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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e060185, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of COVID-19 on antenatal care (ANC) utilisation in Kenya, including women's reports of COVID-related barriers to ANC and correlates at the individual and household levels. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Six public and private health facilities and associated catchment areas in Nairobi and Kiambu Counties in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from 1729 women, including 1189 women who delivered in healthcare facilities before the COVID-19 pandemic (from September 2019-January 2020) and 540 women who delivered during the pandemic (from July through November 2020). Women who delivered during COVID-19 were sampled from the same catchment areas as the original sample of women who delivered before to compare ANC utilisation. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Timing of ANC initiation, number of ANC visits and adequate ANC utilisation were primary outcome measures. Among only women who delivered during COVID-19 only, we explored women's reports of the pandemic having affected their ability to access or attend ANC as a secondary outcome of interest. RESULTS: Women who delivered during COVID-19 had significantly higher odds of delayed ANC initiation (ie, beginning ANC during the second vs first trimester) than women who delivered before (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.37), although no significant differences were detected in the odds of attending 4-7 or ≥8 ANC visits versus <4 ANC visits, respectively (aOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.44 and aOR 1.46, 95% CI 0.74 to 2.86). Nearly half (n=255/540; 47%) of women who delivered during COVID-19 reported that the pandemic affected their ability to access ANC. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies are needed to mitigate disruptions to ANC among pregnant women during pandemics and other public health, environmental, or political emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prenatal Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pregnancy
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266495, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A Supplementation (VAS) is a cost-effective intervention to decrease mortality associated with measles and diarrheal diseases among children aged 6-59 months in low-income countries. Recently, experts have suggested that other interventions like large-scale food fortification and increasing the coverage of measles vaccination might provide greater impact than VAS. In this study, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of a VAS scale-up in three sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: We developed an individual-based microsimulation using the Vivarium simulation framework to estimate the cost and effect of scaling up VAS from 2019 to 2023 in Nigeria, Kenya, and Burkina Faso, three countries with different levels of baseline coverage. We calibrated the model with disease and risk factor estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 (GBD 2019). We obtained baseline coverage, intervention effects, and costs from a systematic review. After the model was validated against GBD inputs, we modeled an alternative scenario where we scaled-up VAS coverage from 2019 to a level that halved the exposure to lack of VAS in 2023. Based on the simulation outputs for DALYs averted and intervention cost, we determined estimates for the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in USD/DALY. FINDINGS: Our estimates for ICER are as follows: $860/DALY [95% UI; 320, 3530] in Nigeria, $550/DALY [240, 2230] in Kenya, and $220/DALY [80, 2470] in Burkina Faso. Examining the data for DALYs averted for the three countries over the time span, we found that the scale-up led to 21 [5, 56] DALYs averted per 100,000 person-years in Nigeria, 21 [5, 47] DALYs averted per 100,000 person-years in Kenya, and 14 [0, 37] DALYs averted per 100,000 person-years in Burkina Faso. CONCLUSIONS: VAS may no longer be as cost-effective in low-income regions as it has been previously. Updated estimates in GBD 2019 for the effect of Vitamin A Deficiency on causes of death are an additional driver of this lower estimate of cost-effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , Measles , Child , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Kenya , Vitamin A/therapeutic use
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 802947, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779968

ABSTRACT

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the leading cause of ano-genital cancers globally with cervical cancer as the top cause of cancer- related deaths in women. Over 90% of these deaths occur in low income countries where cancer control strategies remain inadequate. HPV vaccination provides protection against HPV types 16 and 18 which are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. The optimal age of vaccination is in the early adolescent period, before sexual debut with possible HPV infection. Studies have shown that children residing in low income settlements are at risk of early initiation of sexual activity. Adolescent vaccination programs would provide an avenue to link other health promotion strategies targeting this age group that has hitherto been left out of many health interventions in 2019, Kenya introduced HPV vaccine to be given to 10 year old girls. Uptake has been sub-optimal with only 33% of targeted population receiving the first dose in 2020 and 16% returning for the 2nd dose. While disruption of immunization programs by the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the low coverage, other factors such as low demand fuelled by misinformation have also played a role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 797290, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775998

ABSTRACT

Background: The growing ethical requirement to engage communities with health research has yielded diversification in approaches and targeted audiences. Conventional approaches like community "town-hall meetings," laboratory open-days and focus group discussions, have evolved into new methods and audiences such as community drama and school engagement with health research (SEHR) involving learning interactions between researchers and school students. While engagement practices are diversifying, evaluations of these initiatives are rare in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC). This article focuses on the use of Participatory Video (PV) to explore the influence of the KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme's (KWTRP) School Engagement Programme (SEP) on the views and understandings of science and research among Kenyan state secondary school students. Methods: Twelve male and twelve female students from four coeducational schools were provided with film-making kits (1 per school), and a one-day PV training workshop. They prepared 22 short films over 8 weeks depicting their experiences and views of research and engagement and conveying their career aspirations. Schools were selected based on prior SEP participation; two schools having experienced different engagement approaches, and the others with no prior school engagement. Study data comprised footage and participant observation notes. Results: PV provided an opportunity to simultaneously engage and evaluate to inform practice. Through student-led filmmaking, PV stimulated conversations with students about research and engagement, enabling them to share their views in a way they felt was appropriate. These interactions offered an understanding of student gains from engagement, the depth of interaction required to address perceptions held about research and the potential unintended consequences of engagement. PV also provided insights into the context and complexity of life in which engagement is situated. Understanding this context is important because of its potential influence on participation in engagement activities. We draw on these insights to make two recommendations for school engagement practice. First is that PV can provide an enjoyable and insightful means of combining engagement with evaluation. Second, given that time for SEHR is competed for against other important curricular and extracurricular activities, SEHR practitioners must ensure that activities are as beneficial and enjoyable as possible to students.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Communications Media , Community Participation , Female , Humans , Kenya , Male , Schools , Students
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 769898, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775977

ABSTRACT

Background: In Africa, rabies causes an estimated 24,000 human deaths annually. Mass dog vaccinations coupled with timely post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for dog-bite patients are the main interventions to eliminate human rabies deaths. A well-informed healthcare workforce and the availability and accessibility of rabies biologicals at health facilities are critical in reducing rabies deaths. We assessed awareness and knowledge regarding rabies and the management of rabies among healthcare workers, and PEP availability in rural eastern Kenya. Methodology: We interviewed 73 healthcare workers from 42 healthcare units in 13 wards in Makueni and Kibwezi West sub-counties, Makueni County, Kenya in November 2018. Data on demographics, years of work experience, knowledge of rabies, management of bite and rabies patients, and availability of rabies biologicals were collected and analyzed. Results: Rabies PEP vaccines were available in only 5 (12%) of 42 health facilities. None of the health facilities had rabies immunoglobulins in stock at the time of the study. PEP was primarily administered intramuscularly, with only 11% (n = 8) of the healthcare workers and 17% (7/42) healthcare facilities aware of the dose-sparing intradermal route. Less than a quarter of the healthcare workers were aware of the World Health Organization categorization of bite wounds that guides the use of PEP. Eighteen percent (n = 13) of healthcare workers reported they would administer PEP for category I exposures even though PEP is not recommended for this category of exposure. Only one of six respondents with acute encephalitis consultation considered rabies as a differential diagnosis highlighting the low index of suspicion for rabies. Conclusion: The availability and use of PEP for rabies was sub-optimal. We identified two urgent needs to support rabies elimination programmes: improving availability and access to PEP; and targeted training of the healthcare workers to improve awareness on bite wound management, judicious use of PEP including appropriate risk assessment following bites and the use of the dose-sparing intradermal route in facilities seeing multiple bite patients. Global and domestic funding plan that address these gaps in the human health sector is needed for efficient rabies elimination in Africa.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Health Services Needs and Demand , Rabies , Rural Health , Animals , Bites and Stings/therapy , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/veterinary , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/supply & distribution , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies Vaccines/supply & distribution
6.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266570, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers, including residents, are prone to various mental health disorders especially given the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Residents, particularly, are already under undue stress due to their respective training program demands. METHODS: This cross-sectional, online survey-based study from August to November 2020 collected demographic and mental health measurements from all residents at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi. The questionnaire investigated demographic variables, information regarding direct care of COVID-19 patients, prior history of mental health and mental health outcomes using the Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, Insomnia Severity Index, Impact of Event Scale-Revised Questionnaire and Stanford Professional Fulfillment Index Questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 100 residents completed the survey (participation rate 77.5%). Participants were about equal in gender (women [53%]), with a median age of 31.28 years, and majority were single (66.7%). A total of 66 participants (66%) were directly engaged in COVID-19 care. Depression: 64.3%, anxiety: 51.5%, insomnia: 40.5%, distress: 35.4%, and burnout: 51.0% were reported in all participants. Statistical significance was found in median depression, professional fulfillment and interpersonal disengagement when comparing frontline resident directly involved in care of COVID-19 patient versus second line residents. CONCLUSION: Residents directly involved with caring for COVID-19 patients had statistically higher incidences of depression and interpersonal disengagement and lower professional fulfillment compared to second line residents. Keeping in mind the limited resources in sub-Saharan Africa, urgent and geographically specific strategies are needed to help combat mental health disorders in this specific population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 439, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are considered the path out of the COVID-19 pandemic. The government of Kenya is implementing a phased strategy to vaccinate the Kenyan population, initially targeting populations at high risk of severe disease and infection. We estimated the financial and economic unit costs of procuring and delivering the COVID-19 vaccine in Kenya across various vaccination strategies. METHODS: We used an activity-based costing approach to estimate the incremental costs of COVID-19 vaccine delivery, from a health systems perspective. Document reviews and key informant interviews(n = 12) were done to inform the activities, assumptions and the resources required. Unit prices were derived from document reviews or from market prices. Both financial and economic vaccine procurement costs per person vaccinated with 2-doses, and the vaccine delivery costs per person vaccinated with 2-doses were estimated and reported in 2021USD. RESULTS: The financial costs of vaccine procurement per person vaccinated with 2-doses ranged from $2.89-$13.09 in the 30% and 100% coverage levels respectively, however, the economic cost was $17.34 across all strategies. Financial vaccine delivery costs per person vaccinated with 2-doses, ranged from $4.28-$3.29 in the 30% and 100% coverage strategies: While the economic delivery costs were two to three times higher than the financial costs. The total procurement and delivery costs per person vaccinated with 2-doses ranged from $7.34-$16.47 for the financial costs and $29.7-$24.68 for the economic costs for the 30% and 100% coverage respectively. With the exception of procurement costs, the main cost driver of financial and economic delivery costs was supply chain costs (47-59%) and advocacy, communication and social mobilization (29-35%) respectively. CONCLUSION: This analysis presents cost estimates that can be used to inform local policy and may further inform parameters used in cost-effectiveness models. The results could potentially be adapted and adjusted to country-specific assumptions to enhance applicability in similar low-and middle-income settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 601, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of COVID-19 on harmful traditional practices such Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) and Child or Forced Marriages (CFM) have not been well documented. We examined respondents' perceptions on how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected FGM/C and CFM in Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, and Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design with a mixed methods approach was used. Data collection on participants' perceptions on the effects of COVID-19 on FGM/C and CFM took place between October-December 2020. Household surveys targeting women and men aged 15-49 years in Kenya (n = 312), Uganda (n = 278), Ethiopia (n = 251), and Senegal (n = 208) were conducted. Thirty-eight key informant interviews with programme implementers and policymakers were carried out in Kenya (n = 17), Uganda (n = 9), Ethiopia (n = 8), and Senegal (n = 4). RESULTS: In Kenya, the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to the increase in both FGM/C and CFM cases. Minimal increase of FGM/C cases was reported in Uganda and a significant increase in CFM cases. In Ethiopia, the COVID-19 pandemic had a limited perceived effect on changes in FGM/C and CFM. In Senegal, there were minimal perceived effects of COVID-19 on the number of FGM/C and CFM cases. The pandemic negatively affected implementation of interventions by the justice and legal system, the health system, and civil societies. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has had varied perceived effects on FGM/C and CFM across the four countries. Generally, the pandemic has negatively affected implementation of interventions by the various sectors that are responsible for preventing and responding to FGM/C and CFM. This calls for innovative approaches in intervening in the various communities to ensure that women and girls at risk of FGM/C and CFM or in need of services are reached during the pandemic. Evidence on how effective alternative approaches such as the use of call centres, radio talk shows and the use of local champions as part of risk communication in preventing and responding to FGM/C and CFM amid COVID-19 is urgently required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Circumcision, Female , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Marriage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Senegal , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319211073415, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused socio-economic disruptions across the globe. The pandemic disrupted the health system (HS) calling for reengineering in response to high infection rates, deaths, and resultant containment measures. To deal with COVID-19 and promote resilience, community health workers (CHWs) were engaged across countries. OBJECTIVE: Assess the preparedness of CHWs in supporting health system response in prevention and management of COVID-19 in Kenya, Senegal, and Uganda. METHODS: A mixed methods design study involving national and subnational jurisdictions in the 3 countries. Key informant interviews were conducted with policy actors (16) and health care workers (24) while in-depth interviews involved CHWs (14) and community members (312) subjected to survey interviews. RESULTS: Most (>50%) households survived on

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Workers , Community Health Workers/education , Community Health Workers/psychology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Senegal , Uganda/epidemiology
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e055948, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769914

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) may be vulnerable to widescale impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and to health system responses which impact HIV care. We assessed healthcare worker (HCW) perspectives on impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent HIV care delivery and engagement in western Kenya. METHODS: We performed in-depth qualitative interviews with HCW at 10 clinical sites in the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare in Kenya, from January to March, 2021. Semistructured interviews ascertained pandemic-related impacts on adolescent HIV care delivery and retention. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with 22 HCWs from 10 clinics. HCWs observed adolescent financial hardships, unmet basic needs and school dropouts during the pandemic, with some adolescents relocating to rural homes, to partners or to the street. Marked increases in adolescent pregnancies and pregnancy complications were described, as well as barriers to family planning and antenatal care. Transportation challenges and restrictions limited access to care and prompted provision of multi-month refills, refills at local dispensaries or transfer to local facilities. Adolescent-friendly services were compromised, resulting in care challenges and disengagement from care. Clinic capacities to respond to adolescent needs were limited by funding cuts to multidisciplinary staff and resources. HCW and youth peer mentors (YPMs) demonstrated resilience, by adapting services, taking on expanded roles and leveraging available resources to support adolescent retention and access to care. CONCLUSIONS: ALHIV are uniquely vulnerable, and adolescent-friendly services are essential to their treatment. The combined effects of the pandemic, health system changes and funding cuts compromised adolescent-friendly care and limited capacity to respond to adolescent needs. There is a need to reinforce adolescent-friendly services within programmes and funding structures. Support for expanded YPM roles may facilitate dedicated, scalable and effective adolescent-friendly services, which are resilient and sustainable in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy
11.
Glob Health Action ; 15(1): 2029335, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758547

ABSTRACT

The HIV pandemic has long revealed the inequities and fault lines in societies, one of the most tenacious being the pandemic's disproportionate impact on adolescent girls and young women. In east and southern Africa, renewed global action is needed to invigorate an effective yet undervalued approach to expanding HIV prevention and improving women's health: integration of quality HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. The urgency of advancing effective integration of these services has never been clearer or more pressing. In this piece, national health officials from Kenya, Malawi, and Zimbabwe and global health professionals have joined together in a call to catalyze actions by development partners in support of national strategies to integrate HIV and SRH information and services. This agenda is especially vital now because these adolescent girls and young women are falling through the cracks due to the cascading effects of COVID-19 and disruptions in both SRH and HIV services. In addition, the scale-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been anemic for this population. Examining the opportunities and challenges of HIV/SRH integration implemented recently in three countries - Kenya, Malawi, and Zimbabwe - provides lessons to spur integration and investments there and in other nations in the region, aimed at improving health outcomes for adolescent girls and young women and curbing the global HIV epidemic. While gaps remain between strong national integration policies and program implementation, the experiences of these countries show opportunities for expanded, quality integration. This commentary draws on a longer comparative analysis of findings from rapid landscaping analyses in Kenya, Malawi, and Zimbabwe, which highlighted cross-country trends and context-specific realities around HIV/SRH integration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Malawi/epidemiology , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 577, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the provision of essential reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) services in sub-Saharan Africa to varying degrees. Original models estimated as many as 1,157,000 additional child and 56,700 maternal deaths globally due to health service interruptions. To reduce potential impacts to populations related to RMNCH service delivery, national governments in Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda, and Zimbabwe swiftly issued policy guidelines related to essential RMNCH services during COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) issued recommendations to guide countries in preserving essential health services by June of 2020. METHODS: We reviewed and extracted content related to family planning (FP), antenatal care (ANC), intrapartum and postpartum care and immunization in national policies from Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe from March 2020 to February 2021, related to continuation of essential RMNCH services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a standardized tool, two to three analysts independently extracted content, and in-country experts reviewed outputs to verify observations. Findings were entered into NVivo software and categorized using pre-defined themes and codes. The content of each national policy guideline was compared to WHO guidance related to RMNCH essential services during COVID-19. RESULTS: All four country policy guidelines considered ANC, intrapartum care, FP, and immunization to be essential services and issued policy guidance for continuation of these services. Guidelines were issued in April 2020 by Mozambique, Kenya, and Uganda, and in June 2020 by Zimbabwe. Many elements of WHO's 2020 recommendations were included in country policies, with some notable exceptions. Each policy guideline was more detailed in some aspects than others - for example, Kenya's guidelines were particularly detailed regarding FP service provision, while Uganda's guidelines were explicit about immediate breastfeeding. All policy guidance documents contained a balance of measures to preserve essential RMNCH services while reducing COVID-19 transmission risk within these services. CONCLUSIONS: The national policy guidelines to preserve essential RMNCH services in these four countries reflected WHO recommendations, with some notable exceptions for ANC and birth companionship. Ongoing revision of country policy guidelines to adapt to changing pandemic conditions is recommended, as is further analysis of subnational-level policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Kenya/epidemiology , Mozambique , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Pregnancy , Uganda , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e055815, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assess the indirect impact of COVID-19 on utilisation of immunisation and outpatient services in Kenya. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Data were analysed from all healthcare facilities reporting to Kenya's health information system from January 2018 to March 2021. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data, interrupted time series analysis was used to quantify the changes in utilisation of services and sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess robustness of estimates. EXPOSURE OF INTEREST: COVID-19 outbreak and associated interventions. OUTCOME MEASURES: Monthly attendance to health facilities. We assessed changes in immunisation and various outpatient services nationally. RESULTS: Before the first case of COVID-19 and pursuant intervention measures in March 2020, uptake of health services was consistent with historical levels. There was significant drops in attendance (level changes) in April 2020 for overall outpatient visits for under-fives (rate ratio, RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.57), under-fives with pneumonia (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.47), overall over-five visits (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.75), over-fives with pneumonia (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.70), fourth antenatal care visit (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93), total hypertension (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.96), diabetes cases (RR 0.95 95% CI, 0.93 to 0.97) and HIV testing (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.99). Immunisation services, first antenatal care visits, new cases of hypertension and diabetes were not affected. The post-COVID-19 trend was increasing, with more recent data suggesting reversal of effects and health services reverting to expected levels as of March 2021. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic has had varied indirect effects on utilisation of health services in Kenya. There is need for proactive and targeted interventions to reverse these effects as part of the pandemic's response to avert non-COVID-19 indirect mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunization , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Kenya/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Outpatients , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Vaccine ; 40(13): 2011-2019, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740254

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has impacted the health and livelihoods of billions of people since it emerged in 2019. Vaccination for COVID-19 is a critical intervention that is being rolled out globally to end the pandemic. Understanding the spatial inequalities in vaccination coverage and access to vaccination centres is important for planning this intervention nationally. Here, COVID-19 vaccination data, representing the number of people given at least one dose of vaccine, a list of the approved vaccination sites, population data and ancillary GIS data were used to assess vaccination coverage, using Kenya as an example. Firstly, physical access was modelled using travel time to estimate the proportion of population within 1 hour of a vaccination site. Secondly, a Bayesian conditional autoregressive (CAR) model was used to estimate the COVID-19 vaccination coverage and the same framework used to forecast coverage rates for the first quarter of 2022. Nationally, the average travel time to a designated COVID-19 vaccination site (n = 622) was 75.5 min (Range: 62.9 - 94.5 min) and over 87% of the population >18 years reside within 1 hour to a vaccination site. The COVID-19 vaccination coverage in December 2021 was 16.70% (95% CI: 16.66 - 16.74) - 4.4 million people and was forecasted to be 30.75% (95% CI: 25.04 - 36.96) - 8.1 million people by the end of March 2022. Approximately 21 million adults were still unvaccinated in December 2021 and, in the absence of accelerated vaccine uptake, over 17.2 million adults may not be vaccinated by end March 2022 nationally. Our results highlight geographic inequalities at sub-national level and are important in targeting and improving vaccination coverage in hard-to-reach populations. Similar mapping efforts could help other countries identify and increase vaccination coverage for such populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714405

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) disproportionately experience gender-based violence (GBV), which can increase during emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cohort of youth ages 15-24 in Nairobi, Kenya was surveyed at three time points over an 18-month period prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic: June-August 2019 (prepandemic), August-October 2020 (12-month follow-up) and May 2021 (18-month follow-up). We characterise (1) prevalence, relative timing and help-seeking for leading forms of GBV, (2) GBV trajectories over 18 months and (3) associations of individual, dyad and COVID-related factors on GBV trajectories among AGYW (n=612) in Nairobi, Kenya. Virtual focus group discussions (n=12) and interviews (n=40) contextualise quantitative results. RESULTS: Intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence hovered at 17% across time points (ever at pre-pandemic; past 12 months at 12-month follow-up (2020); past 6 months at 18-month follow-up (2021)); non-partner sexual violence (SV) was 3% at 12-month and 18-month follow-up. Overall, 27.6% of AGYW experienced IPV during the pandemic. IPV during the pandemic was associated with work as the primary pre-COVID activity, low social support and partner age difference >4 years. Among AGYW partnered at all three time points, 66.2% stayed IPV-free (no IPV), 9.2% saw IPV resolve by 18-month follow-up, while 11.1% had IPV start and 13.6% experienced intermittent IPV. Help-seeking for IPV and SV in 2020 (11.1% and 4.6%, respectively) increased to 21.7% and 15.1%, respectively, by 2021. Qualitative results speak to impacts of curfews, and pandemic-related financial stress in prompting conflict and threatening traditional gender roles, and underlying conditions that enable IPV. CONCLUSION: The persistence of IPV against AGYW in Nairobi prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic reflects endemic conditions and pandemic-specific stressors. Youth, including unmarried youth, remain a priority population for GBV prevention and survivor-centred response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gender-Based Violence , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702775

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the types of shocks that disrupt and negatively impact urban household food security is of critical importance to develop relevant and targeted food security emergency preparedness policies and responses, a fact magnified by the current COVID-19 pandemic. This gap is addressed by the current study which draws from the Hungry Cities Partnership (HCP) city-wide household food insecurity survey of Nairobi city in Kenya. It uses both descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling using General Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to examine the relationship between household food security and 16 different shocks experienced in the six months prior to the administration of the survey. The findings showed that only 29% of surveyed households were completely food secure. Of those experiencing some level of food insecurity, more experienced economic (55%) than sociopolitical (16%) and biophysical (10%) shocks. Economic shocks such as food price increases, loss of employment, and reduced income were all associated with increased food insecurity. Coupled with the lack of functioning social safety nets in Nairobi, households experiencing shocks and emergencies experience serious food insecurity and related health effects. In this context, the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a major negative economic impact on many vulnerable urban households. As such, there is need for new policies on urban food emergencies with a clear emergency preparedness plan for responding to major economic and other shocks that target the most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply/standards , Humans , Hunger , Income , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Young Adult
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 288-293, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Africa. We report findings from a survey among HCWs in 3 counties in Kenya. METHODS: We recruited 684 HCWs from Kilifi (rural), Busia (rural), and Nairobi (urban) counties. The serosurvey was conducted between 30 July and 4 December 2020. We tested for immunoglobulin G antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Assay sensitivity and specificity were 92.7 (95% CI, 87.9-96.1) and 99.0% (95% CI, 98.1-99.5), respectively. We adjusted prevalence estimates, using bayesian modeling to account for assay performance. RESULTS: The crude overall seroprevalence was 19.7% (135 of 684). After adjustment for assay performance, seroprevalence was 20.8% (95% credible interval, 17.5%-24.4%). Seroprevalence varied significantly (P < .001) by site: 43.8% (95% credible interval, 35.8%-52.2%) in Nairobi, 12.6% (8.8%-17.1%) in Busia and 11.5% (7.2%-17.6%) in Kilifi. In a multivariable model controlling for age, sex, and site, professional cadre was not associated with differences in seroprevalence. CONCLUSION: These initial data demonstrate a high seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among HCWs in Kenya. There was significant variation in seroprevalence by region, but not by cadre.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Bayes Theorem , Health Personnel , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 153398, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655143

ABSTRACT

This research examines water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) accessibility and opportunity in Kibera and Mathare during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. Kibera and Mathare are two of the largest urban informal settlements in Nairobi (the capital city of Kenya) as well as Sub-Saharan Africa. Accessibility indicates how easily a person can reach WASH facilities from their home by walking. Opportunity represents how many WASH options a person has near their home. We utilize the data on water and toilet facilities collected by GroundTruth Initiative in partnership with Map Kibera Trust (local community partners) between February and April 2021 - amid the COVID-19 pandemic. By conducting quantitative geospatial analysis, we illustrate WASH accessibility and related issues that were not evident in previous studies: (1) 77.4% of people living in Kibera have limited WASH facility accessibility or opportunity; (2) 60.6% of people living in Mathare have limited WASH facility accessibility or opportunity; (3) there is a clear geographic pattern in WASH facility accessibility and opportunity; and (4) overall accessibility and opportunity is better in Mathare than in Kibera. This study is one of the first studies to examine WASH accessibility and opportunity in urban informal settlements during the COVID-19 pandemic by utilizing the current data and quantitative geospatial methods. Based on the results, we discuss important public health policy implications for people living in urban informal settlements to improve their WASH facility accessibility and opportunity during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sanitation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hygiene , Kenya , Pandemics , Poverty Areas , Water
19.
J Urban Health ; 99(1): 146-163, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653711

ABSTRACT

Housing is a key social determinant of health with implications for both physical and mental health. The measurement of healthy housing and studies characterizing the same in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are uncommon. This study described a methodological approach employed in the assessment and characterization of healthy housing in SSA using the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for 15 countries and explored healthy housing determinants using a multiple survey-weighted logistic regression analysis. For all countries, we demonstrated that the healthy housing index developed using factor analysis reasonably satisfies both reliability and validity tests and can therefore be used to describe the distribution of healthy housing across different groups and in understanding the linkage with individual health outcomes. We infer from the results that unhealthy housing remains quite high in most SSA countries. Having a male head of the household was associated with decreased odds of healthy housing in Burkina Faso (OR = 0.80, CI = 0.68-0.95), Cameroon (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.57, 0.76), Malawi (OR = 0.70, CI = 0.64-0.78), and Senegal (OR = 0.62, CI = 0.51-0.74). Further, increasing household size was associated with reducing odds of healthy housing in Kenya (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.44-0.65), Namibia (OR = 0.34, CI = 0.24-0.48), Nigeria (OR = 0.57, CI = 0.46-0.71), and Uganda (OR = 0.79, CI = 0.67-0.94). Across all countries, household wealth was a strong determinant of healthy housing, with middle and rich households having higher odds of residing in healthy homes compared to poor households. Odds ratios ranged from 3.63 (CI = 2.96-4.44) for households in the middle wealth group in the DRC to 2812.2 (CI = 1634.8-4837.7) in Namibia's wealthiest households. For other factors, the analysis also showed variation across countries. Our findings provide timely insights for the implementation of housing policies across SSA countries, drawing attention to aspects of housing that would promote occupant health and wellbeing. Beyond the contribution to the measurement of healthy housing in SSA, our paper highlights key policy and program issues that need further interrogation in the search for pathways to addressing the healthy housing deficit across most SSA countries. This has become critical amid the COVID-19 pandemic, where access to healthy housing is pivotal in its control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Housing , Humans , Kenya , Male , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 25-34, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lower than expected COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in Africa has been attributed to multiple factors, including weak surveillance. This study estimated the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections eight months into the epidemic in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted using multi-stage random sampling to select households within Nairobi in November 2020. Sera from consenting household members were tested for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Seroprevalence was estimated after adjusting for population structure and test performance. Infection fatality ratios (IFRs) were calculated by comparing study estimates with reported cases and deaths. RESULTS: Among 1,164 individuals, the adjusted seroprevalence was 34.7% (95% CI 31.8-37.6). Half of the enrolled households had at least one positive participant. Seropositivity increased in more densely populated areas (spearman's r=0.63; p=0.009). Individuals aged 20-59 years had at least two-fold higher seropositivity than those aged 0-9 years. The IFR was 40 per 100,000 infections, with individuals ≥60 years old having higher IFRs. CONCLUSION: Over one-third of Nairobi residents had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by November 2020, indicating extensive transmission. However, the IFR was >10-fold lower than that reported in Europe and the USA, supporting the perceived lower morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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