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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 719668, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533720

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its associated precautionary measures have substantial impacts not only on the medical, economic, and social context but also on psychological health. This study aimed to assess the obsession toward COVID-19 preventive measures among undergraduate medical students during the early phase of the pandemic in Jordan. Methods: Online questionnaires were distributed between March 16, 2020 and March 19, 2020. Socio-demographic characteristics were collected, and self-reported obsession toward COVID-19 preventive measures was assessed using a single question.COVID-19 knowledge, risk perception, and precautionary measures were evaluated using scales. Using the chi-square test, Student t-test, and one-way ANOVA, we assessed the differences in the obsession of students with socio-demographic characteristics and scores of the scales. Results: A total of 1,404 participants (60% were female participants) completed the survey with a participation rate of 15.6%. Obsession with preventive measures was reported by 6.8%. Obsession was significantly more common among women (9.2%) than men (3.3%) and students who attended COVID-19 lectures (9.5%) than those who did not attend such lectures (5.8%) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.015, respectively). Obsessed participants reported significantly higher levels of COVID-19 knowledge (p = 0.012) and precautionary measures (p < 0.001). COVID-19 risk perception had a mild effect size difference but with no statistical significance (p = 0.075). There were no significant differences in the academic levels of participants (p = 0.791) and universities (p = 0.807) between students who were obsessed and those who were not. Conclusions: Obsession is one of the significant but unspoken psychological effects of COVID-19 precautionary measures among undergraduate medical students. Medical schools should be equipped with means to handle pandemic psychological effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Obsessive Behavior , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
2.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1991651, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510838

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased anxiety and depression around the world. Refugees may be particularly vulnerable to the mental health effects of the pandemic because of their higher rates of mental health disorders, trauma histories, and daily stressors. Objectives: This study used data from a controlled trial of a brief behavioural intervention for psychological distress in Syrian refugees living in Azraq Camp in Jordan to examine the psychological effects of the pandemic on refugee mental health. Method: A total of 410 participants were randomized to either the intervention or control arms of the trial and were assessed at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Half the sample (199; 48.5%) completed their 3-month follow-up assessment after the pandemic restrictions began in Jordan and 211 (51.5%) completed the assessment prior to the pandemic. Refugees were independently assessed for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression at baseline and follow-up, and pandemic-related worries were assessed at follow-up for those who completed their assessment during the pandemic. Results: The most commonly reported worries were economic difficulties (82.4%), shortage of essential supplies (71.3%), and infecting others (59.7%) or themselves (51.9%). Refugees who were assessed during the pandemic had less severe PTSD symptoms than those assessed prior to the pandemic. Significant predictors of pandemic-related worries were lower levels of depression prior to the pandemic and greater anxiety during the pandemic. Conclusion: These findings highlight the specific needs of refugees during the pandemic and suggest that pre-existing mental health issues may not necessarily be the key risk factors for who will experience major mental health issues or worries during the pandemic.


Antecedentes: La ansiedad y la depresión alrededor del mundo se han incrementado como consecuencia de la pandemia por la COVID-19. Los refugiados pueden ser particularmente vulnerables a los efectos de la pandemia sobre la salud mental a sus tasas más altas de trastornos de salud mental, de antecedentes de trauma y de estresores diarios.Objetivos: Este estudio empleó los datos del ensayo controlado de una intervención conductual breve para la angustia psicológica en refugiados sirios que vivían en el campo Azraq en Jordania. Se buscó evaluar los efectos psicológicos de la pandemia sobre la salud mental de los refugiados.Método: Un total de 410 participantes fueron asignados aleatoriamente, bien al grupo de intervención o bien al grupo de control del ensayo, y fueron evaluados al inicio y a los 3 meses de seguimiento. La mitad de la muestra (199; 48,5%) completó la evaluación a los 3 meses de seguimiento después de que comenzaran las restricciones de la pandemia en Jordania, mientras que 211 (51,5%) completaron esta evaluación antes de la pandemia. Los refugiados fueron evaluados de forma independiente para detectar síntomas del TEPT, de la ansiedad y de la depresión al inicio y en el seguimiento. Las preocupaciones relacionadas a la pandemia se evaluaron durante el seguimiento en aquellos que completaron su evaluación durante la pandemia.Resultados: Las preocupaciones más comúnmente reportadas fueron las dificultades económicas (82,4%), la escasez de suministros esenciales (71,3%) y la infección de otros (59,7%) o de ellos mismos (51,9%). Los refugiados que fueron evaluados durante la pandemia tenían síntomas de TEPT menos severos que aquellos que fueron evaluados antes de la pandemia. Los predictores significativos de las preocupaciones relacionados con la pandemia fueron niveles más bajos de depresión antes de la pandemia y mayor ansiedad durante la pandemia.Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos destacan las necesidades especificas de los refugiados durante la pandemia y sugieren que los problemas de salud mental preexistentes no necesariamente pueden ser los factores de riesgo clave para aquellos que experimentarán los principales problemas de salud mental o preocupaciones durante la pandemia.背景: COVID-19 疫情导致全世界的焦虑和抑郁增加。难民可能特别容易受到疫情的心理健康影响, 因为他们的精神健康障碍, 创伤史和日常应激因素的发生率较高。目的:本研究使用了一项来自居住在约旦 Azraq 难民营的叙利亚难民心理困扰的简短行为干预对照试验的数据, 以考查疫情对难民心理健康的心理影响。方法:总共 410 名参与者被随机分配到试验干预组或对照组, 并在基线和 3 个月的随访中进行评估。一半的样本 (199; 48.5%) 在约旦开始疫情限制后完成了其 3 个月的随访评估, 211 (51.5%) 在疫情之前完成了评估。在基线和随访时独立评估难民的 PTSD, 焦虑和抑郁症状, 并在随访时评估那些在疫情期间完成评估者的疫情相关担忧。结果:最常报告的担忧是经济困难 (82.4%), 必需品短缺 (71.3%), 和感染他人 (59.7%) 或自己 (51.9%)。疫情期间评估的难民的 PTSD 症状不如疫情之前评估的人严重。疫情相关担忧的显著预测因素是疫情之前较低的抑郁程度和疫情期间的较高的焦虑水平。结论:这些发现强调了疫情期间难民的特定需求, 表明先前存在的心理健康问题可能不一定是谁将在疫情期间遇到重大心理健康问题或担忧的关键风险因素。.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Psychotherapy, Group , Refugees , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Refugees/psychology , Refugees/statistics & numerical data , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Syria/ethnology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of mental distress among university students in Jordan. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted between 12th of June and the 4th of August 2021 in Jordan to measure student mental stress using Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). RESULTS: A total of 1063 university students participated in the study. One-third of the participating students reported that they had a history of COVID-19 infection. More than half of the participating university students (65.7%) were found to have mental distress (measured symptomatically by the SRQ-20 with a score of eight or more). The average mental distress score was 9.8 (SD: 5.5) out of 20. Female students, students from non-medical colleges, students in their last years of study, students with chronic diseases and those with low income were associated with high levels of mental distress (p < 0.05). With regards to social support, a moderate level of social support was received from three sources: persons considered as significant others, family members, and friends. The average social support score for the participating university students was 41.9 (SD: 10.3) out of 60 (equivalent to 69.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Mental distress is prevalent among university students in Jordan. There is a need for evidence-based governmental strategies and interventions that provide social support at universities such as self-help measures and professional mental health services as part of student health services that would be helpful to reduce the burden of mental distress of students and promote the mission of the integration of mental health in all university policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the role of pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic, to measure pharmacists' attitude toward COVID-19 safety measures (wearing masks, wearing gloves, isolation shield, good hygiene, etc.), and explore their perspectives regarding a second wave of the virus. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey study was conducted in Jordan during the COVID-19 outbreak in July 2020 to discuss Jordanian pharmacists' awareness of safety at their workplace during the COVID-19 outbreak, their sources of information, and their predictions for COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: The participants (n = 311) were all pharmacists mostly aged between 23-30 years old (45%) and female (83%). The primary source of information about COVID-19 was social networking (38.9%). Pharmacists were committed to social distancing (86.5%) and wearing masks (76.2%). They expressed levels of agreement to their role in decreasing COVID-19 spread (94.2%) and correcting false information (94.5%); they expressed levels of expectation toward concern about a second COVID-19 wave (83%) that would be more severe than the previous one (43.4%). Pharmacists expected that an influenza vaccine might be helpful in decreasing severity and spread of the COVID-19 pandemic (56.9%). Pharmacists expected COVID-19 vaccine development within 6 months of administering our study survey (84.9%) and that vaccination might be effective in preventing COVID-19 (93%) infection. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists expressed positive roles on COVID-19 spread through exemplary actions, self-commitment to protection measures, and public health awareness. Social media as a source of health information should be cautiously investigated, and pharmacists should always refer to evidence-based sources. The role of pharmacists is particularly important for the upcoming era of COVID-19 vaccination administration and awareness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , Pharmacists , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27537, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, had health and economic results that profoundly affected communities worldwide. Investigating the seroprevalence of SARS-Cov-2 in blood donors is of a significant clinical and scientific value as it adds to knowledge about local herd immunity levels.To study the prevalence of SARS-Cov-2 infection among blood donors at a tertiary referral hospital in the north of Jordan.This is a prospective study that included all blood donors between September 2020 and March 2021. Donors' IgG antibodies were qualitatively immunoassayed to determine the antibody status against SARS-CoV-2. The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 technique was utilized.One thousand samples were tested by total antibody against SARS-CoV-2. The median age was 29 years, 96.7% were males. The seroprevalence was 14.5%, and 80% of the positive participants did not report previous COVID-19 infection. The seroprevalence of COVID-19 antibodies was less among smokers and those with an O blood group and higher among donors with an AB blood group.The prevalence of COVID-19 among healthy young blood donors at a tertiary teaching health facility in the north of Jordan was 14.5%. Smokers and those with an O blood group were less likely to be seropositive, as opposed to donors with an AB blood group.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Blood Group Antigens/immunology , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e32559, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All-cause mortality and estimates of excess deaths are commonly used in different countries to estimate the burden of COVID-19 and assess its direct and indirect effects. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan in April-December 2020. METHODS: Official data on deaths in Jordan for 2020 and previous years (2016-2019) were obtained from the Department of Civil Status. We contrasted mortality rates in 2020 with those in each year and the pooled period 2016-2020 using a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) measure. Expected deaths for 2020 were estimated by fitting the overdispersed Poisson generalized linear models to the monthly death counts for the period of 2016-2019. RESULTS: Overall, a 21% increase in standardized mortality (SMR 1.21, 95% CI 1.19-1.22) occurred in April-December 2020 compared with the April-December months in the pooled period 2016-2019. The SMR was more pronounced for men than for women (SMR 1.26, 95% CI 1.24-1.29 vs SMR 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.14), and it was statistically significant for both genders (P<.05). Using overdispersed Poisson generalized linear models, the number of expected deaths in April-December 2020 was 12,845 (7957 for women and 4888 for men). The total number of excess deaths during this period was estimated at 4583 (95% CI 4451-4716), with higher excess deaths in men (3112, 95% CI 3003-3221) than in women (1503, 95% CI 1427-1579). Almost 83.66% of excess deaths were attributed to COVID-19 in the Ministry of Health database. The vast majority of excess deaths occurred in people aged 60 years or older. CONCLUSIONS: The reported COVID-19 death counts underestimated mortality attributable to COVID-19. Excess deaths could reflect the increased deaths secondary to the pandemic and its containment measures. The majority of excess deaths occurred among old age groups. It is, therefore, important to maintain essential services for the elderly during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mortality , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e28005, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of COVID-19 disease are variable. Multiple factors can affect the disease progression and outcome. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of COVID-19 in Jordan. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected for 557 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Prince Hamzah Hospital (PHH), Jordan. Analysis was performed using appropriate statistical tests with SPSS version 24. RESULTS: Of the 557 COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive cases admitted to PHH, the mean age was 34.4 years (SD 18.95 years; range 5 weeks to 87 years), 86.0% (479/557) were male, 41% (29/70) were blood group A+, and 57.1% (93/163) were overweight or obese. Significant past medical history was documented in 25.9% (144/557), significant surgical history in 12.6% (70/557), current smoking in 14.9% (83/557), and pregnancy in 0.5% (3/557). The mean duration of hospitalization was 16.4 (SD 9.3; range 5 to 70) days; 52.6% (293/557) were asymptomatic, and 12.9% (72/557) had more than 5 symptoms, with generalized malaise and dry cough the most common symptoms. Only 2.5% (14/557) had a respiratory rate over 25 breaths/minute, and 1.8% (10/557) had an oxygen saturation below 85%. Laboratory investigations showed a wide range of abnormalities, with lymphocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and D-dimer the most common abnormalities. Ground glass opacity was the most common imaging finding. Men had a significantly higher frequency of symptoms, incidence of smoking, reduced hemoglobin, increased monocyte %, elevated creatinine levels, and intensive care unit admissions compared with women (P<.05). Hospitalization duration was associated with increased age, male gender, symptom score, history of smoking, elevated systolic blood pressure, elevated respiratory rate, and elevated monocyte %, CRP, ESR, creatinine, and D-dimer (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 cases admitted to PHH were asymptomatic. Variabilities in symptoms, signs, laboratory results, and imaging findings should be noted. Increased age, male gender, smoking history, and elevated inflammatory markers were significantly associated with longer duration of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Jordan/epidemiology , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14797, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the remarkable spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), worldwide, it quickly became apparent that many public health systems worldwide were not prepared to manage such a pandemic. We aimed to assess the perceptions of primary care physicians (PCPs) in Jordan towards their role during COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was performed. The study participants included PCPs from the Ministry of Health, academic institutions, and the private sector in Jordan. RESULTS: A total of 221 PCPs participated in the study. Most participants reported not having received any training on infection control (59.7%) or COVID-19 (81%). More than half PCPs (53.4%) felt positive about the way patients received and/or complied with their instructions. More than half PCPs (55.7%) educated their patients on protective measures against COVID-19 infection and considered this as part of their role and responsibility. Over 80% of the participants would apply social distancing, hand sanitation, facial masks, and patient education, but only half (51.1%) reported planning to order COVID-19 test kits. CONCLUSIONS: PCPs had a positive attitude towards controlling COVID-19 infection and showed a willingness to educate patients on how to protect themselves. However, PCPs should be provided special training on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians, Primary Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Perception , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 729816, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413325

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) amongst university students in Jordan and changes in food-related behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Correlation between food safety KAP scores and general characteristics of university students was also evaluated. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted where an Internet-based questionnaire was distributed through social media platforms. The sample consisted of 1,739 respondents from 29 Jordanian universities. The participants completed a 58-item questionnaire covering demographical characteristics and different food safety aspects which were namely "COVID-19 food-related attributes," "food cooking and storage," "personal hygiene." "cross-contamination prevention/disinfection procedures." and "restaurant hygiene." Descriptive statistics, Chi square tests and binary logistic analysis were used to assess the data. Results: The sample consisted of 67.2% females with a mean age of 21.3 ± 1.8 years. The average overall score of the tested aspects was 14.1/34.0 which corresponds to 41.3% of the questions being answered correctly. The percentage of correct answers of "COVID-19 food-related attributes," "food cooking and storage," "cross-contamination prevention/disinfection procedures," "personal hygiene" and "restaurant hygiene" was 56.8, 36.6, 28.4, 44.6. and 36.9%, respectively. A significant (P <0.05) association between respondents' food safety KAP scores and gender, marital status, university degree, employment status, self-rating of food safety knowledge, and the source of food safety information. Conclusion: University students in Jordan had insufficient KAP scores which is a concerning trend during the pandemic. Teaching fundamentals of food safety in the form of short courses/ lectures is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Safety , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Young Adult
10.
Child Dev ; 92(5): e798-e816, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393847

ABSTRACT

This study of 52 predominantly lower income Jordanian and Syrian families with young children (31 girls; Mage  = 53.37 months, SD = 3.53) in Jordan began in 2019, before the pandemic. Families were followed to explore stress physiology, family functioning, and mental health over the first 9 months of the pandemic. Mothers reported less adaptive coping and more negative changes to family life in June 2020 when their children had poorer behavioral self-regulation and more behavior problems, and when families had lower income, in 2019. More negative changes to family life predicted greater hair cortisol concentrations in children in June 2020, and more negative changes and less adaptive coping predicted worse child and mother psychosocial adjustment in December 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Mothers , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Seizure ; 92: 100-105, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted care systems around the world. We assessed the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the care of pediatric patients with epilepsy in Jordan. Potential predictors for seizure control during COVID-19 outbreaks were investigated. METHODS: A cross- sectional survey was conducted on pediatric patients with epilepsy in Jordan, between January and February 2021, via online questionnaires. The collected data included demographic information, epilepsy-related characteristics, views of caregivers and changes in seizure control during COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: A total number of 672 subjects were screened, 276 were eligible, and 154 completed the questionnaire adequately. Two thirds of caregivers (66.2%) reported that the COVID -19 outbreaks prevented their child from getting proper epilepsy care and 28.6% reported difficulty giving the drugs to their child on time because of loss of daily routine. In addition, more than half (55.8%) reported difficulty obtaining antiseizure medicines (ASMs). On the other hand, 77.3% of caregivers reported that seizure status remained unchanged or improved for their children during the COVID-19 and 22.7% reported worsened seizure control. The number of antiseizure medicines taken by patients (p < 0.001), age (p = 0.032), residency area (p = 0.013) and the difficulty in giving the medicine during COVID-19 pandemic (p = 0.002) were the major factors influencing the seizure worsening experienced by patients. CONCLUSION: Almost one of every five patients reported worsened seizure control during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Jordan. Moreover, two thirds of caregivers reported poor epilepsy care. This finding highlights the need to implement organized and efficient telemedicine programs devoted to epilepsy care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Caregivers , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2301-2311, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368386

ABSTRACT

After the first detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in camels in Jordan in 2013, we conducted 2 consecutive surveys in 2014-2015 and 2017-2018 investigating risk factors for MERS-CoV infection among camel populations in southern Jordan. Multivariate analysis to control for confounding demonstrated that borrowing of camels, particularly males, for breeding purposes was associated with increased MERS-CoV seroprevalence among receiving herds, suggesting a potential route of viral transmission between herds. Increasing age, herd size, and use of water troughs within herds were also associated with increased seroprevalence. Closed herd management practices were found to be protective. Future vaccination strategies among camel populations in Jordan could potentially prioritize breeding males, which are likely to be shared between herds. In addition, targeted management interventions with the potential to reduce transmission between herds should be considered; voluntary closed herd schemes offer a possible route to achieving disease-free herds.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
Public Health Nurs ; 38(6): 978-983, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although vaccination against the COVID-19 disease has recently become available, individuals are expressing fear and hesitancy towards receiving it. As a result, testing for COVID-19 is still considered a vital method to contain infection. For testing to be effective, barriers towards testing intention need to be investigated; and available literature on the challenges are scarce. This study aimed to investigate barriers of COVID-19 testing among a sample of Jordanian adults and predict testing intention within the context of these barriers. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive, and predictive design was employed in this study among a sample of 1074 Jordanian adults. RESULTS: Three clusters of barriers predicted testing intention; perceived discrimination at work, concerns of individual's privacy, and having negative feelings towards testing. While perceived discrimination at work and privacy concerns were negatively associated with individuals' intention for testing, experiencing negative feelings towards COVID-19 testing was a positive predictor. CONCLUSION: Within the context of the study findings, public health nurses need to promote safety at the workplace, protect an individual's privacy, and eliminate negative feelings towards testing uptake through the provision of accurate and up-to-date information regarding the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , Health Services Accessibility , Intention , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Nurses, Public Health
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325657

ABSTRACT

Millions of children and adolescents have been affected worldwide by quarantine, school closures, and social distancing measures which have been implemented by many countries to control the spread of COVID-19. However, the long-term consequences of such procedures on children's well-being are not clear. Therefore, this study investigated the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on Jordanian children between the ages of 5-11 years old. A total of 1309 parents with children between the ages of 5 and 11 years old filled in an online survey that included a set of questions to measure their children's behaviour and emotions before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being bored (77.5%), irritable (66%), likely to argue with the rest of the family (60.7%), nervous (54.8%), reluctant (54.2%), and lonely (52.4%) were the most frequently reported symptoms compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. Parents reported that screen use of ≥120 min a day was shown among 48.9% of children and 42% of children did <30 min a day of physical activity. ≤8 h of sleep per night was reported among 42.5% of children compared to pre COVID-19. The results emphasized the importance of developing preventative psychological programs to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's psychological well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Environ Res ; 202: 111742, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322095

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the real-time impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on measured air pollution in the three largest cities of Jordan (Amman, Irbid and Zarqa). It is hypothesized that a sharp decrease in the emitted amounts of particulate matter (PM10), CO, NO2 and SO2 during COVID-19 pandemic will be obtained, this corresponds with the reduced traffic due to mandated business closures. To achieve this exploration a paired sample t-test is used to compare the concentration of these four pollutants in the three cities over the period from 15 March to 30 June during the years from 2016 to 2020. It is found that there is a significant difference between the emitted concentrations mean values of CO, PM10, SO2 and NO2 during the period of study. This was indicated by the values of p for each species, which was less than 5 % for all these pollutants. The maximum reduction in SO2 and NO2 concentration during the lockdown period was in Zarqa. Irbid city witnessed the highest percentage reduction in CO and PM10. Furthermore, the correlation test, independent variable importance of multilayer perceptron and global sensitivity analysis using Sobol analysis showed that metrological data (Humidity, wind speed, average temperature and pressure) have a direct relationship with concentrations of CO, PM10, SO2 and NO2 in Amman, Irbid and Zarqa before and after COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Meteorology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 116-120, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence studies of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are useful in assessing the epidemiological status in the community, and the degree of spread. OBJECTIVE: To study the seroprevalence rates of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthy blood donors in Jordan, at various points of time and as the pandemic evolves in the community. METHODS: In total, 1374 blood donor samples, from three groups, were tested for SARS-CoV-2 total immunoglobulin antibodies. In the first group, samples from 734 individuals (from donations made between January and June 2020) were tested in June. In the second group, 348 individuals were tested in September 2020. The third group of 292 individuals was tested in February 2021. A qualitative assay was used for testing (specificity 99.8%, sensitivity 100%). RESULTS: The first two groups, from January-June and September 2020, when confirmed Covid-19 cases numbered between several hundred and 3000, showed a seroprevalence rate of 0% (95% CI 0.00-0.51%). The third group (early February 2021), when the number of confirmed cases had reached 100 times that of September 2020, revealed a seroprevalence of 27.4% (95% CI 22.5-32.9%). CONCLUSIONS: A dramatic rise in seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was seen among healthy blood donors in Jordan, in parallel with widespread intracommunity transmission of the disease. This information is useful for assessing the degree of herd immunity, and provides for better understanding of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
18.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 56, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296122

ABSTRACT

Background: The adherence of medical laboratory technicians (MLT) to infection control guidelines is essential for reducing the risk of exposure to infectious agents. This study explored the adherence of MLT towards infection control practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: The study population consisted of MLT (n = 444) who worked in private and government health sectors in Jordan. A self-reported survey was used to collect data from participants. Findings: More than 87% of the participants reported adherence to hand-washing guidelines and using personal protective equipment (PPE) when interacting with patients (74.5%), and handling clinical samples (70.0%). Besides, 88.1%, 48.2%, and 7.7% reported wearing of lab coats, face masks, and goggles, at all times, respectively. The majority reported increased adherence to infection control practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes increased PPE use at the workplace (94.2%), increased frequency of disinfection of laboratory surfaces (92.4%) and laboratory equipment (86.7%), and increased frequency of handwashing/use of antiseptics (94.6%). Having a graduate degree was significantly associated with increased adherence of participants to the daily use of goggles/eye protection (p = 0.002), and the use of PPE while handling clinical samples (p = 0.011). Having work experience of >10 years was associated with increased adherence to the use of PPE while handling clinical samples (p = 0.001). Conclusion: MLT reported very good adherence with most assessed infection control practices. In addition, they reported increased conformity with infection control guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Infection Control , Laboratories , Medical Laboratory Personnel , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence/standards , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Jordan/epidemiology , Laboratories/organization & administration , Laboratories/standards , Male , Medical Laboratory Personnel/standards , Medical Laboratory Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253295, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278190

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread throughout the world and has resulted in significant morbidity, mortality, and negative psychological impact. This prospective cross-sectional study is exploring the effect of the pandemic on mental health of medical students. The study was conducted at six Jordanian medical schools using an online survey to collect students' socio-demographic and academic data. Assessment of mental wellbeing status was done using Kessler's psychological stress scale (K10); the impact of COVID-19 on life activities and strategies followed to manage the situation were also examined. A total of 553 medical students were recruited for the study. Men constituted 40.1%, and women were 59.9%. Students reported that COVID-19 has affected the aspects of physical fitness (73.1%), study (68.4%), and social relationships (65.6%) the most. Sixty-six percent of the students were concerned about family members' affection, and more than half (58.4%) explained their concerns about the inability to get clinical sessions and labs. Cooking, baking, and hobby practicing were the most popular methods to improve their mental wellbeing. About half of the participants had a severe mental disorder, and only 13.2% were likely to be well. The study indicates that half of our medical students suffer severe mental disorders, with physical fitness, exercise, and studying being among the most affected aspects during the COVID 19 pandemic. It is recommended that measures need be taken to alleviate students' stress, which might have deleterious effects in many aspects.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/standards , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
20.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 41(1): 83-92, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on COVID-19 in children are limited. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics, laboratory results and longitudinal RT-PCR- testing pattern in children infected with theSARS-CoV2 virus and admitted to a hospital in Jordan. METHODS: The study is a retrospective chart review of patients admitted between 16 March and 23 April 2020. All infected children in Jordan were hospitalised. Serial RT-PCR testing was undertaken 7 days after the first test and then on alternate days until discharge. The association between patient symptoms and laboratory results and whether there was a statistically significant median difference in the number of days until negative RT-PCR results between patients was studied. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients with positive SARS-CoV2 swabs were admitted, 34 (55.7%) of whom were symptomatic. The most common symptom was nasal congestion (21/61, 34.3%), followed by generalised malaise and headache (12/6, 19.7%). A rash was detected in 5/61 (8.2%) of them. Fifty-five patients (90.1%) underwent investigations: 4 (7.4%) of them had lymphopenia, 4 (7.4%) had eosinopenia, 8 (14.5%) had eosinophilia, and platelets were elevated in 5 (9.1%) children. CRP was measured in 33/61 (54.1%) patients and all were normal. ESR levels were available for 11/61 (18%) patients and were elevated in 5 (45.5%). There was a statistically significant association between laboratory results and symptom expression (p = 0.011). The longest time until the first negative RT-PCR result was 39 days. CONCLUSION: All children admitted who tested positive for SARS-CoV2 had mild symptoms and five had cutaneous manifestations. RT-PCR may remain positive for over one month.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies
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