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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 888612, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928420

ABSTRACT

HAPLN1 maintains aggregation and the binding activity of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (such as hyaluronic acid and proteoglycan) to stabilize the macromolecular structure of the ECM. An increase in HAPLN1 expression is observed in a few types of musculoskeletal diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, its functions are obscure. This study examined the role of HAPLN1 in determining the viability, proliferation, mobility, and pro-inflammatory phenotype of RA- fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLSs) by using small interfering RNA (siHAPLN1), over-expression vector (HAPLN1OE), and a recombinant HAPLN1 (rHAPLN1) protein. HAPLN1 was found to promote proliferation but inhibit RA-FLS migration. Metformin, an AMPK activator, was previously found by us to be able to inhibit FLS activation but promote HAPLN1 secretion. In this study, we confirmed the up-regulation of HAPLN1 in RA patients, and found the positive relationship between HAPLN1 expression and the AMPK level. Treatment with either si-HAPLN1 or HAPLN1OE down-regulated the expression of AMPK-ɑ gene, although up-regulation of the level of p-AMPK-ɑ was observed in RA-FLSs. si-HAPLN1 down-regulated the expression of proinflammatory factors like TNF-ɑ, MMPs, and IL-6, while HAPLN1OE up-regulated their levels. qPCR assay indicated that the levels of TGF-ß, ACAN, fibronectin, collagen II, and Ki-67 were down-regulated upon si-HAPLN1 treatment, while HAPLN1OE treatment led to up-regulation of ACAN and Ki-67 and down-regulation of cyclin-D1. Proteomics of si-HAPLN1, rHAPLN1, and mRNA-Seq analysis of rHAPLN1 confirmed the functions of HAPLN1 in the activation of inflammation, proliferation, cell adhesion, and strengthening of ECM functions. Our results for the first time demonstrate the function of HAPLN1 in promoting the proliferation and pro-inflammatory phenotype of RA-FLSs, thereby contributing to RA pathogenesis. Future in-depth studies are required for better understanding the role of HAPLN1 in RA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Synoviocytes , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Humans , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Phenotype , Proteoglycans , Synoviocytes/metabolism
2.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 33(1): 53-58, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066445

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes recent original publications addressing the topic of risk-adapted adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer (EBC). As neoadjuvant therapy has become a standard for triple negative and HER2+ EBC, it focusses on luminal EBC. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene expression assays have become standard of care in luminal EBC, at least for patients with node negative disease. Two prospective randomized clinical trials, TAILORx (Oncotype DX) and MINDACT (MammaPrint) have presented additional analyses underlining the clinical utility of the tests. In times of COVID-19, immunohistochemically determined ER, PR, and Ki67 and early Ki67 response to endocrine therapy can be used to safely allocate patients for preoperative endocrine therapy and delay surgeries if resources are scarce. In patients with luminal high-risk disease, adding a CDK 4/6 inhibitor (abemaciclib) improves patient outcome already after short-term follow-up. SUMMARY: Determination of recurrence risk will remain important in luminal EBC for optimal therapy decisions. In the future, risk-adapted treatment concepts will include decision making for chemotherapy but also for endocrine-based approaches.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/genetics , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone/genetics , Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1647-1661, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been increasingly reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the roles of the GI tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not fully understood. We investigated how the GI tract is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection to elucidate the pathogenesis of COVID-19. METHODS: Our previously established nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 was modified in this study to test our hypothesis. Rhesus monkeys were infected with an intragastric or intranasal challenge with SARS-CoV-2. Clinical signs were recorded after infection. Viral genomic RNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated by examining inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, histopathology, and mucin barrier integrity. RESULTS: Intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 led to infections and pathologic changes not only in respiratory tissues but also in digestive tissues. Expectedly, intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the productive infection of digestive tissues and inflammation in both the lung and digestive tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were induced by both types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the increased expression of CD68. Immunohistochemistry and Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining showed decreased Ki67, increased cleaved caspase 3, and decreased numbers of mucin-containing goblet cells, suggesting that the inflammation induced by these 2 types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 impaired the GI barrier and caused severe infections. CONCLUSIONS: Both intranasal and intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and GI dysfunction in our rhesus monkey model. Inflammatory cytokines are possible connections for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 between the respiratory and digestive systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Gastroenteritis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung/pathology , Animals , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Gastric Mucosa , Gastroenteritis/metabolism , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Goblet Cells/pathology , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Intestine, Small/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Nasal Mucosa , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rectum/metabolism , Rectum/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/pathology
4.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 33(1): 53-58, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990853

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes recent original publications addressing the topic of risk-adapted adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer (EBC). As neoadjuvant therapy has become a standard for triple negative and HER2+ EBC, it focusses on luminal EBC. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene expression assays have become standard of care in luminal EBC, at least for patients with node negative disease. Two prospective randomized clinical trials, TAILORx (Oncotype DX) and MINDACT (MammaPrint) have presented additional analyses underlining the clinical utility of the tests. In times of COVID-19, immunohistochemically determined ER, PR, and Ki67 and early Ki67 response to endocrine therapy can be used to safely allocate patients for preoperative endocrine therapy and delay surgeries if resources are scarce. In patients with luminal high-risk disease, adding a CDK 4/6 inhibitor (abemaciclib) improves patient outcome already after short-term follow-up. SUMMARY: Determination of recurrence risk will remain important in luminal EBC for optimal therapy decisions. In the future, risk-adapted treatment concepts will include decision making for chemotherapy but also for endocrine-based approaches.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/genetics , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone/genetics , Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Immunol ; 5(51)2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781081

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pathogenesis is associated with an exaggerated immune response. However, the specific cellular mediators and inflammatory components driving diverse clinical disease outcomes remain poorly understood. We undertook longitudinal immune profiling on both whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of hospitalized patients during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Here, we report key immune signatures present shortly after hospital admission that were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Immune signatures were related to shifts in neutrophil to T cell ratio, elevated serum IL-6, MCP-1 and IP-10, and most strikingly, modulation of CD14+ monocyte phenotype and function. Modified features of CD14+ monocytes included poor induction of the prostaglandin-producing enzyme, COX-2, as well as enhanced expression of the cell cycle marker Ki-67. Longitudinal analysis revealed reversion of some immune features back to the healthy median level in patients with a good eventual outcome. These findings identify previously unappreciated alterations in the innate immune compartment of COVID-19 patients and lend support to the idea that therapeutic strategies targeting release of myeloid cells from bone marrow should be considered in this disease. Moreover, they demonstrate that features of an exaggerated immune response are present early after hospital admission suggesting immune-modulating therapies would be most beneficial at early timepoints.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Monocytes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cyclooxygenase 2/immunology , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Ki-67 Antigen/immunology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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