesitancy compared to those who trusted official information (Adjusted Odds Ratio: aOR 2.80, 95% CI 1.53-5.12). Being a mother and low perceived risk of infection also increased parental vaccine hesitancy compared to father (aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.57-3.74) and those with higher perceived risk of infection (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.04-2.32) respectively. People with lower satisfaction to social relationships tended to be more hesitant to vaccinate their child among mothers in contrast to fathers who showed constant intention to vaccinate their child regardless of the level of satisfaction to social relationship (LRT p = 0.021). Our findings suggest that dissemination of targeted information about COVID-19 vaccine by considering means of communication, gender and people who are isolated during measures of social distancing may help to increase parental vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262550, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is continuing unabated in Japan, as of October 2021. We aimed to compare first-year university students' psychological distress before the pandemic in 2019, during the pandemic in 2020, and one year after the onset of the pandemic, in 2021. METHODS: The study conducted online surveys over three years from April to May each year. Participants were 400 first-year students in 2019, 766 in 2020, and 738 in 2021. We examined differences in scores on the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-Japanese version (CCAPS-Japanese) between the three years using a one-way analysis of variance, and differences in the CCAPS-Japanese critical items using chi-squared test and residual analysis. RESULTS: The average scores on the Depression and Generalized Anxiety subscale in 2021 were significantly higher than those in 2020, but remained the same as in 2019. The Academic Distress subscale score in 2020 was the worst compared to 2019 and 2021. Meanwhile, the number of students who experienced severe suicidal ideation increased year by year from 2019 to 2021. CONCLUSION: The mean mental health of first-year university students worsened after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and recovered to the pre-pandemic level over the next two years. However, the number of high-risk students with suicidal ideation continued to increase. A system is required for early detection and support for students at high risk of mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Students/psychology , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/pathology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633231

ABSTRACT

Recent reports indicate that respiratory infectious diseases were suppressed during the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 led to behavioral changes aimed to control droplet transmission or contact transmission. In this study, we examined the incidence of common infectious diseases in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 data were extracted from the national data based on the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID). Common infectious diseases were selected from notifiable infectious diseases under the NESID. The epidemic activity of the diseases during 2015-2020 was evaluated based on the Infectious Disease Weekly Reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Each disease was then categorized according to the route of transmission. Many Japanese people had adopted hygienic activities, such as wearing masks and hand washing, even before the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the correlation between the time-series of disease counts of common infectious diseases and COVID-19 over time using cross-correlation analysis. The weekly number of cases of measles, rotavirus, and several infections transmitted by droplet spread, was negatively correlated with the weekly number of cases of COVID-19 for up to 20 weeks in the past. According to the difference-in-differences analysis, the activity of influenza and rubella was significantly lower starting from the second week in 2020 than that in 2015-2019. Only legionellosis was more frequent throughout the year than in 2015-2019. Lower activity was also observed in some contact transmitted, airborne-transmitted, and fecal-oral transmitted diseases. However, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, exanthema subitum, showed the same trend as that over the previous 5 years. In conclusion, our study shows that public health interventions for the COVID-19 pandemic may have effectively prevented the transmission of most droplet-transmitted diseases and those transmitted through other routes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Health Behavior , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Masks , Pandemics , Rubella/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261776, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631646

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 has resulted in a transition from physical education to online learning, leading to a collapse of the established educational order and a wisdom test for the education governance system. As a country seriously affected by the pandemic, the health of the Indian higher education system urgently requires assessment to achieve sustainable development and maximize educational externalities. This research systematically proposes a health assessment model from four perspectives, including educational volume, efficiency, equality, and sustainability, by employing the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution Model, Principal Component Analysis, DEA-Tobit Model, and Augmented Solow Model. Empirical results demonstrate that India has high efficiency and an absolute health score in the higher education system through multiple comparisons between India and the other selected countries while having certain deficiencies in equality and sustainability. Additionally, single-target and multiple-target path are simultaneously proposed to enhance the Indian current education system. The multiple-target approach of the India-China-Japan-Europe-USA process is more feasible to achieve sustainable development, which would improve the overall health score from .351 to .716. This finding also reveals that the changes are relatively complex and would take 91.5 years considering the relationship between economic growth rates and crucial indicators. Four targeted policies are suggested for each catching-up period, including expanding and increasing the social funding sources, striving for government expenditure support to improve infrastructures, imposing gender equality in education, and accelerating the construction of high-quality teachers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/methods , Educational Status , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sustainable Development , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Principal Component Analysis/methods , United States/epidemiology
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(1)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638202

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased in Wakayama, Japan, due to the spread of the highly infectious B.1.1.7 variant. Before this event, the medical systems were almost unaffected. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and the risk factors for therapeutic intervention of remdesivir during the fourth pandemic period in Wakayama, Japan. Materials and Methods: This single-center retrospective study enrolled 185 patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 hospitalized in our hospital without intensive care between 14 March and 31 May 2021. Results: In this period, 125 (67.6%) of the 185 patients had the B.1.1.7 variant. Sixty-three patients (34.1%) required remdesivir treatment. Age upon admission and length of hospitalization were significantly different between remdesivir treatment and careful observation groups (mean (standard deviation); 59.6 (14.7) versus 45.3 (20.6) years; p < 0.001 and median (interquartile range); 10 (9-12) versus 9 (8-10) years; p < 0.001). One patient was transferred to another hospital because of disease progression. At hospital admission, age ≥60 years (odds ratio (OR) 6.90, p < 0.001), a previous history of diabetes mellitus (OR 20.9, p = 0.002), B.1.1.7 variant (OR 5.30; p = 0.005), lower respiratory symptoms (OR 3.13, p = 0.011), headache (OR 3.82, p = 0.011), and fever ≥37.5 °C (OR 4.55, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors to require remdesivir treatment during the admission. Conclusions: Many patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 required the therapeutic intervention of remdesivir during the fourth pandemic period in Wakayama, Japan. From the clinical data obtained at admission, these risk factors could contribute to a prediction regarding the requirement of remdesivir treatment in cases of mild to moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 845, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has recently become the most important issue in the world. Very few reports in Japan have examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on peripartum mental health. We examined the status of postpartum mental health before and during COVID-19 pandemic from a consecutive database in a metropolitan area of Japan. METHODS: The subjects were women who had completed a maternity health check-up at a core regional hospital in Yokohama during the period from April 1, 2017, to December 31, 2020. We collected the subjects' scores for the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS) at 1 month postpartum. The subjects were divided into four groups (three Before COVID-19 groups and a During COVID-19 group). MANOVA and post-hoc tests were used to determine mental health changes in the postpartum period among the four groups. RESULTS: The Before and During COVID-19 groups contained 2844 and 1095 mothers, respectively. There were no significant difference in the total scores of the EPDS and MIBS among the four groups. However, the EPDS items related to anxiety factors were significantly higher and the EPDS items related to anhedonia and depression factors (excluding thoughts of self-harm) were significantly lower in the During COVID-19 group. CONCLUSION: The EPDS scores changed in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. Anxiety, which represent hypervigilance, was significantly higher and anhedonia and depression were significantly lower in the During COVID-19 group. Our results may reflect COVID-19-related health concerns and a lack of social support caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Mothers/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Adult , Anhedonia , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Retrospective Studies
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected health care systems globally. The aim of our study is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of hospital admissions for ischemic stroke by severity in Japan. METHODS: We analysed administrative (Diagnosis Procedure Combination-DPC) data for cases of inpatients aged 18 years and older who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke and admitted during the period April 1 2018 to June 27 2020. Levels of change of the weekly number of inpatient cases with ischemic stroke diagnosis after the declaration of state of emergency were assessed using interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis. The numbers of patients with various characteristics and treatment approaches were compared. We also performed an ITS analysis for each group ("independent" or "dependent") divided based on components of activities of daily living (ADL) and level of consciousness at hospital admission. RESULTS: A total of 170,294 cases in 567 hospitals were included. The ITS analysis showed a significant decrease in the weekly number of ischemic stroke cases hospitalized (estimated decrease: -156 cases; 95% confidence interval (CI): -209 to -104), which corresponds to -10.4% (95% CI: -13.6 to -7.1). The proportion of decline in the independent group (-21.3%; 95% CI: -26.0 to -16.2) was larger than that in the dependent group (-8.6%; 95% CI: -11.7 to -5.4). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a marked reduction in hospital admissions due to ischemic stroke after the declaration of the state of emergency for the COVID-19 pandemic. The independent cases were affected more in proportion than dependent cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 439, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1617002

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 led to rapid vaccine development. However, there remains considerable vaccine hesitancy in some countries. We investigate vaccine willingness in three nations with very different vaccine histories: Israel, Japan and Hungary. Employing an ecological-systems approach we analyse associations between health status, individual cognitions, norms, trust in government, COVID-19 myths and willingness to be vaccinated, with data from three nationally representative samples (Israel, Jan. 2021, N = 1011; Japan, Feb. 2021, N = 997; Hungary, April 2021, N = 1130). Vaccine willingness was higher in Israel (74%) than Japan (51%) or Hungary (31%). In all three countries vaccine willingness was greatest amongst who would regret not being vaccinated and respondents who trusted their government. Multi-group latent class analysis identified three groups of COVID myths, with particular concern about alteration of DNA (Israel), allergies (Hungary) and infection from the vaccine (Japan). Intervention campaigns should address such cultural myths while emphasising both individual and social benefits of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/psychology , /methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hungary , Israel , Japan , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 307: 114318, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616708

ABSTRACT

Loneliness, which is increasingly recognised as an important public health problem, may have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic in the wake of social distancing measures. This study examined loneliness in Japan during the ongoing pandemic and its association with mental health. Cross-sectional online survey data that were collected at monthly intervals from April to December 2020 were analysed. Loneliness was assessed with the Three-Item Loneliness Scale. Information was also obtained on depressive (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. For the combined sample (N = 9000), 41.1% of the respondents were categorised as lonely when using ≥ 6 as a cutoff score, and 16.5% when the cutoff was ≥ 7. The prevalence of loneliness changed little across the period. Younger age, male sex and socioeconomic disadvantage (low income, deteriorating financial situation, unemployment) were associated with loneliness. In fully adjusted analyses, loneliness was linked to depressive (odds ratio [OR]: 5.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.08-6.57) and anxiety symptoms (OR: 5.34, 95% CI: 4.53-6.29). Loneliness is prevalent in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and poorer mental health. A focus on loneliness as a public health issue in Japan is now warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Loneliness , Male , Mental Health , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613769

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the mental health of healthcare workers in many countries including Japan. While many survey-based findings have reported the serious state of their wellbeing among healthcare workers, the first-hand experience of the mental health and coping in this population remains to be evaluated. Accordingly, this study aimed to appraise them using constructionist thematic analysis on semi-structured interviews attended by a purposive and snowball sample of 24 healthcare workers in Japan conducted in December 2020-January 2021. Four themes were identified: (1) increased stress and loneliness, (2) reduced coping strategies, (3) communication and acknowledgement as a mental health resource, and (4) understanding of self-care. Participants noted that the characteristics of Japanese work culture such as long hours, collectivism and hatarakigai (i.e., meaning in work) to explain these themes. These findings suggest that robust support at an organizational and individual level, capturing intrinsic values, are particularly important for this key workforce to cope with increased stress and loneliness, leading to better patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Personnel , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0260836, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613339

ABSTRACT

In the era of open data, Poisson and other count regression models are increasingly important. Still, conventional Poisson regression has remaining issues in terms of identifiability and computational efficiency. Especially, due to an identification problem, Poisson regression can be unstable for small samples with many zeros. Provided this, we develop a closed-form inference for an over-dispersed Poisson regression including Poisson additive mixed models. The approach is derived via mode-based log-Gaussian approximation. The resulting method is fast, practical, and free from the identification problem. Monte Carlo experiments demonstrate that the estimation error of the proposed method is a considerably smaller estimation error than the closed-form alternatives and as small as the usual Poisson regressions. For counts with many zeros, our approximation has better estimation accuracy than conventional Poisson regression. We obtained similar results in the case of Poisson additive mixed modeling considering spatial or group effects. The developed method was applied for analyzing COVID-19 data in Japan. This result suggests that influences of pedestrian density, age, and other factors on the number of cases change over periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Markov Chains , Models, Statistical , Monte Carlo Method , Normal Distribution , Poisson Distribution , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spatial Analysis , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e051335, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The prolonged effects of the COVID-19 pandemic continue to have a serious impact on healthcare workers. We described and compared the experiences of healthcare workers in Japan during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic from March to May 2020, and during the lull from June to July 2020. DESIGN: In this qualitative study, we used a web-based survey to obtain comments from healthcare workers about their experiences during the pandemic, and explored these using inductive content analysis. SETTING: A tertiary emergency hospital in Tokyo, in April and July 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were staff in the hospital, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, radiological technicians and laboratory medical technicians. Many, but not all, had directly cared for patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: In total, 102 participants in the first survey and 154 in the second survey provided open-ended comments. Three themes were extracted: concerns, requests and gratitude. There were four subthemes under concerns: the hospital infection control system, fear of spreading infection to others, uncertainty about when the pandemic would end and being treated as a source of infection. There were 53 requests in the first survey and 106 in the second survey. These requests were divided into seven subthemes: compensation, staffing, information, facilities, leave time, PCR tests and equitable treatment. The theme on gratitude had two subthemes: information and emotional support, and material support. The fears and desires of healthcare workers included two types of uncertainty-related concerns, and requests were very different across the two surveys. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to apply a balance of information to help staff adjust to their new work environment, as well as support to minimise the burden of infection and impact on their families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , Patient Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 142(1): 11-15, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609123

ABSTRACT

The polio eradication program, launched in 1988, has successfully decreased the number of poliomyelitis patients worldwide. However, in areas with immunization gaps where oral polio vaccine coverage has dropped, outbreaks of more virulent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have become a threat to public health. In Japan, inactivated polio vaccine replaced oral polio vaccine as the routine immunization in 2012. Polio environmental surveillance (ES) has been conducted nationwide since 2013 to efficiently monitor the wild type poliovirus or VDPV, which may be imported from overseas. ES may also be utilized to detect other viruses in stool samples. We propose a method of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection based on the polio ES network, and establish a procedure to detect fragments of SARS-CoV-2 genome in wastewater solids. Our findings suggest that polio ES can be used to simultaneously monitor SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragments in sewage waters.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring/methods , Poliovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sewage/virology , Waste Water/virology , Disease Eradication , Humans , Japan , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Intern Med ; 61(1): 37-48, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604725

ABSTRACT

Objective In this study, we investigated whether and how the COVID-19 pandemic affected glycemic control and blood pressure (BP) control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods DM patients whose HbA1c level was measured regularly before and after the declaration of a state of emergency were included in this study. Some patients were given questionnaires about changes in their lifestyle to determine the factors affecting glycemic control and BP control. Results The median HbA1c level of the 804 patients increased significantly from 6.8% before the state of emergency to 7.1% and 7.0% during and after the state of emergency, respectively. This was in contrast to the decrease one year earlier due to seasonal variations. In the 176 patients who responded to the questionnaire, the HbA1c level also increased significantly during and after the state of emergency. The worsening of glycemic control was more pronounced in the group that had achieved HbA1c of <7% before the state of emergency than in those with higher values. Unlike the rise in HbA1c, the BP did not rise during the state of emergency but did rise significantly afterwards. There was no marked decrease in HbA1c or BP after the state of emergency, even in patients who responded that they were much more careful with their diet, ate less, or exercised more. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic worsened glycemic control and BP control, even in patients who perceived no marked change in their diet or exercise, suggesting that more active lifestyle guidance is necessary for good treatment of DM patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycemic Control , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595606

ABSTRACT

To investigate the accuracy of fidgety movements (FMs) assessment in Japanese assessors. Sixty specialists participated in the first survey. Of the participants, 18 were assessors certified by the GMs basic-training course. The surveys were composed of FMs assessment of 20 video clips. The correct assessment rates (CARs) were investigated. The survey videos were judged into three types: normal (F + +, F +), abnormal (AF) and absent (F + -, F -). After the first survey, each participant performed a self-learning exercise using clips of the first survey. The follow-up survey was conducted three months after the first survey. The median CAR of the first survey was 65% in certified assessors and 50% in noncertified assessors. The median CARs of certified assessors were significantly higher than that of noncertified assessors for all clips and for normal FMs and AF clips (p < 0.01). After 3 months of self-learning exercise the CARs in each judgement type improved in 28 follow-up survey participants. Their median CAR improved from 60% in the first survey to 84% in the follow-up survey. To practise general movements assessment (GMA), course certification is required. The self-learning exercise with the confirmed judgement FMs clips may be effective for improving the ability of FMs judgement.


Subject(s)
Movement , Humans , Japan
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28398, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598050

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Hospital-wide screenings for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are important to identify healthcare workers at risk of exposure. However, the currently available diagnostic tests are expensive or only identify past infection. Therefore, this single-center observational study aimed to assess the positivity rate of hospital-wide antigen screening tests for COVID-19 and evaluate clinical factors associated with antigen positivity during a COVID-19 institutional outbreak in Sapporo, Japan.We analyzed the data of 1615 employees who underwent salivary or nasal swab antigen tests on November 18, 2020, to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Laboratory confirmation using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed for those with positive viral serology. The demographic characteristics, job titles, and risk of contact with COVID-19 patients were compared between employees with and without COVID-19.A total of 19 employees (1.2%) tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 antigen. The positivity rate was high among rehabilitation therapists (2.1%) and employees in the low-risk contact group (6.1%). Although there was no association between the job titles and the seropositivity rate, those in the low-risk contact group had an increased risk of testing positive for the viral antigen (odds ratio, 8.67; 95% confidence interval, 3.30-22.8).The antigen positivity rate was low during the hospital outbreak, suggesting that risk assessment of exposure to COVID-19 patients may provide more useful information than using job titles to identify infected health care providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Hospitals , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
In Vivo ; 36(1): 371-374, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epipharynx, with its high expression of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry factors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), is a primary target for SARS-CoV-2 replication in the early stage of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). Epipharyngeal abrasive therapy (EAT) is a treatment for epipharyngitis in Japan which involves applying zinc chloride to the epipharyngeal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the expression patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in tissue samples from patients before and after EAT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study subjects were seven patients that had not been treated with EAT and 11 patients that had. For immunohistochemical assessment of the epipharyngeal mucosa, the staining intensity of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was described as an immunohistochemical score (IHC score). RESULTS: The IHC scores for ACE2 and TEMPRSS2 in the EAT-treated group were 3.40-fold and 1.81-fold lower, respectively, than those in the non-treated group (p=0.0208 and p=0.0244, respectively). CONCLUSION: EAT down-regulates the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Thus, EAT has potential as a novel COVID-19 preventative method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Japan , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases , Virus Internalization
18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 126: 108487, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586249

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the unwillingness of physicians involved in epilepsy care to continue telemedicine during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Japan. METHOD: This was a national-level cross-sectional survey initiated by Japan Young Epilepsy Section (YES-Japan) which is a national chapter of The Young Epilepsy Section of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE-YES). We asked physicians who conducted telemedicine in patients with epilepsy (PWE) during the COVID-19 pandemic at four clinics and 21 hospitals specializing in epilepsy care in Japan from March 1 to April 30, 2021. The following data were collected: (1) participant profile, (2) characteristics of PWE treated by telemedicine, and (3) contents and environmental factors of telemedicine. Statistically significant variables (p < 0.05) in the univariate analysis were analyzed in a multivariate binary logistic regression model to detect the independently associated factors with the unwillingness to continue telemedicine. RESULT: Among the 115 respondents (response rate: 64%), 89 were included in the final analysis. Of them, 60 (67.4%) were willing to continue telemedicine, and 29 (32.6%) were unwilling. In the univariate binary logistic regression analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-3.09, p = 0.02), psychiatrist (OR = 5.88, 95% CI 2.15-16.08, p = 0.001), hospital (OR = 0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.94, p = 0.04), the number of COVID-19 risk factors in the participant (OR = 2.88, 95% CI 1.46-5.69, p = 0.002), the number of COVID-19 risk factors in the cohabitants (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.05-6.01, p = 0.04), COVID-19 epidemic area (OR = 4.37, 95% CI 1.18-16.20, p = 0.03), consultation time during telemedicine (OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.32-4.76, p = 0.005), workload due to telemedicine (OR = 4.17, 95% CI 2.11-8.24, p < 0.001) were statistically significant. In the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, workload due to telemedicine (OR = 4.93, 95% CI 1.96-12.35) was independently associated with the unwillingness to continue telemedicine. CONCLUSION: This national-level cross-sectional survey found that workload due to telemedicine among physicians involved in epilepsy care was independently associated with the unwillingness to continue telemedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Physicians , Telemedicine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Prim Health Care ; 13(4): 351-358, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585644

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION Owing to a decrease in visits to health-care facilities due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the health-care-seeking behaviour of the Japanese lay public has yet to be adequately clarified. AIM To explore health-care-seeking behaviour of the Japanese lay public during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. METHODS We conducted a web-based questionnaire survey in September 2020 to enquire about visits to health-care facilities for disease treatment and preventive services (health check-ups or cancer screening tests) during two periods: mid-February to May 2020 and from June to September 2020. Survey respondents were selected from people who voluntarily registered with a Japanese consumer research company, excluding health-care workers. Respondents' residence and sex were adjusted to represent the Japanese population. Survey results were aggregated after anonymizing respondents' personal information. RESULTS In total, 2137 people responded to the survey. The proportion of respondents who avoided new and follow-up visits to health-care facilities were 31.1% and 25.0%, respectively, in the first period and 19.1% and 12.5%, respectively, in the second period. In both periods, dentistry and general medicine were the most avoided health-care sites. Trying to avoid infection was the main motivation for this behaviour. Nearly half of respondents stated that they would not visit health facilities after the COVID-19 infection became controlled. DISCUSSION During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Japanese lay public indicated that they would avoid new and follow-up visits to health-care facilities. The highlighted changes in health-care-seeking behaviour may be long-term, even after COVID-19 is under control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(12): e1009629, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581906

ABSTRACT

Identifying order of symptom onset of infectious diseases might aid in differentiating symptomatic infections earlier in a population thereby enabling non-pharmaceutical interventions and reducing disease spread. Previously, we developed a mathematical model predicting the order of symptoms based on data from the initial outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China using symptom occurrence at diagnosis and found that the order of COVID-19 symptoms differed from that of other infectious diseases including influenza. Whether this order of COVID-19 symptoms holds in the USA under changing conditions is unclear. Here, we use modeling to predict the order of symptoms using data from both the initial outbreaks in China and in the USA. Whereas patients in China were more likely to have fever before cough and then nausea/vomiting before diarrhea, patients in the USA were more likely to have cough before fever and then diarrhea before nausea/vomiting. Given that the D614G SARS-CoV-2 variant that rapidly spread from Europe to predominate in the USA during the first wave of the outbreak was not present in the initial China outbreak, we hypothesized that this mutation might affect symptom order. Supporting this notion, we found that as SARS-CoV-2 in Japan shifted from the original Wuhan reference strain to the D614G variant, symptom order shifted to the USA pattern. Google Trends analyses supported these findings, while weather, age, and comorbidities did not affect our model's predictions of symptom order. These findings indicate that symptom order can change with mutation in viral disease and raise the possibility that D614G variant is more transmissible because infected people are more likely to cough in public before being incapacitated with fever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mutation , Nausea/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
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