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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917498

ABSTRACT

This study introduces a socio-ecological perspective of differences in psychological distress between the Palestinian minority and Jewish majority citizens of Israel during lockdown due to COVID-19. The study examines the association between COVID-19-related stress and psychological distress, and the moderating effect of parenthood. Online questionnaires, completed by 1934 participants (1391 Jews, 552 Palestinians; 1306 parents, 637 without children; 54.86% female, 45.13% male; M age = 40.38, SD = 13.77) assessed COVID-19-related stressors and depression, anxiety, and stress. The Palestinian minority showed a higher level of COVID-19-related stress and psychological distress than the Jewish majority. Parenthood showed a moderating effect on the association between COVID-19-related stress and distress for the Jewish majority but not the Palestinian minority. The results emphasize the significance of considering social status when seeking to understand the differences between minorities and majorities in terms of distress and resilience during pandemic events, and the need for cultural sensitivity and awareness when issuing instructions in such circumstances. Additionally, the results highlight the potential role of parenthood as a resilience factor, depending upon social status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Jews/psychology , Male , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
2.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(8): 1843-1850, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846681

ABSTRACT

Subjective age (i.e., feeling younger/older than one's chronological age) plays a significant role in older minority group members' psychological well-being. In light of the importance of vaccinations for fighting COVID-19, it is unclear whether ethnicity and subjective age moderate the connection between receiving COVID-19 vaccinations and anxiety in Israel. Jewish (n = 198) and Arab older adults (n = 84) provided information regarding COVID-19 vaccinations, subjective age, and anxiety symptoms, as well as additional socio-demographic and COVID-19-related health factors (age range= 40-100, M = 62.5, SD = 12.34). Results demonstrated that feeling older was associated with increased anxiety (p < .001) and that vaccinations were linked to increased anxiety among Jews (p < .05). Moreover, the association between COVID-19 vaccinations and anxiety was significant only among Jewish participants with an older subjective age (p < .05). We stress the importance of examining cultural diversities regarding the contribution of subjective age in the context of COVID-19 and psychological well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Jews , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Arabs/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ethnicity , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Jews/psychology , Middle Aged , Vaccination
3.
Nurs Health Sci ; 24(2): 360-367, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685389

ABSTRACT

The public debate surrounding the COVID-19 vaccine is especially intense regarding pregnant women, who are concerned with its effects on themselves and their fetus, and a vulnerable at-risk population for psychological distress. We aimed at describing differences in vaccination status between pregnant Jewish and Arab women and understanding factors contributing to psychological distress among Arab women. Pregnant women (n = 860) aged 19-46 completed self-report questionnaires during the national vaccination program (March-April 2021). The questionnaires related to background, COVID-19-related vaccination status and intentions in this regard, COVID-19-related anxiety, and the Mental Health Inventory-Short Form. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t- and chi-square tests, Pearson correlations, and a hierarchical regression. Considerably fewer Jewish women had been infected and more were vaccinated than Arab women. Poorer health, lower economic status, being a mother, not being vaccinated, higher anxiety over economic damage, a family member being infected, delivery, and raising the baby contributed to higher distress. Findings offer novel insights for nurses in their efforts to encourage vaccination, highlighting the need to understand women's concerns during the vulnerable period of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Arabs , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Jews/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Vaccination
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528730

ABSTRACT

Efforts to control the spread of the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic include drastic measures such as isolation, social distancing, and lockdown. These restrictions are accompanied by serious adverse consequences such as forgoing of healthcare. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of forgone care for a variety of healthcare services during a two-month COVID-19 lockdown, using Andersen's Behavioral Model of Healthcare Utilization. A cross-sectional study using computerized phone interviews was conducted with 302 Israeli Jewish participants aged 40 and above. Almost half of the participants (49%) reported a delay in seeking help for at least one needed healthcare service during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Among the predisposing factors, we found that participants aged 60+, being more religious, and reporting higher levels of COVID-19 fear were more likely to report forgone care than younger, less religious and less concerned participants. Among need factors, a statistically significant association was found with a reported diagnosis of diabetes, with participants with the disease having a considerably higher likelihood of forgone care. The findings stress the importance of developing interventions aimed at mitigating the phenomenon of forgoing care while creating nonconventional ways of consuming healthcare services. In the short term, healthcare services need to adapt to the social distancing and isolation measures required to stanch the epidemic. In the long term, policymakers should consider alternative ways of delivering healthcare services to the public regularly and during crisis without losing sight of their budgetary consequences. They must recognize the possibility of having to align medical staff to the changing demand for healthcare services under conditions of health uncertainty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude , COVID-19/psychology , Culture , Female , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Israel , Jews/psychology , Jews/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged
5.
J Transcult Nurs ; 32(6): 647-654, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197335

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus pandemic has disproportionately negatively affected the ultraorthodox in Israel. Their unique characteristics and slow adoption of preventative health guidelines resulted in a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. To lower these rates, health and government authority figures employed methods to change the ultraorthodox community health behaviors. METHODOLOGY: This study utilizes the ACCESS model for transcultural nursing to analyze the response by authorities to high infection rates in the large ultraorthodox community in city of Beit Shemesh during the first wave of the outbreak (through early May). RESULTS: The authorities employed all model components to varying degrees and found moderate success in changing health behaviors of the ultraorthodox. DISCUSSION: Employing the ACCESS model as a response to the health care crisis among the ultraorthodox community in Beit Shemesh led to some success in increased compliance, thus lowering morbidity rates. However, not establishing strong respect and rapport hindered the process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Health Behavior/ethnology , Jews/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Models, Nursing , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcultural Nursing
6.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 26, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines for COVID-19 are currently available for the public in Israel. The compliance with vaccination has differed between sectors in Israel and the uptake has been substantially lower in the Arab compared with the Jewish population. AIM: To assess ethnic and socio-demographic factors in Israel associated with attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines prior to their introduction. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey was carried out In Israel during October 2020 using an internet panel of around 100,000 people, supplemented by snowball sampling. A sample of 957 adults aged 30 and over were recruited of whom 606 were Jews (49% males) and 351 were Arabs (38% males). RESULTS: The sample of Arabs was younger than for the Jewish respondents. Among the men, 27.3% of the Jewish and 23.1% of the Arab respondents wanted to be vaccinated immediately, compared with only 13.6% of Jewish women and 12.0% of Arab women. An affirmative answer to the question as to whether they would refuse the vaccine at any stage was given by 7.7% of Jewish men and 29.9% of Arab men, and 17.2% of Jewish women and 41.0% of Arab women. Higher education was associated with less vaccine hesitancy. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the ethnic and gender differences persisted after controlling for age and education. Other factors associated with vaccine hesitancy were the belief that the government restrictions were too lenient and the frequency of socializing prior to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed a relatively high percentage reported would be reluctant to get vaccinated, prior to the introduction of the vaccine. This was more marked so for Arabs then Jews, and more so for women within the ethnic groups. While this was not a true random sample, the findings are consistent with the large ethnic differences in compliance with the vaccine, currently encountered and reinforce the policy implications for developing effective communication to increase vaccine adherence. Government policies directed at controlling the pandemic should include sector-specific information campaigns, which are tailored to ensure community engagement, using targeted messages to the suspected vaccine hesitant groups. Government ministries, health service providers and local authorities should join hands with civil society organizations to promote vaccine promotion campaigns.


Subject(s)
Arabs/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Jews/psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude to Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
7.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 78, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The importance of community involvement in the response against disease outbreaks has been well established. However, we lack insights into local communities' experiences in coping with the current COVID-19 pandemic. This study explored both the impact of, and response to, COVID-19 within the Orthodox Jewish communities of Antwerp (Belgium) during the first lockdown period (March 2020 - May 2020). METHODS: We conducted an explorative qualitative study using a participatory approach. First, we performed a community mapping to identify relevant stakeholders. Through the active involvement of a community advisory board and based on qualitative interviews with key-informants and community members, we elicited lived experiences, attitudes, and perceptions towards COVID-19. Interviews were conducted both face-to-face and using online web conferencing technology. Data were analyzed inductively according to the principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: Government-issued outbreak control measures presented context-specific challenges to the Orthodox Jewish communities in Antwerp. They related mainly to the remote organization of religious life, and practicing physical distancing in socially and culturally strongly connected communities. Existing community resources were rapidly mobilized to adapt to the outbreak and to self-organize response initiatives within communities. The active involvement of community and religious leaders in risk communication proved to be of great importance to facilitate the coverage and uptake of pandemic control measures while protecting essential community values and traditions. Creating bottom-up and community-adapted communication strategies, including addressing language barriers and involving Rabbis in the dissemination of prevention messages, fostered a feeling of trust in government's response measures. However, unmet information and prevention needs were also identified, such as the need for inclusive communication by public authorities and the need to mitigate the negative effects of stigmatization. CONCLUSION: The experiences of Orthodox Jewish communities in Antwerp demonstrate a valuable example of a feasible community-centered approach to health emergencies. Increasing the engagement of communities in local decision-making and governance structures remains a key strategy to respond to unmet information and prevention needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Community Participation/psychology , Jews/psychology , Trust/psychology , Adult , Aged , Belgium/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Community-Based Participatory Research , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence
8.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(4): 438-445, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous evidence suggests heightened sensitivity to life-threatening challenges among offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS). Therefore, this study examined the psychological reactions of aging OHS during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A convenience sample (N = 297, mean age = 66.85) of North American Jews rated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms for their parents and for themselves. They further rated their psychological distress, COVID-19-related worries, loneliness, and social support. Respondents were divided into four groups: OHS with two parents with probable PTSD, with one such parent, with no such parent, and comparisons whose parents did not undergo the Holocaust. RESULTS: OHS with two parents with PTSD reported the highest levels of PTSD symptoms. Controlling for respondents' own PTSD, OHS with two parents with PTSD reported higher psychological distress relative to comparisons. Moreover, OHS with parental PTSD reported higher loneliness relative to OHS without parental PTSD or comparisons. The groups did not differ in COVID-19-related worries or social support. CONCLUSIONS: The distress experienced by OHS with parental PTSD seems more general, and is possibly related to the multiple coalescing crises that occurred since the pandemic began, rather than to the health risk associated directly with COVID-19. Moreover, while OHS acknowledge having good social support, some of them nevertheless feel lonely. This possibly reflects unique interpersonal difficulties characteristic in Holocaust survivor families. These findings suggest that OHS with parental PTSD (especially when both parents had symptoms) represent a group of older adults who are relatively susceptible to negative psychological effects of the current pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adult Children/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Holocaust/psychology , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Aged , Anxiety/psychology , Female , Humans , Jews/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Survivors/psychology
9.
J Relig Health ; 60(2): 646-653, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092038

ABSTRACT

Given links between stress and obesity, it is likely that individuals gained weight during the COVID-19 lockdown. Research suggests that religiosity facilitates coping, which may have lessened the relationship between stress and weight gain during the COVID-19 lockdown. We examined this relationship among Orthodox Jews (n = 731). Results indicated that stress was marginally associated with weight gain, and that this was moderated by intrinsic religiosity (IR). For those with low IR, stress correlated with weight gain, while for those with mean or higher IR, stress and weight change were unrelated. Results suggest that for some, religiosity may moderate links between stress and weight gain during times of crisis.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Jews/psychology , Obesity/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Religion , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ethn Health ; 26(1): 139-151, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740121

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study sought to examine the psychological distress of Israeli pregnant women during the worldwide spread of COVID-19. As Israel has a diverse cultural-religious population, the sample included both Jewish and Arab women, allowing us to explore the differences between them. Furthermore, we examined the contribution of personal resources, both internal (self-mastery and resilience) and external (perceived social support), as well as the level of infection-related anxiety to the women's psychological distress. METHOD: A convenience sample of 403 Israeli women (233 Jewish and 170 Arab) was recruited through social media. RESULTS: Arab women reported significantly higher infection-related anxiety and psychological distress than Jewish women. In addition, Jewish women reported significantly higher self-mastery than Arab pregnant women. Finally, poorer health, being an Arab woman, and lower levels of self-mastery, resilience, and perceived social support, as well as a higher level of infection-related anxiety, contributed significantly to greater psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that pregnant women in general may be at risk of psychological distress in times of crisis, and that minority populations in particular may be at greater risk than others. Moreover, the results highlight the contribution of women's personal and environmental resources in the face of crisis, an understanding that may be used in targeted interventions to reduce distress in vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Arabs/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Jews/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Resilience, Psychological , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J Reprod Infant Psychol ; 38(3): 340-348, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611372

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The fact that little is yet known about the possible implications of COVID-19 for pregnancy, puts pregnant women at greater risk of heightened anxiety and psychological distress. In this study, we sought to explore the psychological distress and COVID-19-related anxiety of pregnant women during the crisis. METHODS: Israeli Jewish and Arab pregnant women (n = 336) aged 20-47 completed a set of questionnaires during the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. RESULTS: The levels of all COVID-19-related anxieties were quite high (much or very much), with the highest regarding public places and transportation (87.5%, 70%, respectively), followed by concerns over the possible infection of other family members and the health of the foetus (71.7%, 70%, respectively), going for pregnancy check-ups (68.7%,), being infected themselves, and the delivery (59.2%, 55.4%, respectively). Although COVID-19-related anxieties were shared by pregnant women characterised by diverse sociodemographic variables, with very small nuances, Arab women were more anxious about each of the issues than Jewish women. DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight the importance of assessing anxiety and distress in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the need to be attentive to the double stress of pregnant women in times of crisis and to the potential vulnerability of subgroups, such as cultural minorities.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Arabs/psychology , Arabs/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Jews/psychology , Jews/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 32(11): 1371-1375, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605699

ABSTRACT

A prominent feature of anxiety in late life is concerns regarding physical health. Anxiety symptoms among older adults have been connected with various psychological outcomes, including social isolation and loneliness. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many societies have demonstrated increased ageist attitudes, encouraging older adults to distance themselves from society. Accordingly, the current study examined the moderating role of COVID-19-related ageism in the connection between COVID-19 health worries and anxiety symptoms among older adults. Data were collected from 243 older adults (age range 60-92; M = 69.75, SD = 6.69), who completed scales assessing COVID-19-related health worries and ageism, as well as anxiety symptoms. The results demonstrated that both health worries and ageism were positively associated with anxiety symptoms. Moreover, the connection between health worries and anxiety symptoms was more pronounced among older adults with high ageism levels. The study highlights the vulnerability of older adults in general, and ageist older adults in particular, to the negative consequences of COVID-19-related health worries, and emphasizes the role of the increased ageist stance of society during the pandemic in this regard.


Subject(s)
Ageism/psychology , Aging/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Jews/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status , Humans , Israel , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Med Ethics ; 46(7): 441-443, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-305983

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has raised many questions and dilemmas for modern day ethicists and healthcare providers. Are physicians, nurses and other healthcare workers morally obligated to put themselves in harm's way and treat patients during a pandemic, occurring a great risk to themselves, their families and potentially to other patients? The issue was relevant during the 1918 influenza epidemic and more recently severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in 2003. Since the risk to the healthcare workers was great, there was tension between the ethical duty and responsibility to treat and the risk to one's own life. This tension was further noted during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa that left hundreds of healthcare workers dead. The AMA Code of Ethics states that physicians are to 'provide urgent medical care during disasters…even in the face of greater than usual risk to physicians' own safety, health or life.'1 Classic Jewish sources have dealt with this question as well. There is an obligation 'to not stand by idly when your friends life is in danger'; however, the question arises as to whether there are limits to this obligation? Is one required to risk one's own life to save another's? There is a consensus that one is not required but the question open to debate is whether it is praiseworthy to do so. However, regarding healthcare workers, there is agreement for ethical, professional and societal reasons that they are required to put themselves in harm's way to care for their patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/ethics , Jews/psychology , Judaism/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Moral Obligations , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Med Ethics ; 46(7): 444-446, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46239

ABSTRACT

The novel COVID-19 pandemic has placed medical triage decision-making in the spotlight. As life-saving ventilators become scarce, clinicians are being forced to allocate scarce resources in even the wealthiest countries. The pervasiveness of air travel and high rate of transmission has caused this pandemic to spread swiftly throughout the world. Ethical triage decisions are commonly based on the utilitarian approach of maximising total benefits and life expectancy. We present triage guidelines from Italy, USA and the UK as well as the Jewish ethical prospective on medical triage. The Jewish tradition also recognises the utilitarian approach but there is disagreement between the rabbis whether human discretion has any role in the allocation of scarce resources and triage decision-making.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Jews/psychology , Judaism/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Triage/ethics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols/standards , Humans , Morals , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care/ethics , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution
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