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1.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol ; 37(5): 229-230, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985223

ABSTRACT

Ketamine can be used for depression and suicidal ideation due to its effectiveness and low complication rates; moreover, allergic reactions are rare. Immediately after subcutaneous (SC) ketamine administration, a 22-year-old man rapidly developed hives on the trunk and face without oxygen desaturation. Symptoms disappeared after treatment with prednisolone. This case presents an allergic reaction to ketamine compatible with mast cell activation and release of preformed mediators, without being able to prove whether the event was mediated by immunoglobulin E. This is the only case reported to date of an allergic reaction to SC ketamine for psychiatric treatment.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Hypersensitivity , Ketamine , Adult , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Humans , Ketamine/adverse effects , Male , Suicidal Ideation , Young Adult
2.
J Affect Disord ; 314: 59-67, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At-home Ketamine-assisted therapy (KAT) with psychosocial support and remote monitoring through telehealth platforms addresses access barriers, including the COVID-19 pandemic. Large-scale evaluation of this approach is needed for questions regarding safety and effectiveness for depression and anxiety. METHODS: In this prospective study, a large outpatient sample received KAT over four weeks through a telehealth provider. Symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) for anxiety. Demographics, adverse events, and patient-reported dissociation were also analyzed. Symptom trajectories were identified using Growth Mixture Modeling, along with outcome predictors. RESULTS: A sample of 1247 completed treatment with sufficient data, 62.8 % reported a 50 % or greater improvement on the PHQ-9, d = 1.61, and 62.9 % on the GAD-7, d = 1.56. Remission rates were 32.6 % for PHQ-9 and 31.3 % for GAD-7, with 0.9 % deteriorating on the PHQ-9, and 0.6 % on the GAD-7. Four patients left treatment early due to side effects or clinician disqualification, and two more due to adverse events. Three patient subpopulations emerged, characterized by Improvement (79.3 %), Chronic (11.4 %), and Delayed Improvement (9.3 %) for PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Endorsing side effects at Session 2 was associated with delayed symptom improvement, and Chronic patients were more likely than the other two groups to report dissociation at Session 4. CONCLUSION: At-home KAT response and remission rates indicated rapid and significant antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. Rates were consistent with laboratory- and clinic-administered ketamine treatment. Patient screening and remote monitoring maintained low levels of adverse events. Future research should assess durability of effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ketamine , Telemedicine , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Ketamine/adverse effects , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
3.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 148, 2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A higher-than-usual resistance to standard sedation regimens in COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has led to the frequent use of the second-line anaesthetic agent ketamine. Simultaneously, an increased incidence of cholangiopathies in mechanically ventilated patients receiving prolonged infusion of high-dose ketamine has been noted. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate a potential dose-response relationship between ketamine and bilirubin levels. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of a prospective observational cohort of patients suffering from COVID-19-associated ARDS between March 2020 and August 2021. A time-varying, multivariable adjusted, cumulative weighted exposure mixed-effects model was employed to analyse the exposure-effect relationship between ketamine infusion and total bilirubin levels. RESULTS: Two-hundred forty-three critically ill patients were included into the analysis. Ketamine was infused to 170 (70%) patients at a rate of 1.4 [0.9-2.0] mg/kg/h for 9 [4-18] days. The mixed-effects model revealed a positively correlated infusion duration-effect as well as dose-effect relationship between ketamine infusion and rising bilirubin levels (p < 0.0001). In comparison, long-term infusion of propofol and sufentanil, even at high doses, was not associated with increasing bilirubin levels (p = 0.421, p = 0.258). Patients having received ketamine infusion had a multivariable adjusted competing risk hazard of developing a cholestatic liver injury during their ICU stay of 3.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-7.8] (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A causally plausible, dose-effect relationship between long-term infusion of ketamine and rising total bilirubin levels, as well as an augmented, ketamine-associated, hazard of cholestatic liver injury in critically ill COVID-19 patients could be shown. High-dose ketamine should be refrained from whenever possible for the long-term analgosedation of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ketamine , Propofol , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Bilirubin , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects , Ketamine/adverse effects , Liver , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies
4.
CNS Drugs ; 36(3): 239-251, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756960

ABSTRACT

Intravenous (IV) ketamine is increasingly used off-label at subanesthetic doses for its rapid antidepressant effect, and intranasal (IN) esketamine has been recently approved in several countries for treating depression. The clinical utility of these treatments is limited by a paucity of publicly funded IV ketamine and IN esketamine programs and cost barriers to private treatment programs, as well as the drug cost for IN esketamine itself, which makes generic ketamine alternatives an attractive option. Though evidence is limited, use of non-parenteral racemic ketamine formulations (oral, sublingual, and IN) may offer more realistic access in less rigidly supervised settings, both for acute and maintenance treatment in select cases. However, the psychiatric literature has repeatedly cautioned on the addictive potential of ketamine and raised caution for both less supervised and longer-term use of ketamine. To date, these concerns have not been discussed in view of available evidence, nor have they been discussed within a broader clinical context. This paper examines the available relevant literature and suggests that ketamine misuse risks appear not dissimilar to those of other well-established and commonly prescribed agents with abuse potential, such as stimulants or benzodiazepines. As such, ketamine prescribing should be considered in a similar risk/benefit context to balance patient access and need for treatment with concern for potential substance misuse. Our consortium of mood disorder specialists with significant ketamine prescribing experience considers prescribing of non-parenteral ketamine a reasonable clinical treatment option in select cases of treatment-resistant depression. This paper outlines where this may be appropriate and makes practical recommendations for clinicians in judicious prescribing of non-parenteral ketamine.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant , Ketamine , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant/drug therapy , Humans , Ketamine/adverse effects , Mood Disorders/drug therapy
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 54: 328.e1-328.e2, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Status Epilepticus is the most common non-traumatic neurologic emergency in childhood. Current algorithms prioritize the use of benzodiazepines as first line treatment followed by Levetiracetam or Valproic Acid, possibly Fosphenytoin and eventually high dose Propofol and intubation. CASE REPORT: A 9-month old girl was brought to the emergency department with a continuous seizure involving the right upper and lower extremity for 45 min prior to arrival. Patient received a dose of rectal Diazepam, intramuscular Midazolam, 2 doses of Lorazepam, Levetiracetam, Fosphenytoin and 2 additional doses of Lorazepam. The seizure remained refractory and generalized. In anticipation of intubation, and because of its action on the NMDA receptor, Ketamine (1 mg/kg IV) was administered. The clonic movements and eye deviations stopped. Patient was intubated for airway protection, sedated with Propofol, then admitted to the PICU. EEG showed no evidence of a seizure pattern. Labs (CBC, CMP, COVID) were unremarkable except for WBC 24.5, blood glucose of 346 and CO2 of 17 with normal anion gap. Urinalysis showed a urinary tract infection. Patient was at her baseline on 1 week post-discharge re-evaluation. Ketamine theoretically may abort seizures through blockade of NMDA receptors which are unregulated in status epilepticus. To date, no randomized controlled trials have been reported. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Ketamine may have a role in treating status epilepticus. It may be considered for induction for rapid sequence intubation and possibly as a third or fourth line agent in refractory cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ketamine , Propofol , Status Epilepticus , Aftercare , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Infant , Ketamine/adverse effects , Levetiracetam , Lorazepam/therapeutic use , Patient Discharge , Propofol/therapeutic use , Seizures/drug therapy , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy
11.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 45(1): 199-203, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838508

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Some patients with refractory depression who fail to respond to rapid injection of standard-dose ketamine are injected with high doses, but the safety and efficacy of this practice are unclear. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 57-year-old woman with refractory depression whose symptoms did not improve after 20-seconds intravenous injection of 0.5 mg/kg ketamine went into remission following eight, 1-minute intravenous injections of 1 mg/kg ketamine delivered over a 4-week period. By 6-month follow-up, no significant adverse events had occurred and cognitive function had improved. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: High-dose intravenous injections of ketamine may stably improve depressive symptoms and cognitive function in patients with refractory depression who do not respond to rapid intravenous injection of standard-dose ketamine. The high-dose treatment appears to be associated with only mild side effects.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents/administration & dosage , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant/drug therapy , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/physiopathology , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant/physiopathology , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Ketamine/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Remission Induction
12.
Psychosomatics ; 61(5): 544-550, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616923
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