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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2191, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kenya is faced with a triple burden of malnutrition which is multi-faceted with health and socio-economic implications. Huge geographical disparities exist, especially, in the arid and semi-arid lands exacerbated by inadequate resource allocation to the nutrition sector and challenges in multi-sectoral coordination and nutrition governance. UNICEF's Maternal and Child Nutrition Programme is a four-year (2018-2022) resilience-building, multi-sectoral program focused on pregnant and lactating women, mothers of children under five years and children under five years. The objective of the mid-term evaluation was to establish the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of the programme. METHODS: The field evaluation conducted between June and July 2021, adopted a concurrent mixed-methods approach, where qualitative information was gathered through 29 key informant interviews and 18 focus group discussions (6 FGDs per population group; women of reproductive age, adolescent girls and men). Quantitatively, data were obtained through desk review of secondary data from programme reports, budgets, and project outputs where descriptive analysis was undertaken using Excel software. Qualitative information was organized using Nvivo software and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: The findings provide evidence of the relevance of the Maternal and Child Nutrition Programme II to the nutrition situation in Kenya and its alignment with the Government of Kenya and donor priorities. Most planned programme targets were achieved despite operating in a COVID-19 pandemic environment. The use of innovative approaches such as family mid-upper arm circumference, integrated management of acute malnutrition surge model, Malezi bora and Logistic Management Information Management System contributed to the realization of effective outputs and outcomes. Stringent financial management strategies contributed toward programme efficiencies; however, optimal utilization of the resources needs further strengthening. The programme adopted strategies for strengthening local capacity and promoting ownership and long-term sustainability. CONCLUSION: The programme is on track across the four evaluation criteria. However, a few suggestions are recommended to improve relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability. A formal transition strategy needs to be developed in consultation with multi-stakeholder groups and implemented in phases. UNICEF Nutrition section should explore a more integrated  programming mode of delivery through joint initiatives with other agencies under the Delivery as One UN agenda, along the more gender transformative approaches with more systematic involvement of males and females in gender-based discussions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adolescent , Child , Male , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Kenya/epidemiology , Lactation , Pandemics , Mothers
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 877, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections are a common complication in patients with seasonal viral respiratory tract infections and are associated with poor prognosis, increased risk of intensive care unit admission and 29-55% mortality. Yet, there is limited data on the burden of bacterial infections among COVID-19 patients in Africa, where underdeveloped healthcare systems are likely to play a pertinent role in the epidemiology of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we evaluated the etiologies, antimicrobial resistance profiles, risk factors, and outcomes of bacterial infections in severely ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted in severely ill COVID-19 patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, from October to December 2021. We used a structured questionnaire and case report forms to collect sociodemographics, clinical presentation, and hospitalization outcome data. Blood, nasal/oropharyngeal swabs and tracheal aspirate samples were collected based on the patient's clinical presentation and transported to the Kenyatta National Hospital microbiology laboratory for immediate processing following the standard bacteriological procedures. RESULTS: We found at least one bacterial infection in 44.2% (53/120) of the patients sampled, with a 31.7% mortality rate. Pathogens were mainly from the upper respiratory tract (62.7%, 42/67), with gram-negative bacteria dominating (73.1%, 49/67). Males were about three times more likely to acquire bacterial infection (p = 0.015). Those aged 25 to 44 years (p = 0.009), immunized against SARS-CoV-2 (p = 0.027), and admitted to the infectious disease unit ward (p = 0.031) for a short length of stay (0-5 days, p < 0.001) were more likely to have a positive outcome. Multidrug-resistant isolates were the majority (64.3%, 46/67), mainly gram-negative bacteria (69.6%, 32/46). The predominant multidrug-resistant phenotypes were in Enterococcus cloacae (42.9%, 3/7), Klebsiella pneumonia (25%, 4/16), and Escherichia coli (40%, 2/5). CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in severely ill COVID-19 patients, with male gender as a risk factor for bacterial infection. Elderly Patients, non-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, intensive care unit admission, and long length of hospital stay were associated with poor outcomes. There is a need to emphasize strict adherence to infection and prevention at KNH-IDU and antimicrobial stewardship in line with local and global AMR control action plans.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, Teaching , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Length of Stay , Referral and Consultation
3.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(3)2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110941

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We introduce the iDARE methodology and present the results of iDARE implementation in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. IDARE METHODOLOGY: iDARE drives locally led solutions that address barriers to achieving improved health outcomes. WI-HER supported the governments of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania, to design and implement solutions to improve (1) HIV health outcomes, (2) gender-based violence identification and response, and (3) mass drug administration coverage, respectively. RESULTS: In Uganda, the iDARE team at Nagongera Health Center IV increased viral load suppression (VLS) among actively enrolled men in care from 65% to 95% and increased VLS among actively enrolled children in care from 60% to 96% in 12 months. In 11 months, the Mulanda Health Center IV iDARE team increased VLS among actively enrolled men in care from 85% to 93% and actively enrolled children in care from 73% to 96%. In Kenya, 8 facility iDARE teams improved identification, management, and response for gender-based violence survivors by a monthly average of 642% in 10 months. Additionally, the identification, management, and response for male survivors of gender-based violence increased from an average of 8 to 188 men per month and from an average of 81 to 364 women per month. In Tanzania, the government applied iDARE to improve mass drug administration (MDA) access and uptake among school-age children. Eighteen percent of the children (equal male and female) had missed or refused treatment during school-based MDA. After 1 month of application of iDARE, the 4 schools achieved 99% MDA uptake among registered children (enrolled and nonenrolled). DISCUSSION: Due to the various lockdowns, restrictions, and safety implications during the COVID-19 pandemic, iDARE was used to rapidly adjust from planned in-person to sometimes virtual engagements. Despite these challenges, iDARE demonstrated improvements in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Female , Male , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , Tanzania/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
4.
Virol J ; 19(1): 178, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108842

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) have been linked to new waves of COVID-19 epidemics occurring in different regions of the world. The VOC have acquired adaptive mutations that have enhanced virus transmissibility, increased virulence, and reduced response to neutralizing antibodies. Kenya has experienced six waves of COVID-19 epidemics. In this study, we analyzed 64 genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 strains that circulated in Nairobi and neighboring counties, Kenya between March 2021 and July 2021. Viral RNA was extracted from RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 cases, followed by sequencing using the ARTIC network protocol and Oxford Nanopore Technologies. Analysis of the sequence data was performed using different bioinformatics methods. Our analyses revealed that during the study period, three SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) circulated in Nairobi and nearby counties in Kenya. The Alpha (B.1.1.7) lineage predominated (62.7%), followed by Delta (B.1.617.2, 35.8%) and Beta (B.1.351, 1.5%). Notably, the Alpha (B.1.1.7) VOC were most frequent from March 2021 to May 2021, while the Delta (B.1.617.2) dominated beginning June 2021 through July 2021. Sequence comparisons revealed that all the Kenyan viruses were genetically similar to those that circulated in other regions. Although the majority of Kenyan viruses clustered together in their respective phylogenetic lineages/clades, a significant number were interspersed among foreign strains. Between March and July 2021, our study's findings indicate the prevalence of multiple lineages of SAR-CoV-2 VOC in Nairobi and nearby counties in Kenya. The data suggest that the recent increase in SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in Nairobi and Kenya as a whole, is attributable to the introduction and community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 VOC among the populace. In conclusion, the findings provide a snapshot of the SARS-CoV-2 variants that circulated in Kenya during the study period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Phylogeny , Kenya/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276702, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089443

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing markedly in low- and middle-income countries where over three-quarters of global deaths occur due to non-communicable diseases. Unfortunately, these conditions are considered costly and often deprioritized in humanitarian settings with competing goals. Using a mixed methods approach, this study aimed to quantify the cost of outpatient treatment for uncomplicated type-1 (T1DM) and type-2 (T2DM) diabetes at a secondary care facility serving refugees in Kenya. A retrospective cost analysis combining micro- and gross-costings from a provider perspective was employed. The main outcomes included unit costs per health service activity to cover the total cost of labor, capital, medications and consumables, and overheads. A care pathway was mapped out for uncomplicated diabetes patients to identify direct and indirect medical costs. Interviews were conducted to determine inputs required for diabetes care and estimate staff time allocation. A total of 360 patients, predominantly Somali refugees, were treated for T2DM (92%, n = 331) and T1DM (8%, n = 29) in 2017. Of the 3,140 outpatient consultations identified in 2017; 48% (n = 1,522) were for males and 52% (n = 1,618) for females. A total of 56,144 tests were run in the setting, of which 9,512 (16.94%) were Random Blood Sugar (RBS) tests, and 90 (0.16%) HbA1c tests. Mean costs were estimated as: $2.58 per outpatient consultation, $1.37 per RBS test and $14.84 per HbA1c test. The annual pharmacotherapy regimens cost $91.93 for T1DM and $20.34 for T2DM. Investment in holistic and sustainable non-communicable disease management should be at the forefront of humanitarian response. It is expected to be beneficial with immediate implications on the COVID-19 response while also reducing the burden of care over time. Despite study limitations, essential services for the management of uncomplicated diabetes in a humanitarian setting can be modest and affordable. Therefore, integrating diabetes care into primary health care should be a fundamental pillar of long-term policy response by stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Refugees , Male , Female , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Retrospective Studies , Kenya/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Health Care Costs , Hospitals
6.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0267619, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers and nonclinical staff in medical facilities are perceived to be a high-risk group for acquiring SAR-CoV-2 infection, and more so in countries where COVID-19 vaccination uptake is low. Serosurveillance may best determine the true extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection since most infected HCWs and other staff may be asymptomatic or present with only mild symptoms. Over time, determining the true extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection could inform hospital management and staff whether the preventive measures instituted are effective and valuable in developing targeted solutions. METHODS: This was a census survey study conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, between November 2020 and February 2021 before the implementation of the COVID-19 vaccination. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG test was performed using a chemiluminescent assay. RESULTS: One thousand six hundred thirty-one (1631) staff enrolled, totalling 60% of the workforce. The overall crude seroprevalence was 18.4% and the adjusted value (for assay sensitivity of 86%) was 21.4% (95% CI; 19.2-23.7). The staff categories with higher prevalence included pharmacy (25.6%), outreach (24%), hospital- based nursing (22.2%) and catering staff (22.6%). Independent predictors of a positive IgG result after adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities included prior COVID-19 like symptoms, odds ratio (OR) 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.0, p = 0.001], a prior positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result OR 12.0 (CI: 7.7-18.7, p<0.001) and working in a clinical COVID-19 designated area, OR 1.9 (CI 1.1-3.3, p = 0.021). The odds of testing positive for IgG after a positive PCR test were lowest if the antibody test was performed more than 2 months later; OR 0.7 (CI: 0.48-0.95, p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG among HCWs and nonclinical staff was lower than in the general population. Staff working in clinical areas were not at increased risk when compared to staff working in non-clinical areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Censuses , COVID-19 Vaccines , Kenya/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Nucleocapsid
7.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0265478, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079676

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The high proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infections that have remained undetected presents a challenge to tracking the progress of the pandemic and estimating the extent of population immunity. METHODS: We used residual blood samples from women attending antenatal care services at three hospitals in Kenya between August 2020 and October 2021and a validated IgG ELISA for SARS-Cov-2 spike protein and adjusted the results for assay sensitivity and specificity. We fitted a two-component mixture model as an alternative to the threshold analysis to estimate of the proportion of individuals with past SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: We estimated seroprevalence in 2,981 women; 706 in Nairobi, 567 in Busia and 1,708 in Kilifi. By October 2021, 13% of participants were vaccinated (at least one dose) in Nairobi, 2% in Busia. Adjusted seroprevalence rose in all sites; from 50% (95%CI 42-58) in August 2020, to 85% (95%CI 78-92) in October 2021 in Nairobi; from 31% (95%CI 25-37) in May 2021 to 71% (95%CI 64-77) in October 2021 in Busia; and from 1% (95% CI 0-3) in September 2020 to 63% (95% CI 56-69) in October 2021 in Kilifi. Mixture modelling, suggests adjusted cross-sectional prevalence estimates are underestimates; seroprevalence in October 2021 could be 74% in Busia and 72% in Kilifi. CONCLUSIONS: There has been substantial, unobserved transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Nairobi, Busia and Kilifi Counties. Due to the length of time since the beginning of the pandemic, repeated cross-sectional surveys are now difficult to interpret without the use of models to account for antibody waning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Kenya/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e066777, 2022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Sexual harassment among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) is a prevalent and understudied form of gender-based violence (GBV) with negative impacts on health and well-being. The COVID-19 pandemic raised global concern about GBV within homes; less is known about how it affected GBV in public spaces. METHODS: Present analyses use cross-sectional data from a cohort of adolescents and young adults residing in Nairobi, Kenya, restricted to female participants. Data were collected August-October 2020 via phone after implementation of COVID-19 restrictions. Prevalence of past-year sexual harassment and harassment relative to COVID-19 restrictions were calculated for overall sample, and by individual, household, and pandemic-related factors. Multivariate negative binomial regression models examine correlates of (1) past-year sexual harassment and (2) increases in sexual harassment relative to COVID-19 restrictions. RESULTS: Overall, 18.1% of AGYW experienced past-year sexual harassment at the 2020 survey. Among this group, 14.6% experienced sexual harassment pre-COVID-19 only, 18.8% after only and 66.6% at both time points. Among the latter group, 34.9% reported more occurrences following COVID-19 restrictions, 20.5% reported less occurrences and 44.7% reported no change in occurrence. Overall, 42.0% of AGYW experienced an increase in sexual harassment while 58.0% experienced no increase since COVID-19. In adjusted models, past-year sexual harassment was associated with higher educational attainment (adjusted risk ratio, aRR 2.11; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.52) and inability to meet basic financial needs (aRR 1.67; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.66). Increased sexual harassment since COVID-19 was associated with having full control to leave the home (aRR 1.69; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.90). CONCLUSIONS: Sexual harassment among AGYW in Nairobi, Kenya was prevalent before and during COVID-19 restrictions. Safety in public spaces remains a highly gendered issue that impacts women's safety and ability to participate in public life. Prevention and support services to address sexual harassment remain an important element in ensuring safe, sustainable public spaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual Harassment , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sexual Behavior , Young Adult
9.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25 Suppl 4: e25977, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068574

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Empirical research on the burden and determinants of common mental disorders (CMDs), especially depression and anxiety, among older adults living with HIV (OALWH) in sub-Saharan Africa is inadequate. To bridge the gap in Kenya we: (1) determined the prevalence of CMDs among OALWH on routine HIV care compared to HIV-negative peers; (2) investigated HIV status as an independent predictor of CMDs in older adults; and (3) investigated CMD determinants. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study conducted between 2020 and 2021, the prevalence of CMDs and associated determinants were investigated at the Kenyan coast among 440 adults aged ≥50 years (257 OALWH). The Patient Health Questionnaire and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale were administered alongside measures capturing biopsychosocial information. Logistic regression was used to examine the correlates of CMDs. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild depressive symptoms, 23.8% versus 18.2% (p = 0.16) and mild anxiety symptoms, 11.7% versus 7.2% (p = 0.12) among OALWH compared to HIV-negative peers, respectively. HIV status was not independently predictive of CMDs. Among OALWH, higher perceived HIV-related stigma, ageism, increasing household HIV burden, loneliness, increasing functional disability, sleeping difficulties, chronic fatigue and advanced age (>70 years) were associated with elevated CMDs. Among HIV-negative older adults, loneliness, increased medication burden and sleeping difficulties were associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Easier access to HIV care was the only factor associated with lower CMDs among OALWH. CONCLUSIONS: On the Kenyan coast, the burden of moderate and severe CMDs among older adults is low; however, both OALWH and their HIV-negative peers have a similar relatively high burden of mild depressive and anxiety symptoms. Our results also suggest that determinants of CMDs among OALWH in this setting are predominantly psychosocial factors. These results highlight the need for psychosocial interventions (at the family, community and clinical levels) to mitigate the risks of mild CMDs as they are known to be potentially debilitating.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Prevalence
10.
Implement Sci ; 17(1): 70, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Kenya, HIV incidence is highest among reproductive-age women. A key HIV mitigation strategy is the integration of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) into family planning services, but successful integration remains problematic. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial using the Systems Analysis and Improvement Approach (SAIA) to identify and address bottlenecks in HTC integration in family planning clinics in Mombasa County, Kenya. This trial (1) assessed the efficacy of this approach and (2) examined if SAIA could be sustainably incorporated into the Department of Health Services (DOHS) programmatic activities. In Stage 1, SAIA was effective at increasing HTC uptake. Here, we present Stage 2, which assessed if SAIA delivery would be sustained when implemented by the Mombasa County DOHS and if high HTC performance would continue to be observed. METHODS: Twenty-four family planning clinics in Mombasa County were randomized to either the SAIA implementation strategy or standard care. In Stage 1, the study staff conducted all study activities. In Stage 2, we transitioned SAIA implementation to DOHS staff and compared HTC in the intervention versus control clinics 1-year post-transition. Study staff provided training and minimal support to DOHS implementers and collected quarterly HTC outcome data. Interviews were conducted with family planning clinic staff to assess barriers and facilitators to sustaining HTC delivery. RESULTS: Only 39% (56/144) of planned SAIA visits were completed, largely due to the COVID-19 pandemic and a prolonged healthcare worker strike. In the final study quarter, 81.6% (160/196) of new clients at intervention facilities received HIV counseling, compared to 22.4% (55/245) in control facilities (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]=3.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.68-4.94). HIV testing was conducted with 60.5% (118/195) of new family planning clients in intervention clinics, compared to 18.8% (45/240) in control clinics (PRR=3.23, 95% CI=2.29-4.55). Interviews with family planning clinic staff suggested institutionalization contributed to sustained HTC delivery, facilitated by low implementation strategy complexity and continued oversight. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention clinics demonstrated sustained improvement in HTC after SAIA was transitioned to DOHS leadership despite wide-scale healthcare disruptions and incomplete delivery of the implementation strategy. These findings suggest that system interventions may be sustained when integrated into DOHS programmatic activities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02994355) registered on 16 December 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Family Planning Services , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Systems Analysis
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1857, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global evidence indicates increases in gender-based violence (GBV) during the COVID-19 pandemic following mitigation measures, such as stay at home orders. Indirect effects of the pandemic, including income loss, strained social support, and closed or inaccessible violence response services, may further exacerbate GBV and undermine help-seeking. In Kenya and Burkina Faso, as in many settings, GBV was prevalent prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies specific to COVID-impact on GBV in Kenya indicate mixed results and there remains a lack of evidence from Burkina Faso. Our study takes a comprehensive lens by addressing both intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner household abuse through the COVID-19 pandemic in two priority settings. METHODS: Annual, national cross-sections of women ages 15-49 completed survey data collection in November-December 2020 and December 2020-March 2021; the GBV module was limited to one woman per household [Kenya n = 6715; Burkina n = 4065]. Descriptive statistics, Venn diagrams, and logistic and multinomial regression characterized prevalence of IPV and other household abuse, frequency relative to the COVID-19 pandemic, help-seeking behaviors, and predictors of IPV and household abuse across the socioecological framework. RESULTS: In both settings, past-year IPV prevalence exceeded non-partner household abuse (Kenya: 23.5%IPV, 11.0%household; Burkina Faso: 25.7%IPV, 16.2%household). Over half of those affected in each setting did not seek help; those that did turned first to family. Among those with past-year experiences, increased frequency since COVID-19 was noted for IPV (16.0%Burkina Faso; 33.6%Kenya) and household violence (14.3%Burkina Faso; 26.2%Kenya). Both context-specific (i.e., financial autonomy in Burkina Faso) and universal (i.e., COVID-related income loss) risk factors emerged. CONCLUSION: Past-year IPV and household violence against women in Kenya and Burkina Faso were prevalent, and in some cases, intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Across settings, help-seeking from formal services was notably low, likely reflecting shame, blame, and stigmatization identified as barriers in pre-COVID literature. Both primary prevention and survivor-centered support services, including those related to economic empowerment, should be integrated within COVID-recovery efforts, and extended into the post-pandemic period to fully meet women's safety needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Adolescent , Adult , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sexual Partners , Young Adult
12.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(4)2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe how High Impact Practices (HIPs) in family planning (FP) were adapted across Kenya, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe to maintain access to services in response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Using a qualitative data collection tool structured around 3 HIP categories (service delivery, demand creation, and enabling environment), adaptations in FP programs during the pandemic were documented. We describe adaptations made to 3 specific HIPs: mobile outreach, community health workers, and digital health for social and behavior change. PROGRAM EXPERIENCES: In Zimbabwe, the Mhuri/Imuli project adapted its mobile outreach model integrating community-based outreach with facility-based outreach. The number of outreach clients served per week peaked at 1,759 (July 2020) from a low of 203 (May 2020). Clients choosing long-acting reversible methods increased from 22% to 59% during the 3 months before and after lockdown, respectively.In Kenya, a program addressed youth's hesitation to visit health facilities through youth community health volunteers, who provided counseling, community dialogues, contraceptive pills, and condoms. Over 6 months, the program reached 1,048 youth with community dialogues, and 4,656 youth received FP services. In Nigeria, peer mobilizers provided services through a socially distanced community-based program to help adolescent girls access contraceptive self-injection when movement restrictions limited youth's ability to travel to facilities.In Nigeria, Adolescents 360 adapted sexual and reproductive health information programs for virtual delivery through WhatsApp. A contraceptive education Facebook campaign gained more than 80,000 followers, reached 5.9 million adolescents, and linked 330 adolescents to program-supported facilities from January to March 2021. In Kenya, the Kibera-based project used WhatsApp to reach youth with discussion groups and health workers with skills strengthening. CONCLUSION: Monitoring how projects adapt HIPs to ensure continuity of care during the COVID-19 pandemic can help inform the implementation of successful adaptations in the face of present and future challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Planning Services , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Contraceptive Agents , Family Planning Services/methods , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
13.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(4)2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025434

ABSTRACT

In Kenya, early coronavirus disease (COVID-19) modeling studies predicted that disruptions in antenatal care and hospital services could increase indirect maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths. As the Kenyan government enforced lockdowns and a curfew, many mothers-to-be were unable to safely reach hospital facilities, especially at night. Fear of contracting COVID-19, increasing costs of accessing care, stigma, and falling incomes forced many expectant mothers to give birth at home. MomCare, which primarily serves communities in remote areas and urban slums, links mothers-to-be with payers and health care providers, following a standardized pregnancy program based on World Health Organization guidelines at a predetermined cost and quality. Expectant mothers gain access to care through a mobile wallet on their feature phone (voice, text, and basic internet), and providers are paid after appropriate care is given. Within the first 3 weeks of the pandemic in Kenya, the following services were added to the MomCare bundle: emergency ambulance services during curfew hours, extended bed allowances to encourage early care, phone calls to check on mothers approaching their delivery dates and to promote the generation of a birth plan, SMS messages to inform mothers of open facilities and COVID-19 protocols, and training for clinic staff in managing COVID-19 patients and infection prevention. We compare data collected through the MomCare platform during the 6 months before the first confirmed COVID-19 case in Kenya (September 2019-February 2020) with data collected during the 6 months that followed. This study shows that care-seeking behaviors (enrollment, antenatal/postnatal care, skilled deliveries) increased for mothers-to-be enrolled in MomCare during the COVID-19 lockdowns, while quality of care and outcomes were maintained. Public health practitioners can promote interactive, patient-driven technology like MomCare to augment traditional responses, quickly linking payments with patients and providers in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Continuity of Patient Care , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Kenya/epidemiology , Mothers , Pregnancy
14.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 111, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Nyeri County in Kenya was among the regions reporting a high number of confirmed cases. This exemplified the increased need of addressing potential antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and self-medication during disease outbreaks. This study examined the extent of self-medication with antimicrobials among COVID-19 confirmed cases in the County. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using phone-based interviews was conducted in August 2021 among a sample of 280 out of 2317 confirmed COVID-19 cases in the County using a pre-coded questionnaire. Descriptive analyses of frequencies and causal logistic regression were conducted using STATA version 13. RESULTS: A total of 193 (68.9%) of the respondents indicated developing COVID-19 related symptoms-mainly cough (41.5%), headache (38.3%), and fatigue (34.7%). Over one-fifth (23.4%) of the respondents had self-medicated with antibiotics, 60.6% of whom did so at the onset of symptoms before the confirmatory test, and 51.5% self-medicating more than once. Common antibiotics used were Azithromycin (40.0%) and Amoxycilline (23.3%), with a considerable 21.7% having difficulty remembering the name of the drugs. Only half (50.4%) of the respondents (128/254) were aware of regulations towards self-medication with antibiotics. Age was the only socio-demographic variable significantly related to reduced self-medication, with older persons less likely to self-medicate. On the other hand, developing COVID-19 symptoms, awareness of COVID regulations, and appreciation of the need for self-medication awareness were related to increased self-medication. CONCLUSION: Being older, developing COVID-19 symptoms, and appreciating self-medication awareness have influential effects on the use of antimicrobials. Public health interventions should be timely during infectious disease outbreaks to prevent undesirable health-seeking behavior such as irrational antimicrobial use. AMR policies should enhance awareness of the risks of self-medication and address barriers that deter people from timely access of health services during disease outbreaks. Further research should be conducted on the self-medication and AMR nexus, especially during health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics
15.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(9): 562-569, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022470

ABSTRACT

With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, public health measures such as physical distancing were recommended to reduce transmission of the virus causing the disease. However, the same approach in all areas, regardless of context, may lead to measures being of limited effectiveness and having unforeseen negative consequences, such as loss of livelihoods and food insecurity. A prerequisite to planning and implementing effective, context-appropriate measures to slow community transmission is an understanding of any constraints, such as the locations where physical distancing would not be possible. Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, we outline and discuss challenges that are faced by residents of urban informal settlements in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We describe how new geospatial data sets can be integrated to provide more detailed information about local constraints on physical distancing and can inform planning of alternative ways to reduce transmission of COVID-19 between people. We include a case study for Nairobi County, Kenya, with mapped outputs which illustrate the intra-urban variation in the feasibility of physical distancing and the expected difficulty for residents of many informal settlement areas. Our examples demonstrate the potential of new geospatial data sets to provide insights and support to policy-making for public health measures, including COVID-19.


Avec l'apparition de la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), des mesures de santé publique telles que la distanciation physique ont été mises en place afin de limiter la transmission du virus à l'origine de la maladie. Néanmoins, adopter la même approche dans toutes les régions sans tenir compte du contexte pourrait réduire l'efficacité de ces mesures et avoir des conséquences négatives imprévues, comme la perte des moyens de subsistance et l'insécurité alimentaire. Avant de planifier et de déployer des mesures utiles et adaptées à la situation en vue de ralentir la transmission au sein des communautés, il est impératif d'identifier les contraintes liées notamment aux lieux où la distanciation physique est impossible à respecter. Le présent document se concentre sur l'Afrique subsaharienne. Nous y avons présenté et évoqué les défis auxquels sont confrontés les habitants des implantations urbaines sauvages au cours de l'actuelle pandémie de COVID-19. Nous décrivons comment intégrer les nouveaux ensembles de données géospatiales pour obtenir des informations plus détaillées sur les contraintes locales liées à la distanciation physique et trouver des solutions alternatives permettant de limiter la transmission de la COVID-19 d'une personne à l'autre. Nous citons une étude de cas réalisée dans le comté de Nairobi, au Kenya, dont les résultats cartographiés illustrent les variations intra-urbaines qui déterminent la faisabilité de la distanciation physique et les difficultés que les habitants de nombreuses implantations sauvages sont susceptibles de rencontrer. Nos exemples révèlent le potentiel des nouveaux ensembles de données géospatiales dans l'analyse et l'élaboration des politiques et mesures de santé publique, y compris pour la COVID-19.


Con el inicio de la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19), se recomendaron medidas de salud pública como el distanciamiento físico para reducir la transmisión del virus causante de la enfermedad. Sin embargo, el mismo enfoque en todas las áreas, sin tener en cuenta el contexto, puede llevar a que las medidas sean de eficacia limitada y tengan consecuencias negativas imprevistas, como la pérdida de medios de vida y la inseguridad alimentaria. Un requisito previo para planificar y aplicar medidas eficaces y adecuadas al contexto para ralentizar la transmisión en la comunidad es conocer las limitaciones, como los lugares en los que no sería posible el distanciamiento físico. En este documento, centrado en el África subsahariana, se describen y discuten los desafíos a los que se enfrentan los residentes de los asentamientos urbanos informales en la actual pandemia de la COVID-19. Se describe cómo los nuevos conjuntos de datos geoespaciales pueden integrarse para proporcionar información más detallada sobre las limitaciones locales al distanciamiento físico y pueden informar la planificación de vías alternativas para reducir la transmisión de la COVID-19 entre las personas. Se incluye un estudio de caso del condado de Nairobi, Kenia, con resultados cartográficos que ilustran la variación intraurbana en la viabilidad del distanciamiento físico y la dificultad prevista para los residentes de muchas áreas de asentamientos informales. Los ejemplos que aquí se presentan demuestran el potencial de los nuevos conjuntos de datos geoespaciales para proporcionar información y apoyo a la elaboración de políticas sobre medidas de salud pública, entre ellas las relacionadas con la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy Making
17.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 627, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009353

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance and identification of COVID-19 outbreaks are important in understanding the genetic diversity, phylogeny, and lineages of SARS-CoV-2. Genomic surveillance provides insights into circulating infections, and the robustness and design of vaccines and other infection control approaches. We sequenced 57 SARS-CoV-2 isolates from a Kenyan clinical population, of which 55 passed quality checks using the Ultrafast Sample placement on the Existing tRee (UShER) workflow. Phylo-genome-temporal analyses across two regions in Kenya (Nairobi and Kiambu County) revealed that B.1.1.7 (Alpha; n = 32, 56.1%) and B.1 (n = 9, 15.8%) were the predominant lineages, exhibiting low Ct values (5-31) suggesting high infectivity, and variant mutations across the two regions. Lineages B.1.617.2, B.1.1, A.23.1, A.2.5.1, B.1.596, A, and B.1.405 were also detected across sampling sites within target populations. The lineages and genetic isolates were traced back to China (A), Costa Rica (A.2.5.1), Europe (B.1, B.1.1, A.23.1), the USA (B.1.405, B.1.596), South Africa (B.1.617.2), and the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7), indicating multiple introduction events. This study represents one of the genomic SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology studies in the Nairobi metropolitan area, and describes the importance of continued surveillance for pandemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006028

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are at greater risk of adverse outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection. There are several factors which can influence the ways in which pregnant women perceive COVID-19 disease and behaviorally respond to the pandemic. This study seeks to understand how three key audiences-pregnant and lactating women (PLW), male community members, and health workers-in Kenya conceptualize COVID-19 to better understand determinants of COVID-19 related behaviors. This study used qualitative methods to conduct 84 in-depth interviews in three counties in Kenya. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Emerging themes were organized based on common behavioral constructs thought to influence COVID-19 related behaviors and included myths, risk perception, economic implications, stigma, and self-efficacy. Results suggest that risk perception and behavioral attitudes substantially influence the experiences of PLW, male community members, and health workers in Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health prevention and communication responses targeting these groups should address potential barriers to preventive health behaviors, such as the spread of misinformation, financial constraints, and fear of social ostracization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Lactation , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05024, 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994426

ABSTRACT

Background: Global health emergencies can impact men and women differently due to gender norms related to health care and social and economic disruptions. We investigated the intersectionality of gender differences of the impact of COVID-19 on health care access with educational and socio-economic factors in Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa. Methods: Data were collected by Opinion Research Business International using census data as the sampling frame. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the change in access to health care after the emergence of the pandemic among men and women, stratified by educational level. We also examined the change in demand for various health care services, stratified by self-reported experiences of financial difficulty due to the pandemic. Results: Among those reporting a need to seek health care in South Africa, there was a statistically significant decline in the ability to see a health care provider during the pandemic among women, but not among men; this gender gap was more evident in those who did not have post-secondary education (odds ratio (OR) = 0.08, P = 0.041 among women; no change among men) than for those with post-secondary education (OR = 0.20, P = 0.142 among women; OR = 0.50, P = 0.571 among men). South African women financially affected by the pandemic had a significant decline in seeking preventive care during the pandemic (OR = 0.23, P = 0.022). No conclusive effects were noted in Nigeria or Kenya. Conclusions: In South Africa, the pandemic and its strict control measures have adversely and disproportionately impacted disadvantaged women, which has implications for the nature of the long-term impact as well as mitigation and preparedness plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology
20.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979414

ABSTRACT

The majority of Kenya's > 3 million camels have antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), although human infection in Africa is rare. We enrolled 243 camels aged 0-24 months from 33 homesteads in Northern Kenya and followed them between April 2018 to March 2020. We collected and tested camel nasal swabs for MERS-CoV RNA by RT-PCR followed by virus isolation and whole genome sequencing of positive samples. We also documented illnesses (respiratory or other) among the camels. Human camel handlers were also swabbed, screened for respiratory signs, and samples were tested for MERS-CoV by RT-PCR. We recorded 68 illnesses among 58 camels, of which 76.5% (52/68) were respiratory signs and the majority of illnesses (73.5% or 50/68) were recorded in 2019. Overall, 124/4692 (2.6%) camel swabs collected from 83 (34.2%) calves in 15 (45.5%) homesteads between April-September 2019 screened positive, while 22 calves (26.5%) recorded reinfections (second positive swab following ≥ 2 consecutive negative tests). Sequencing revealed a distinct Clade C2 virus that lacked the signature ORF4b deletions of other Clade C viruses. Three previously reported human PCR positive cases clustered with the camel infections in time and place, strongly suggesting sporadic transmission to humans during intense camel outbreaks in Northern Kenya.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Zoonoses
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