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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625964

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Secondary school closures aimed at limiting the number of infections and deaths due to COVID-19 may have amplified the negative sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and schooling outcomes of vulnerable adolescent girls. This study aimed to measure pandemic-related effects on adolescent pregnancy and school dropout among school-going girls in Kenya. METHODS: We report longitudinal findings of 910 girls in their last 2 years of secondary school. The study took place in 12 secondary day schools in rural western Kenya between 2018 and 2021. Using a causal-comparative design, we compared SRH and schooling outcomes among 403 girls who graduated after completion of their final school examinations in November 2019 pre-pandemic with 507 girls who experienced disrupted schooling due to COVID-19 and sat examinations in March 2021. Unadjusted and adjusted generalised linear mixed models were used to investigate the effect of COVID-19-related school closures and restrictions on all outcomes of interest and on incident pregnancy. RESULTS: At study initiation, the mean age of participants was 17.2 (IQR: 16.4-17.9) for girls in the pre-COVID-19 cohort and 17.5 (IQR: 16.5-18.4) for girls in the COVID-19 cohort. Girls experiencing COVID-19 containment measures had twice the risk of falling pregnant prior to completing secondary school after adjustment for age, household wealth and orphanhood status (adjusted risk ratio (aRR)=2.11; 95% CI:1.13 to 3.95, p=0.019); three times the risk of school dropout (aRR=3.03; 95% CI: 1.55 to 5.95, p=0.001) and 3.4 times the risk of school transfer prior to examinations (aRR=3.39; 95% CI: 1.70 to 6.77, p=0.001) relative to pre-COVID-19 learners. Girls in the COVID-19 cohort were more likely to be sexually active (aRR=1.28; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.51, p=0.002) and less likely to report their first sex as desired (aRR=0.49; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.65, p<0.001). These girls reported increased hours of non-school-related work (3.32 hours per day vs 2.63 hours per day in the pre-COVID-19 cohort, aRR=1.92; 95% CI: 1.92 to 2.99, p=0.004). In the COVID-19 cohort, 80.5% reported worsening household economic status and COVID-19-related stress was common. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic deleteriously affected the SRH of girls and amplified school transfer and dropout. Appropriate programmes and interventions that help buffer the effects of population-level emergencies on school-going adolescents are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03051789.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Student Dropouts
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Camps of forcibly displaced populations are considered to be at risk of large COVID-19 outbreaks. Low screening rates and limited surveillance led us to conduct a study in Dagahaley camp, located in the Dadaab refugee complex in Kenya to estimate SARS-COV-2 seroprevalence and, mortality and to identify changes in access to care during the pandemic. METHODS: To estimate seroprevalence, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of individuals (n = 587) seeking care at the two main health centres and among all household members (n = 619) of community health workers and traditional birth attendants working in the camp. A rapid immunologic assay was used (BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 BSS [IgG/IgM]) and adjusted for test performance and mismatch between the sampled population and that of the general camp population. To estimate mortality, all households (n = 12860) were exhaustively interviewed in the camp about deaths occurring from January 2019 through March 2021. RESULTS: In total 1206 participants were included in the seroprevalence study, 8% (95% CI: 6.6%-9.7%) had a positive serologic test. After adjusting for test performance and standardizing on age, a seroprevalence of 5.8% was estimated (95% CI: 1.6%-8.4%). The mortality rate for 10,000 persons per day was 0.05 (95% CI 0.05-0.06) prior to the pandemic and 0.07 (95% CI 0.06-0.08) during the pandemic, representing a significant 42% increase (p<0.001). Médecins Sans Frontières health centre consultations and hospital admissions decreased by 38% and 37% respectively. CONCLUSION: The number of infected people was estimated 67 times higher than the number of reported cases. Participants aged 50 years or more were among the most affected. The mortality survey shows an increase in the mortality rate during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic. A decline in attendance at health facilities was observed and sustained despite the easing of restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Refugee Camps/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
3.
J Clin Virol ; 146: 105061, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587310

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection assays have been developed but their differential performance is not well described. In this study we compared an in-house (KWTRP) ELISA which has been used extensively to estimate seroprevalence in the Kenyan population with WANTAI, an ELISA which has been approved for widespread use by the WHO. Using a wide variety of sample sets including pre-pandemic samples (negative gold standard), SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive samples (positive gold standard) and COVID-19 test samples from different periods (unknowns), we compared performance characteristics of the two assays. The overall concordance between WANTAI and KWTRP was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98). For WANTAI and KWTRP, sensitivity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.90-0.98) and 0.93 (95% CI 0.87-0.96), respectively. Specificity for WANTAI was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96-0.99) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.96-1.00) while KWTRP specificity was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00) and 1.00 using pre-pandemic blood donors and pre-pandemic malaria cross-sectional survey samples respectively. Both assays show excellent characteristics to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Kenya/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
AIDS ; 35(14): 2401-2404, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541608

ABSTRACT

Among 582 participants in Western Kenya who were retrospectively tested from January through March 2020, 19 (3.3%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The prevalence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was similar between participants with and without HIV (3.1% vs. 4%, P = 0.68). One participant reported a cough in the preceding week but others denied symptoms. These may represent cross-reactivity or asymptomatic infections that predated the first reported COVID-19 cases in Kenya.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511823

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the types of shocks that disrupt and negatively impact urban household food security is of critical importance to develop relevant and targeted food security emergency preparedness policies and responses, a fact magnified by the current COVID-19 pandemic. This gap is addressed by the current study which draws from the Hungry Cities Partnership (HCP) city-wide household food insecurity survey of Nairobi city in Kenya. It uses both descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling using General Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to examine the relationship between household food security and 16 different shocks experienced in the six months prior to the administration of the survey. The findings showed that only 29% of surveyed households were completely food secure. Of those experiencing some level of food insecurity, more experienced economic (55%) than sociopolitical (16%) and biophysical (10%) shocks. Economic shocks such as food price increases, loss of employment, and reduced income were all associated with increased food insecurity. Coupled with the lack of functioning social safety nets in Nairobi, households experiencing shocks and emergencies experience serious food insecurity and related health effects. In this context, the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a major negative economic impact on many vulnerable urban households. As such, there is need for new policies on urban food emergencies with a clear emergency preparedness plan for responding to major economic and other shocks that target the most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply/standards , Humans , Hunger , Income , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259583, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19 and their mitigation measures can exacerbate underlying gender disparities, particularly among adolescents and young adults in densely populated urban settings. METHODS: An existing cohort of youth ages 16-26 in Nairobi, Kenya completed a phone-based survey in August-October 2020 (n = 1217), supplemented by virtual focus group discussions and interviews with youth and stakeholders, to examine economic, health, social, and safety experiences during COVID-19, and gender disparities therein. RESULTS: COVID-19 risk perception was high with a gender differential favoring young women (95.5% vs. 84.2%; p<0.001); youth described mixed concern and challenges to prevention. During COVID-19, gender symmetry was observed in constrained access to contraception among contraceptive users (40.4% men; 34.6% women) and depressive symptoms (21.8% men; 24.3% women). Gender disparities rendered young women disproportionately unable to meet basic economic needs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.21; p<0.05) and in need of healthcare during the pandemic (aOR = 1.59; p<0.001). At a bivariate level, women had lower full decisional control to leave the house (40.0% vs. 53.2%) and less consistent access to safe, private internet (26.1% vs. 40.2%), while men disproportionately experienced police interactions (60.1%, 55.2% of which included extortion). Gender-specific concerns for women included menstrual hygiene access challenges (52.0%), increased reliance on transactional partnerships, and gender-based violence, with 17.3% reporting past-year partner violence and 3.0% non-partner sexual violence. Qualitative results contextualize the mental health impact of economic disruption and isolation, and, among young women, privacy constraints. IMPLICATIONS: Youth and young adults face gendered impacts of COVID-19, reflecting both underlying disparities and the pandemic's economic and social shock. Economic, health and technology-based supports must ensure equitable access for young women. Gender-responsive recovery efforts are necessary and must address the unique needs of youth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Contraception/methods , Contraception Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Menstruation/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population , Young Adult
8.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 222, 2021 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505521

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 infection control and prevention measures have contributed to the increase in incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and negatively impacted access to health and legal systems. The purpose of this commentary is to highlight the legal context in relation to IPV, and impact of COVID-19 on IPV survivors and IPV prevention and response services in Kenya, Malawi, and Sudan. Whereas Kenya and Malawi have ratified the Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and have laws against IPV, Sudan has yet to ratify the convention and lacks laws against IPV. Survivors of IPV in Kenya, Malawi and Sudan have limited access to quality health care, legal and psychosocial support services due to COVID-19 infection control and prevention measures. The existence of laws in Kenya and Malawi, which have culminated into establishment of IPV services, allows a sizable portion of the population to access IPV services in the pandemic period albeit sub-optimal. The lack of laws in Sudan means that IPV services are hardly available and as such, a minimal proportion of the population can access services. Civil society's push in Kenya has led to prioritisation of IPV services. Thus, a vibrant civil society, committed governments and favourable IPV laws, can lead to better IPV services during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Malawi/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sudan/epidemiology
9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most of the deaths among neonates in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be prevented through universal access to basic high-quality health services including essential facility-based inpatient care. However, poor routine data undermines data-informed efforts to monitor and promote improvements in the quality of newborn care across hospitals. METHODS: Continuously collected routine patients' data from structured paper record forms for all admissions to newborn units (NBUs) from 16 purposively selected Kenyan public hospitals that are part of a clinical information network were analysed together with data from all paediatric admissions ages 0-13 years from 14 of these hospitals. Data are used to show the proportion of all admissions and deaths in the neonatal age group and examine morbidity and mortality patterns, stratified by birth weight, and their variation across hospitals. FINDINGS: During the 354 hospital months study period, 90 222 patients were admitted to the 14 hospitals contributing NBU and general paediatric ward data. 46% of all the admissions were neonates (aged 0-28 days), but they accounted for 66% of the deaths in the age group 0-13 years. 41 657 inborn neonates were admitted in the NBUs across the 16 hospitals during the study period. 4266/41 657 died giving a crude mortality rate of 10.2% (95% CI 9.97% to 10.55%), with 60% of these deaths occurring on the first-day of admission. Intrapartum-related complications was the single most common diagnosis among the neonates with birth weight of 2000 g or more who died. A threefold variation in mortality across hospitals was observed for birth weight categories 1000-1499 g and 1500-1999 g. INTERPRETATION: The high proportion of neonatal deaths in hospitals may reflect changing patterns of childhood mortality. Majority of newborns died of preventable causes (>95%). Despite availability of high-impact low-cost interventions, hospitals have high and very variable mortality proportions after stratification by birth weight.


Subject(s)
Hospitals , Infant Mortality , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kenya/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends inpatient hospital treatment of young infants up to two months old with any sign of possible serious infection. However, each sign may have a different risk of death. The current study aims to calculate the case fatality ratio for infants with individual or combined signs of possible serious infection, stratified by inpatient or outpatient treatment. METHODS: We analysed data from the African Neonatal Sepsis Trial conducted in five sites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Nigeria. Trained study nurses classified sick infants as pneumonia (fast breathing in 7-59 days old), severe pneumonia (fast breathing in 0-6 days old), clinical severe infection [severe chest indrawing, high (> = 38°C) or low body temperature (<35.5°C), stopped feeding well, or movement only when stimulated] or critical illness (convulsions, not able to feed at all, or no movement at all), and referred them to a hospital for inpatient treatment. Infants whose caregivers refused referral received outpatient treatment. The case fatality ratio by day 15 was calculated for individual and combined clinical signs and stratified by place of treatment. An infant with signs of clinical severe infection or severe pneumonia was recategorised as having low- (case fatality ratio ≤2%) or moderate- (case fatality ratio >2%) mortality risk. RESULTS: Of 7129 young infants with a possible serious infection, fast breathing (in 7-59 days old) was the most prevalent sign (26%), followed by high body temperature (20%) and severe chest indrawing (19%). Infants with pneumonia had the lowest case fatality ratio (0.2%), followed by severe pneumonia (2.0%), clinical severe infection (2.3%) and critical illness (16.9%). Infants with clinical severe infection had a wide range of case fatality ratios for individual signs (from 0.8% to 11.0%). Infants with pneumonia had similar case fatality ratio for outpatient and inpatient treatment (0.2% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.74). Infants with clinical severe infection or severe pneumonia had a lower case fatality ratio among those who received outpatient treatment compared to inpatient treatment (1.9% vs. 6.5%, p<0.0001). We recategorised infants into low-mortality risk signs (case fatality ratio ≤2%) of clinical severe infection (high body temperature, or severe chest indrawing) or severe pneumonia and moderate-mortality risk signs (case fatality ratio >2%) (stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, low body temperature or multiple signs of clinical severe infection). We found that both categories had four times lower case fatality ratio when treated as outpatient than inpatient treatment, i.e., 1.0% vs. 4.0% (p<0.0001) and 5.3% vs. 22.4% (p<0.0001), respectively. In contrast, infants with signs of critical illness had nearly two times higher case fatality ratio when treated as outpatient versus inpatient treatment (21.7% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.097). CONCLUSIONS: The mortality risk differs with clinical signs. Young infants with a possible serious infection can be grouped into those with low-mortality risk signs (high body temperature, or severe chest indrawing or severe pneumonia); moderate-mortality risk signs (stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, low body temperature or multiple signs of clinical severe infection), or high-mortality risk signs (signs of critical illness). New treatment strategies that consider differential mortality risks for the place of treatment and duration of inpatient treatment could be developed and evaluated based on these findings. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry under ID ACTRN 12610000286044.


Subject(s)
Fever/complications , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infant Mortality/trends , Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infections/drug therapy , Infections/epidemiology , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6196, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493097

ABSTRACT

As countries decide on vaccination strategies and how to ease movement restrictions, estimating the proportion of the population previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 is important for predicting the future burden of COVID-19. This proportion is usually estimated from serosurvey data in two steps: first the proportion above a threshold antibody level is calculated, then the crude estimate is adjusted using external estimates of sensitivity and specificity. A drawback of this approach is that the PCR-confirmed cases used to estimate the sensitivity of the threshold may not be representative of cases in the wider population-e.g., they may be more recently infected and more severely symptomatic. Mixture modelling offers an alternative approach that does not require external data from PCR-confirmed cases. Here we illustrate the bias in the standard threshold-based approach by comparing both approaches using data from several Kenyan serosurveys. We show that the mixture model analysis produces estimates of previous infection that are often substantially higher than the standard threshold analysis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Bias , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
12.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 5384481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476872

ABSTRACT

In this study we propose a Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) mathematical model that stratifies infectious subpopulations into: infectious asymptomatic individuals, symptomatic infectious individuals who manifest mild symptoms and symptomatic individuals with severe symptoms. In light of the recent revelation that reinfection by COVID-19 is possible, the proposed model attempt to investigate how reinfection with COVID-19 will alter the future dynamics of the recent unfolding pandemic. Fitting the mathematical model on the Kenya COVID-19 dataset, model parameter values were obtained and used to conduct numerical simulations. Numerical results suggest that reinfection of recovered individuals who have lost their protective immunity will create a large pool of asymptomatic infectious individuals which will ultimately increase symptomatic individuals with mild symptoms and symptomatic individuals with severe symptoms (critically ill) needing urgent medical attention. The model suggests that reinfection with COVID-19 will lead to an increase in cumulative reported deaths. Comparison of the impact of non pharmaceutical interventions on curbing COVID19 proliferation suggests that wearing face masks profoundly reduce COVID-19 prevalence than maintaining social/physical distance. Further, numerical findings reveal that increasing detection rate of asymptomatic cases via contact tracing, testing and isolating them can drastically reduce COVID-19 surge, in particular individuals who are critically ill and require admission into intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Models, Biological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Contact Tracing , Databases, Factual , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438616

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 has profoundly affected mental health, especially among highly vulnerable populations. This study describes mental health issues among caregivers of young children and pregnant women in three urban informal settlements in Kenya during the first pandemic year, and factors associated with poor mental health. A cross-sectional telephone survey was administered to 845 participants. Survey instruments included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, General Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, COVID-19 Anxiety Scale, and questions on the perceived COVID-19 effects on caregiver wellbeing and livelihood. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and univariate and multivariate analysis. Caregivers perceived COVID-19 as a threatening condition (94.54%), affecting employment and income activities (>80%). Caregivers experienced discrimination (15.27%) and violence (12.6%) during the pandemic. Levels of depression (34%), general anxiety (20%), and COVID-19 related anxiety (14%) were highly prevalent. There were significant associations between mental health outcomes and economic and socio-demographic factors, violence and discrimination experiences, residency, and perceptions of COVID-19 as a threatening condition. Caregivers high burden of mental health problems highlights the urgent need to provide accessible mental health support. Innovative and multi-sectoral approaches will be required to maximize reach to underserved communities in informal settlements and tackle the root causes of mental health problems in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Caregivers , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2497-2499, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435935

ABSTRACT

We determined incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza virus infections among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants in Kenya during 2020-2021. Incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was highest among pregnant women, followed by postpartum women and infants. No influenza virus infections were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 992, 2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection during care encounters compared to the general population. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) have been shown to protect COVID-19 among healthcare workers, however, Kenya has faced PPE shortages that can adequately protect all healthcare workers. We, therefore, examined the health and economic consequences of investing in PPE for healthcare workers in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness and return on investment (ROI) analysis using a decision-analytic model following the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) guidelines. We examined two outcomes: 1) the incremental cost per healthcare worker death averted, and 2) the incremental cost per healthcare worker COVID-19 case averted. We performed a multivariate sensitivity analysis using 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations. RESULTS: Kenya would need to invest $3.12 million (95% CI: 2.65-3.59) to adequately protect healthcare workers against COVID-19. This investment would avert 416 (IQR: 330-517) and 30,041 (IQR: 7243 - 102,480) healthcare worker deaths and COVID-19 cases respectively. Additionally, such an investment would result in a healthcare system ROI of $170.64 million (IQR: 138-209) - equivalent to an 11.04 times return. CONCLUSION: Despite other nationwide COVID-19 prevention measures such as social distancing, over 70% of healthcare workers will still be infected if the availability of PPE remains scarce. As part of the COVID-19 response strategy, the government should consider adequate investment in PPE for all healthcare workers in the country as it provides a large return on investment and it is value for money.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Personnel , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Adolesc Health ; 69(5): 713-720, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415508

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adolescent mental health has been under-researched, particularly in Africa. COVID-19-related household economic stress and school closures will likely have adverse effects. We investigate the relationship among adolescent mental health, adult income loss, and household dynamics during the pandemic in Kenya. METHODS: A cross-sectional mobile phone-based survey was conducted with one adult and adolescent (age 10-19 years) pair from a sample of households identified through previous cohort studies in three urban Kenyan counties (Nairobi, Kilifi, Kisumu). Survey questions covered education, physical and mental health, and COVID-19-related impacts on job loss, food insecurity, and healthcare seeking. Logistic regression models were fit to explore relationships among adult income loss, household dynamics, food insecurity, and adult and adolescent depressive symptoms (defined as PHQ-2 score ≤2). RESULTS: A total of 2,224 adult-adolescent pairs (Nairobi, n = 814; Kilifi, n = 914; Kisumu, n = 496) completed the survey. Over a third (36%) of adolescents reported depressive symptoms, highest among older (15-19 years) boys. Adult loss of income was associated with skipping meals, depressive symptoms, household tensions/violence, and forgoing healthcare. Adolescents had 2.5 higher odds of depressive symptoms if COVID-19 was causing them to skip meals (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 2.0-3.1), if their adult head of household reported depressive symptoms (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 2.1-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: Income loss during the pandemic adversely affects food insecurity, household dynamics, healthcare-seeking behavior, and worsening adolescent depressive symptoms. With schools reopening, adolescent mental health should be formally addressed, potentially through cash transfers, school or community-based psychosocial programming.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Food Supply , Humans , Income , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403321

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV, ages 10-19) experience complex challenges to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and remain in care, and may be vulnerable to wide-scale disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed for a range of effects of the pandemic on ALHIV in western Kenya, and whether effects were greater for ALHIV with recent histories of being lost to program (LTP). METHODS: ALHIV were recruited from an ongoing prospective study at 3 sites in western Kenya. The parent study enrolled participants from February 2019-September 2020, into groups of ALHIV either 1) retained in care or 2) LTP and traced in the community. Phone interviews from July 2020-January 2021 assessed effects of the pandemic on financial and food security, healthcare access and behaviors, and mental health. Responses were compared among the parent study groups. RESULTS: Phone surveys were completed with 334 ALHIV or their caregivers, including 275/308 (89.3%) in the retained group and 59/70 (84.3%) among those LTP at initial enrollment. During the pandemic, a greater proportion of LTP adolescents were no longer engaged in school (45.8% vs. 36.4%, p = 0.017). Over a third (120, 35.9%) of adolescents reported lost income for someone they relied on. In total, 135 (40.4%) did not have enough food either some (121, 36.2%) or most (14, 4.2%) of the time. More LTP adolescents (4/59, 6.8% vs. 2/275, 0.7%, p = 0.010) reported increased difficulties refilling ART. Adolescent PHQ-2 and GAD-2 scores were ≥3 for 5.6% and 5.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating socioeconomic effects for Kenyan ALHIV and their households. ALHIV with recent care disengagement may be especially vulnerable. Meanwhile, sustained ART access and adherence potentially signal resilience and strengths of ALHIV and their care programs. Findings from this survey indicate the critical need for support to ALHIV during this crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics , Patient Compliance , Adolescent , Child , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048636, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398675

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined patterns of sexual violence against adults and children in Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic to inform sexual violence prevention, protection, and response efforts. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional research design was used with data collected from March to August 2020. SETTING: Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: 317 adults, 224 children. MAIN MEASURES: Perpetrator and survivor demographic data, characteristics of the assault. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses found that children were more likely than adults to be attacked during daytime (59% vs 44%, p<0.001) by a single perpetrator rather than multiple perpetrators (31% vs 13%, p<0.001) in a private as opposed to a public location (66% vs 45%, p<0.001) and by someone known to the child (76% vs 58%, p<0.001). Children were violated most often by neighbours (29%) and family members (20%), whereas adults were equally likely to be attacked by strangers (41%) and persons known to them (59%). These variables were entered as predictors into a logistic regression model that significantly predicted the age group of the survivor, χ2(5, n=541)=53.3, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of sexual violence against adult and child survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic are different, suggesting age-related measures are needed in national emergency plans to adequately address sexual violence during the pandemic and for future humanitarian crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sex Offenses , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009702, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Annually, about 2.7 million snakebite envenomings occur globally. Alongside antivenom, patients usually require additional care to treat envenoming symptoms and antivenom side effects. Efforts are underway to improve snakebite care, but evidence from the ground to inform this is scarce. This study, therefore, investigated the availability, affordability, and stock-outs of antivenom and commodities for supportive snakebite care in health facilities across Kenya. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used an adaptation of the standardised World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International methodology. Data on commodity availability, prices and stock-outs were collected in July-August 2020 from public (n = 85), private (n = 36), and private not-for-profit (n = 12) facilities in Kenya. Stock-outs were measured retrospectively for a twelve-month period, enabling a comparison of a pre-COVID-19 period to stock-outs during COVID-19. Affordability was calculated using the wage of a lowest-paid government worker (LPGW) and the impoverishment approach. Accessibility was assessed combining the WHO availability target (≥80%) and LPGW affordability (<1 day's wage) measures. Overall availability of snakebite commodities was low (43.0%). Antivenom was available at 44.7% of public- and 19.4% of private facilities. Stock-outs of any snakebite commodity were common in the public- (18.6%) and private (11.7%) sectors, and had worsened during COVID-19 (10.6% versus 17.0% public sector, 8.4% versus 11.7% private sector). Affordability was not an issue in the public sector, while in the private sector the median cost of one vial of antivenom was 14.4 days' wage for an LPGW. Five commodities in the public sector and two in the private sector were deemed accessible. CONCLUSIONS: Access to snakebite care is problematic in Kenya and seemed to have worsened during COVID-19. To improve access, efforts should focus on ensuring availability at both lower- and higher-level facilities, and improving the supply chain to reduce stock-outs. Including antivenom into Universal Health Coverage benefits packages would further facilitate accessibility.


Subject(s)
Antivenins/therapeutic use , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Snake Bites/drug therapy , Antivenins/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Costs and Cost Analysis , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/economics , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Public Sector/economics , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Snake Bites/economics , Snake Bites/epidemiology
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4809, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351953

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 is important for understanding both the evolution and the patterns of local and global transmission. Here, we generated 311 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from samples collected in coastal Kenya between 17th March and 31st July 2020. We estimated multiple independent SARS-CoV-2 introductions into the region were primarily of European origin, although introductions could have come through neighbouring countries. Lineage B.1 accounted for 74% of sequenced cases. Lineages A, B and B.4 were detected in screened individuals at the Kenya-Tanzania border or returning travellers. Though multiple lineages were introduced into coastal Kenya following the initial confirmed case, none showed extensive local expansion other than lineage B.1. International points of entry were important conduits of SARS-CoV-2 importations into coastal Kenya and early public health responses prevented established transmission of some lineages. Undetected introductions through points of entry including imports from elsewhere in the country gave rise to the local epidemic at the Kenyan coast.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genetic Variation , Humans , Infant , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis , Tanzania , Travel , Young Adult
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