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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743371, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523817

ABSTRACT

Background: Emerging from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) scenario, fears of social distancing and contagion have led to a decline in the number of physician visits in Japan, placing severe financial strain on most hospitals and clinics. In this context, this study examined the impact of the spread of COVID-19 on the utilization of outpatient services. Methods: This study used monthly data drawn from the monthly statistics report of the social insurance medical fee payment fund in Japan and estimated fixed-effects models. Results: The results showed that the decline in the number of physician visits because of the first state of emergency declaration in Japan was greater than that caused by COVID-19's spread during the same period. However, there was a decline in the impact of the declaration over time. After the second state of emergency declaration, the decline in the number of physician visits caused by the spread reduced by almost half. The nationwide preschool closure under the declaration of the first state of emergency also adversely impacted the number of physician visits. The reduced healthcare per capita costs of preschool children were greater among prefectures taking specific precautions. The results showed non-negligible regional differences in physician visits of preschool children during the sample period. Conclusions: The findings imply that we should not overestimate the negative impacts of the state of emergency declaration without lockdown on physician visits. To restore the number of physician visits to its pre-pandemic level, it is crucial to facilitate a smooth transition of COVID-19 patients between hospitals and an effective compensation program for hospitals with COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(11): 1722-1725, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518345

ABSTRACT

We investigated the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among dogs in the Tokyo area via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the spike protein as the target antigen. Plasma samples from 494 household dogs and blood-donor dogs were tested from July 2020 to January 2021. Of these samples, three showed optical densities that were higher than the mean plus two standard deviations of the mean of the negative-control optical densities (ODs). Of these three samples, only the sample with the highest OD by ELISA was confirmed positive by virus neutralization testing. The positive dog presented no SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms. The positivity rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs in the Tokyo area was approximately 0.2%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 573, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510584

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly affected the mental health of both infected and uninfected people. Although most psychiatric disorders have highly overlapping genetic and pathogenic backgrounds, most studies investigating the impact of the pandemic have examined only single psychiatric disorders. It is necessary to examine longitudinal trajectories of factors that modulate psychiatric states across multiple dimensions. About 2274 Japanese citizens participated in online surveys presented in December 2019 (before the pandemic), August 2020, Dec 2020, and April 2021. These surveys included nine questionnaires on psychiatric symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Multidimensional psychiatric time-series data were then decomposed into four principal components. We used generalized linear models to identify modulating factors for the effects of the pandemic on these components. The four principal components can be interpreted as a general psychiatric burden, social withdrawal, alcohol-related problems, and depression/anxiety. Principal components associated with general psychiatric burden and depression/anxiety peaked during the initial phase of the pandemic. They were further exacerbated by the economic burden the pandemic imposed. In contrast, principal components associated with social withdrawal showed a delayed peak, with human relationships as an important risk modulating factor. In addition, being female was a risk factor shared across all components. Our results show that COVID-19 has imposed a large and varied burden on the Japanese population since the commencement of the pandemic. Although components related to the general psychiatric burden remained elevated, peak intensities differed between components related to depression/anxiety and those related to social withdrawal. These results underline the importance of using flexible monitoring and mitigation strategies for mental problems, according to the phase of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 286: 21-25, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512001

ABSTRACT

Under pandemic conditions, it is important to communicate local infection risks to better enable the general population to adjust their behaviors accordingly. In Japan, our team operates a popular non-government and not-for-profit dashboard project - "Japan LIVE Dashboard" - which allows the public to easily grasp the evolution of the pandemic on the internet. We presented the Dashboard design concept with a generic framework integrating socio-technical theories, disease epidemiology and related contexts, and evidence-based approaches. Through synthesizing multiple types of reliable and real-time local data sources from all prefectures across the country, the Dashboard allows the public access to user-friendly and intuitive disease visualization in real time and has gained an extensive online followership. To date, it has attracted c.30 million visits (98% domestic access) testifying to the reputation it has acquired as a user-friendly portal for understanding the progression of the pandemic. Designed as an open-source solution, the Dashboard can also be adopted by other countries as well as made applicable for other emerging outbreaks in the future. Furthermore, the conceptual design framework may prove applicable into other ehealth scaled for global pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 97(9): 543-558, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511936

ABSTRACT

We continue (Ref. 1: Proc. Jpn. Acad. Ser. B 97, 22-49) to analyze the COVID-19 status. We concentrate on the following issues in this work:1. Effect of vaccination against the spreading of SARS-CoV-2.2. General landscape of the world situation concerning vaccinations.3. Some aspects of the new variants of SARS-CoV-2.Our findings include:1. With vaccinations, it is fair to say that we have entered a new phase in the fight against the virus SARS-CoV-2. We have analyzed some preliminary data to find how vaccinations can be effective against COVID-19 spreading. This analysis is based on, and is a continuation of, our first paper quoted in Ref. 1.2. If Tokyo (or Japan) continues to keep its vaccination schedule (starting in early April, 2021 and finishing it for elderly, 65 or older, in 4 months), it will see a sign of control of the virus in early June, 2021 although we see changes of this status due to new, more contagious variants.3. The strength (parameter ß) of a new contagious variant can be estimated based on the initial data on the variant (Section 5).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo , Vaccination
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 708965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506937

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the gender differences in health and anxiety, especially pertaining to mental health problems and time-course effects. We surveyed 121 patients admitted to a hospital with a COVID-19 diagnosis between March 1 and August 31, 2020. Their mental status was evaluated on admission using the Japanese General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form JYZ (STAI). The patients were divided into two groups depending on the period of prevalence, that is, the first and second waves of the pandemic in Japan (from the beginning of March to the end of May 2020, Time 1 = T1; and from the beginning of June to the end of August 2020, Time 2 = T2). A multivariate analysis of covariance revealed significant differences in gender by time interactions in the GHQ-28 subscale "Insomnia and anxiety" and STAI subscale "State-Anxiety." Post-hoc t-tests revealed that the scores of "Insomnia and Anxiety" and "State-Anxiety" were higher in women than in men at T1. However, no difference was observed at T2. Further, "Insomnia and Anxiety" and "State-Anxiety" were significantly higher at T1 than at T2 in female patients. There was no significant difference in males. Thus, female patients were more anxious and depressed in the early phase of the pandemic, whereas male patients had difficulties in coping with anxiety. We suggest more gender-specific mental care, particularly for women at the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Japan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502418

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to be a widespread pandemic. We investigated the relationship between anxiety/stress and health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in homebound Japanese older adults during January and February 2021. We surveyed 1507 community-dwelling, older Japanese adults using a self-administered questionnaire on primary attributes, including family structure, evaluation of psychological anxiety/stress, and health behaviors. Participants were divided into four anxiety/stress groups based on the frequency of experiencing anxiety/stress, and their association with health behaviors was analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Responses were received from 469 (31.1%) respondents. In the bivariate analysis, age and family structure were significantly associated with anxiety/stress (p < 0.01). The health behaviors significantly associated with anxiety/stress were walking, balanced eating habits, limited snacking, regular lifestyle, and dental visits. Logistic regression analysis was performed using the variables in the bivariate analysis that showed a significant association with anxiety/stress status as independent variables. Finally, age and dietary habits were significantly associated with anxiety/stress status. No significant associations were found between any other variables. Among older adults living in the rural areas of Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic, anxiety/stress status was significantly associated with age and dietary habits but not with other health behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Health Behavior , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 147, 2021 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Google Trends (GT) is being used as an epidemiological tool to study coronavirus disease (COVID-19) by identifying keywords in search trends that are predictive for the COVID-19 epidemiological burden. However, many of the earlier GT-based studies include potential statistical fallacies by measuring the correlation between non-stationary time sequences without adjusting for multiple comparisons or the confounding of media coverage, leading to concerns about the increased risk of obtaining false-positive results. In this study, we aimed to apply statistically more favorable methods to validate the earlier GT-based COVID-19 study results. METHODS: We extracted the relative GT search volume for keywords associated with COVID-19 symptoms, and evaluated their Granger-causality to weekly COVID-19 positivity in eight English-speaking countries and Japan. In addition, the impact of media coverage on keywords with significant Granger-causality was further evaluated using Japanese regional data. RESULTS: Our Granger causality-based approach largely decreased (by up to approximately one-third) the number of keywords identified as having a significant temporal relationship with the COVID-19 trend when compared to those identified by Pearson or Spearman's rank correlation-based approach. "Sense of smell" and "loss of smell" were the most reliable GT keywords across all the evaluated countries; however, when adjusted with their media coverage, these keyword trends did not Granger-cause the COVID-19 positivity trends (in Japan). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that some of the search keywords reported as candidate predictive measures in earlier GT-based COVID-19 studies may potentially be unreliable; therefore, caution is necessary when interpreting published GT-based study results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Search Engine , Communication , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27533, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501206

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Understanding the relationship between pain and physical activity (PA) levels is beneficial for maintaining good health status. However, the impact of pain on changes in PA during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether PA levels pre-, during, and post-COVID-19 state of emergency differ between Japanese adults who had pain after the COVID-19 state of emergency and those who did not.Data were collected from a cross-sectional online survey conducted between October 19 and 28, 2020. The analytic sample consisted of 1967 Japanese adults aged ≥40 years who completed the online survey. Participants completed questionnaires on the presence of pain and duration of PA, defined as the total PA time per week based on activity frequency and time. Participants were asked to report their PA at 3 time points: October 2019 (before the COVID-19 pandemic), April 2020 (during the COVID-19 state of emergency), and October 2020 (after the COVID-19 state of emergency).Among participants aged ≥60 years who reported pain in October 2020, the total PA time was significantly lower than participants who did not report having pain. Furthermore, the total PA time in April 2020 was significantly lower than that in October 2019; however, no significant difference in total PA time was observed between April and October 2020. Among participants aged 40 to 59 years, no significant differences were observed in total PA times at the 3 time points between those with and without pain. In addition, the total PA time in October 2020 significantly increased compared to that in April 2020, although it significantly decreased in April 2020 compared to October 2019.This study suggests that older adults with pain have lower PA levels after the COVID-19 state of emergency.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Pain/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(1): 71-77, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496650

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented global pandemic. Premenstrual symptoms include mood-related, behavioral, and physical symptoms that are limited to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for premenstrual symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the association between premenstrual symptoms and stress caused by COVID-19. We analyzed data from 871 students with regular menstrual cycles who completed the Premenstrual Symptoms Questionnaire (PSQ), Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised version (IES-R). The total PSQ score was significantly higher in women with COVID-19-induced posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) than in non-PTSS groups. Compared with pre-pandemic data (2019), the total PSQ score did not change in non-PTSS, but increased in PTSS groups. All symptoms were more severe in PTSS groups than in non-PTSS groups. Compared with 2019, PTSS groups had more severe symptoms for all symptoms except 'physical symptoms' and 'decreased social activity', and non-PTSS groups only exhibited improvements in the 'decreased social activity'. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the IES-R score was a significant exacerbation factor of the total PSQ score, along with age and menstrual pain. This study revealed the association between pandemic-associated PTSS and the severity of premenstrual symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Premenstrual Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Menstrual Cycle , Pandemics , Premenstrual Syndrome/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Psychogeriatrics ; 21(6): 892-901, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aim was to identify depressed mood and frailty and its related factors in older people during the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic. METHODS: Since 2010, we have conducted questionnaire surveys on all older residents, who are not certified in the long-term care insurance, living in one district of Tokyo municipality. These residents are divided into two groups by birth month, that is those born between April and September and those born between October and March, and each group completes the survey every 2 years (in April and May). Study participants were older residents who were born between April and September and who completed the survey in spring 2018 and in spring 2020, the pandemic period. Depressed mood and frailty were assessed using the Kihon Checklist, which is widely used by local governments in Japan. We had no control group in this study. RESULTS: A total of 1736 residents responded to both surveys. From 2018 to 2020, the depressed mood rate increased from 29% to 38%, and frailty increased from 10% to 16%. The incidence of depressed mood and frailty was 25% and 11%, respectively. Incidence of depressed mood was related to subjective memory impairment and difficulty in device usage, and incidence of frailty was related to being older, subjective memory impairment, lack of emotional social support, poor subjective health, and social participation difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Older people with subjective memory impairment may be a high-risk group during the coronavirus pandemic. Telephone outreach for frail older people could be an effective solution. We recommend extending the scope of the 'reasonable accommodation' concept beyond disability and including older people to build an age-friendly and crisis-resistant community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e418-e423, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School closures are a subject of debate during the present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Because children are not the main driver of COVID-19 transmission in the community, school education must be prioritized in conjunction with appropriate infection prevention and control measures, as determined by local COVID-19 incidence. METHODS: We investigated the causes and transmission routes of a primary school cluster of COVID-19 that occurred during November and December 2020 in Niigata, Japan. RESULTS: In the cluster, the virus spread among teachers, then from teachers to students, and then to their family members. This primary school cluster comprised 26 infected patients and included teachers (13/33, 39%), students (9/211, 4%), and family members (4/65, 6%). The secondary attack rate from the 3 index teachers to the remaining 30 teachers was 33%; however, the rate to students was only 4%. Factors contributing to cluster formation include the fact that 2 of the index teachers continued working while symptomatic and that the environment and infection prevention measures in the teachers' room were inadequate. CONCLUSIONS: To open schools safely and without interruption, adequate measures to prevent COVID-19 infection in schools should be emphasized not only for children but also for teachers and their environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Schools , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , Young Adult
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21068, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493208

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in late 2019, the diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the evolution of its viral genome. The co-occurrence of specific amino acid changes, collectively named 'virus variant', requires scrutiny (as variants may hugely impact the agent's transmission, pathogenesis, or antigenicity); variant evolution is studied using phylogenetics. Yet, never has this problem been tackled by digging into data with ad hoc analysis techniques. Here we show that the emergence of variants can in fact be traced through data-driven methods, further capitalizing on the value of large collections of SARS-CoV-2 sequences. For all countries with sufficient data, we compute weekly counts of amino acid changes, unveil time-varying clusters of changes with similar-rapidly growing-dynamics, and then follow their evolution. Our method succeeds in timely associating clusters to variants of interest/concern, provided their change composition is well characterized. This allows us to detect variants' emergence, rise, peak, and eventual decline under competitive pressure of another variant. Our early warning system, exclusively relying on deposited sequences, shows the power of big data in this context, and concurs to calling for the wide spreading of public SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing for improved surveillance and control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acids/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Computational Biology/methods , Data Mining , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488582

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic altered environmental factors. We studied the impact of these changes on asthma exacerbation (AE) by comparing the AE-related environmental factors between COVID-19 (2020) and pre-COVID-19 (2011-2019) eras. Between 2011 and 2020, 278,465 children (<16 years old) visited our emergency department, and 7476 were diagnosed with AE. The number of patients showed spring and fall peaks in 2011-2019. Multivariate analyses showed significant positive relationships of the number of AE patients with the average temperature among all patients and 0-5-year-olds and with sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels in 2011-2019 among 0-5-year-olds. Although the spring peak in the number of patients was not observed in 2020 after declaration of a state of emergency, the fall peak was again observed after the state of emergency was lifted. No changes in average temperature were detected, but SO2 was significantly reduced following declaration of the state of emergency in 2020. Therefore, SO2 reduction might have contributed to the disappearance of the peak of AE. However, a fall peak was observed again in 2020, although SO2 levels continued to be low. These data suggest that person to person interaction seems to be associated with AE, presumably due to unknown viral infections.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Asthma , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 1-9, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486730

ABSTRACT

To deal with the risk of emerging diseases with many unknowns, close and timely collaboration and communication between science experts and policymakers are crucial to developing and implementing an effective science-based intervention strategy. The Expert Meeting, an ad hoc medical advisory body, was established in February 2020 to advise Japan's COVID-19 Response Headquarters. The group played an important role in the policymaking process, promoting timely situation awareness and developing science-based proposals on interventions that were promptly reflected in government actions. However, this expert group may have been overly proactive in taking on the government's role in crisis management. For the next stage of managing the coronavirus disease pandemic and future pandemics, the respective roles of the government and its advisory bodies need to be clearly defined. Leadership and strategic risk communication by the government are key.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Government , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(9): e565-e570, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the physical work environment and work function while working from home (WFH). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data from 5760 workers who worked from home at least 1 day a month were analyzed. The physical work environment while WFH was used as an exposure factor. The presence of work functioning impairment was measured using Work Functioning impairment Scale (WFun). Mixed-effects logistic regression was used with the prefecture of residence as a random effect. RESULTS: Work functioning impairment was significantly associated with a "No" response to recommended environments. The highest odds ratio (OR) of work functioning impairment was associated with a "No" response to "There is enough light to do my work" (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73 to 2.35, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Improving work environments may prevent negative health effects and improve productivity while WFH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477946

ABSTRACT

Social contextual factors could determine mortality by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with social capital as a potential determinant. This study aimed to examine the association between prefecture-level social capital and COVID-19 deaths in Japan. Data on the cumulative number of COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 individuals between 1 October 2020 and 30 June 2021 in 47 prefectures were obtained from the government open-access database. Prefecture-level social capital was collected from a large-scale web-based nationwide survey conducted between August and September 2020. We included trust in neighbors, norm of reciprocity in the neighborhood, and trust in the national government as cognitive social capital, and neighborhood ties and social participation as structural social capital. The cumulative COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 individuals (1 October 2020 to 30 June 2021) ranged from 0.15 to 27.98 in 47 prefectures. A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates showed that a greater norm of reciprocity and government trust were associated with fewer COVID-19 deaths during the first and second 3-month periods of observation. In the third 3-month period, the association between COVID-19 deaths and government trust became nonsignificant. Trust in neighbors, neighborhood ties, and social participation were not related to COVID-19 deaths during any time period. The disparity of COVID-19 deaths by prefecture in Japan can be explained by cognitive social capital. This study suggests that the association between social capital and COVID-19 deaths may vary according to the dimension of social capital and time period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Trust
18.
J Epidemiol ; 31(11): 573-580, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease is suspected to be triggered by previous infection. The prevention measures for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have reportedly reduced transmission of certain infectious diseases. Under these circumstances, the prevention measures for COVID-19 may reduce the incidence of Kawasaki disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using registration datasets of patients with Kawasaki disease who were diagnosed in all 11 inpatient pediatric facilities in Yamanashi Prefecture. The eligible cases were 595 cases that were diagnosed before the COVID-19 pandemic (from January 2015 through February 2020) and 38 cases that were diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic (from March through November 2020). Incidence of several infectious disease were evaluated using data from the Infectious Disease Weekly Report conducted by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. RESULTS: Epidemics of various infectious diseases generally remained at low levels during the first 9 months (March through November 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the incidence of COVID-19 was 50-80 times lower than the incidence in European countries and the United States. The total number of 38 cases with Kawasaki disease for the 9 months during the COVID-19 pandemic was 46.3% (-3.5 standard deviations [SDs] of the average [82.0; SD, 12.7 cases] for the corresponding 9 months of the previous 5 years. None of the 38 cases was determined to be triggered by COVID-19 based on their medical histories and negative results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 testing at admission. CONCLUSION: These observations provide a new epidemiological evidence for the notion that Kawasaki disease is triggered by major infectious diseases in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
19.
Interv Neuroradiol ; 27(1_suppl): 44-45, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477213

ABSTRACT

The Japan healthcare system is considered as one of the world's finest. However, medical facilities across Japan are struggling to cope with the recent surge in novel coronavirus infections, leaving the medical care system in many areas on the brink of collapse. Physician burnout was already a growing problem, and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has only made it worse. The personal impact of coronavirus disease 2019 in Japan is reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470839

ABSTRACT

Help-seeking behaviors (HSBs) refer to how people use lay and medical care to address their symptoms and diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed older, rural patients' preferences and experiences regarding HSBs, thereby, affecting the comprehensiveness of medical support for communities. This study identified changes in the comprehensiveness of medical care for older, rural patients, who are often dependent on others for accessing medical services. This observational study was performed with patients who lived in Unnan City. Patients' dependency and changes in comprehensiveness of medical services were assessed and calculated. The total usage of medical care decreased from 2018 to 2020 at all medical care levels. The proportion of patients who received comprehensive care was higher in 2020 than in 2018, at all care levels. At care dependent levels 3 to 5, the differences in the proportions were statistically significant. This study illustrates an association between the COVID-19 pandemic and the proportion of comprehensiveness of medical care among older rural patients with a decrease in medical care usage. Moreover, an improved proportion of comprehensiveness of medical care leads to appropriate HSBs. Going forward, HSBs and patient-centered care should be promoted by policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
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