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1.
Kidney Int ; 101(5): 880-882, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796378

ABSTRACT

Collapsing glomerulopathy frequently shows focal lesions on biopsy, creating challenges with transcriptomic investigations because of inadequate tissue sample. This challenge is overcome with spatial transcriptomics, technology linking transcriptomic data to histology. Applying this technology to investigate patients with collapsing glomerulopathy related to HIV infection or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Smith et al. provide provocative evidence that collapsing glomerulopathy may have different molecular signatures despite the similar morphologic appearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , HIV Infections , Kidney Diseases , Biopsy/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Female , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/pathology , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Male , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935300, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The recurrence of COVID-19 and the continuous escalation of prevention and control policies can lead to an increase in mental health problems. This study aimed to investigate the perceived stress, coping style, resilience, and social support among patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) during the COVID-19 epidemic lockdown in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS This cross-sectional observational study enrolled 197 patients on MHD from the Guangdong Province Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital and the Hedong Hospital of Guangzhou Liwan District People's Hospital during July 2021. AMOS 24.0 and PROCESS Macro 3.1 model 6 were used for analyses of moderating mediating effects. RESULTS Perceived stress was negatively correlated with positive coping style (r=-0.305, P<0.001) and resilience (r=-0.258, P<0.001), whereas resilience (r=0.631, P<0.001) and social support (r=0.300, P<0.001) were positively correlated with positive coping style among patients on MHD. In the moderated mediating model, perceived stress had significant direct predictive effects on positive coping style (95% CI -0.33, -0.07), and perceived stress had significant indirect predictive effects on positive coping styles through resilience (95% CI -0.26, -0.06) or social support (95% CI 0.01, 0.06). Perceived stress had significant indirect predictive effects on positive coping style through both resilience and social support (95% CI -0.04, -0.01). CONCLUSIONS Perceived stress not only predicted coping style directly, but also indirectly predicted coping style through resilience and social support. Coping style was affected by internal and external factors during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown period.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , COVID-19/psychology , Kidney Diseases/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , Resilience, Psychological/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686604

ABSTRACT

The onset of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic infection, has led to increasing insights on its pathophysiology and clinical features being revealed, such as a noticeable kidney involvement. In this study, we describe the histopathological, immunofluorescence, and ultrastructural features of biopsy-proven kidney injury observed in a series of SARS-CoV-2 positive cases in our institution from April 2020 to November 2021. We retrieved and retrospectively reviewed nine cases (two pediatric and seven adults) that experienced nephrotic syndrome (six cases), acute kidney injury (two cases), and a clinically silent microhematuria and leukocyturia. Kidney biopsies were investigated by means of light microscopy, direct immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. The primary diagnoses were minimal change disease (four cases), acute tubular necrosis (two cases), collapsing glomerulopathy (two cases), and C3 glomerulopathy (one case). None of the cases showed viral or viral-like particles on ultrastructural analysis. Novel and specific histologic features on kidney biopsy related to SARS-CoV-2 infection have been gradually disclosed and reported, harboring relevant clinical and therapeutic implications. Recognizing and properly diagnosing renal involvement in patients experiencing COVID-19 could be challenging (due to the lack of direct proof of viral infection, e.g., viral particles) and requires a proper integration of clinical and pathological data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/injuries , Kidney/virology , Adolescent , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 166-173, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes associated with readmission in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched to retrieve articles on readmitted COVID-19 patients, available up to September 25, 2021. All studies comparing characteristics of readmitted and non-readmitted COVID-19 patients were included. We also included articles reporting the reasons for readmission in COVID-19 patients. Data were pooled and meta-analyzed using random or fixed-effect models, as appropriate. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the place and duration of readmission. RESULTS: Our meta-analysis included 4823 readmitted and 63,413 non-readmitted COVID-19 patients. The re-hospitalization rate was calculated at 9.3% with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [5.5%-15.4%], mostly associated with respiratory or cardiac complications (48% and 14%, respectively). Comorbidities including cerebrovascular disease (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.812; 95% CI [1.547-2.121]), cardiovascular (2.173 [1.545-3.057]), hypertension (1.608 [1.319-1.960]), ischemic heart disease (1.998 [1.495-2.670]), heart failure (2.556 [1.980-3.300]), diabetes (1.588 [1.443-1.747]), cancer (1.817 [1.526-2.162]), kidney disease (2.083 [1.498-2.897]), chronic pulmonary disease (1.601 [1.438-1.783]), as well as older age (1.525 [1.175-1.978]), male sex (1.155 [1.041-1.282]), and white race (1.263 [1.044-1.528]) were significantly associated with higher readmission rates (P < 0.05 for all instances). The mortality rate was significantly lower in readmitted patients (OR = 0.530 [0.329-0.855], P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Male sex, white race, comorbidities, and older age were associated with a higher risk of readmission among previously admitted COVID-19 patients. These factors can help clinicians and policy-makers predict, and conceivably reduce the risk of readmission in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Diabetes Complications , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Race Factors , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
6.
Inflamm Res ; 71(1): 39-56, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525531

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created a worldwide debilitating health crisis with the entire humanity suffering from the deleterious effects associated with the high infectivity and mortality rates. While significant evidence is currently available online and targets various aspects of the disease, both inflammatory and noninflammatory kidney manifestations secondary to COVID-19 infection are still largely underrepresented. In this review, we summarized current knowledge about COVID-19-related kidney manifestations, their pathologic mechanisms as well as various pharmacotherapies used to treat patients with COVID-19. We also shed light on the effect of these medications on kidney functions that can further enhance renal damage secondary to the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney/injuries , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Aldosterone/metabolism , Angiotensins/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Autopsy , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Renal Replacement Therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(7): e1009177, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301916

ABSTRACT

This paper describes a data-driven simulation study that explores the relative impact of several low-cost and practical non-pharmaceutical interventions on the spread of COVID-19 in an outpatient hospital dialysis unit. The interventions considered include: (i) voluntary self-isolation of healthcare personnel (HCPs) with symptoms; (ii) a program of active syndromic surveillance and compulsory isolation of HCPs; (iii) the use of masks or respirators by patients and HCPs; (iv) improved social distancing among HCPs; (v) increased physical separation of dialysis stations; and (vi) patient isolation combined with preemptive isolation of exposed HCPs. Our simulations show that under conditions that existed prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, extremely high rates of COVID-19 infection can result in a dialysis unit. In simulations under worst-case modeling assumptions, a combination of relatively inexpensive interventions such as requiring surgical masks for everyone, encouraging social distancing between healthcare professionals (HCPs), slightly increasing the physical distance between dialysis stations, and-once the first symptomatic patient is detected-isolating that patient, replacing the HCP having had the most exposure to that patient, and relatively short-term use of N95 respirators by other HCPs can lead to a substantial reduction in both the attack rate and the likelihood of any spread beyond patient zero. For example, in a scenario with R0 = 3.0, 60% presymptomatic viral shedding, and a dialysis patient being the infection source, the attack rate falls from 87.8% at baseline to 34.6% with this intervention bundle. Furthermore, the likelihood of having no additional infections increases from 6.2% at baseline to 32.4% with this intervention bundle.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Outpatients , Renal Dialysis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Patient Isolation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1387-1395, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196515

ABSTRACT

The lungs are the most commonly affected organ by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the kidneys are also frequently affected. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 can not only cause new kidney damage but also increase the difficulty of treatment and care as well as mortality for people with underlying kidney diseases. Kidney involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly manifests as kidney tubular injury. Proteinuria is the main clinical sign. To reduce patient mortality, kidney complications should be given increased attention in the diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study reviews the existing literature and discusses COVID-19 infection in combination with kidney diseases in terms of kidney damage, pathogenesis, and treatment to guide clinical anti-epidemic responses.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/virology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 91, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipients often lead to allograft dysfunction. The allograft injury has various histopathological manifestations. Our case illustrates the unusual combination of allograft rejection, acute kidney injury secondary to oxalate nephropathy and SARS CoV-2 nephropathy as the cause of irreversible allograft failure. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56 year old renal allograft recipient presented with a history of fever and diarrhoea for the preceding 4 weeks, tested positive for Sars-CoV2 on nasal swab and was found to have severe allograft dysfunction, necessitating haemodialysis. He subsequently underwent an allograft biopsy, which demonstrated antibody mediated rejection along with the presence of extensive oxalate deposition in the tubules. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated spherical spiked particles in the glomerular capillary endothelium and the presence of tubulo-reticular inclusions suggestive of an active COVID-19 infection within the kidney. The intra-tubular oxalate deposition was considered to be the result of high dose, supplemental Vitamin C used as an immune booster in many patients with COVID - 19 infection in India. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the complex pathology that may be seen in following COVID-19 disease and the need for kidney biopsies in these patients to better understand the aetiology of disease.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Graft Rejection/etiology , Hyperoxaluria/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Primary Graft Dysfunction/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Graft Dysfunction/pathology , Primary Graft Dysfunction/virology
10.
Nutr Hosp ; 37(5): 1039-1042, 2020 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128242

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Background: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can induce an exaggerated inflammatory response. Vitamin D is a key modulator of the immune system. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) could increase the risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection. Methods: patients with confirmed COVID-19 seen at the emergency department of our hospital with recent measurements of 25(OH)D were recruited. We explored the association of vitamin D deficiency (VDD), defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 20 ng/mL, with a composite of adverse clinical outcomes. Results: we included 80 patients, of which 31 (39 %) presented the endpoint. VDD tended to predict an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 after adjusting for age, gender, obesity, cardiac disease, and kidney disease [OR 3.2 (95 % CI: 0.9-11.4), p = 0.07]. Age had a negative interaction with the effect of VDD on the composite outcome (p = 0.03), indicating that the effect was more noticeable at younger ages. Furthermore, male gender was associated with VDD and with severe COVID-19 at younger ages. Conclusions: in this retrospective study, vitamin D deficiency showed a signal of association with severe COVID-19 infection. A significant interaction with age was noted, suggesting VDD may have a greater impact in younger patients. These findings should be confirmed in larger, prospective, adequately powered studies.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) puede inducir una respuesta inflamatoria exagerada. La vitamina D es un modulador clave del sistema inmune. Planteamos que la deficiencia de vitamina D (VDD) podría aumentar el riesgo de desarrollar infección grave por COVID-19. Métodos: se reclutaron pacientes consecutivos que acudieron al servicio de urgencias de nuestro centro con diagnóstico de COVID-19 confirmado (PCR-COVID-19 positiva) y mediciones recientes de 25(OH)D. Exploramos la asociación de la deficiencia de vitamina D (VDD), definida como una 25-hidroxivitamina D < 20 ng/ml, con un compuesto de resultados clínicos adversos. Resultados: se incluyeron 80 pacientes, de los cuales 31 (39 %) presentaron el criterio de valoración primario. El VDD tendió a predecir un mayor riesgo de desarrollar COVID-19 grave después de ajustar edad, sexo, obesidad, enfermedad cardíaca y enfermedad renal [OR: 3,2 (IC 95 %: 0,9-11,4), p = 0,07]. La edad tuvo una interacción negativa con el efecto de la VDD en el resultado compuesto (p = 0,03), lo que indica que el efecto fue más notable a edades más tempranas. Además, el género masculino se asoció con la VDD y con la COVID-19 grave en las edades más jóvenes. Conclusiones: en este estudio retrospectivo, la deficiencia de vitamina D mostró una tendencia de asociación con la infección grave por COVID-19. Se observó una interacción significativa con la edad, lo que sugiere que la VDD puede tener un mayor impacto en los pacientes más jóvenes. Estos hallazgos deben confirmarse en estudios más grandes, prospectivos y con potencia adecuada.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Heart Diseases/complications , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 158, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069550

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence indicate that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is companied by renal dysfunction. However, the association of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced renal dysfunction with prognosis remains obscure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All 154 patients with COVID-19 were recruited from the Second People's Hospital of Fuyang City in Anhui, China. Demographic characteristics and laboratory data were extracted. Renal dysfunction was evaluated and its prognosis was followed up based on a retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: There were 125 (81.2%) mild and 29 (18.8%) severe cases in 154 COVID-19 patients. On admission, 16 (10.4%) subjects were accompanied with renal dysfunction. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were increased and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was decreased in severe patients compared with those in mild patients. Renal dysfunction was more prevalent in severe patients. Using multivariate logistic regression, we found that male gender, older age and hypertension were three importantly independent risk factors for renal dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Follow-up study found that at least one renal function marker of 3.33% patients remained abnormal in 2 weeks after discharge. CONCLUSION: Male elderly COVID-19 patients with hypertension elevates the risk of renal dysfunction. SARS-CoV-2-induced renal dysfunction are not fully recovered in 2 weeks after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , China , Creatinine/blood , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243343, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975994

ABSTRACT

This study reviewed 395 young adults, 18-35 year-old, admitted for COVID-19 to one of the eleven hospitals in New York City public health system. Demographics, comorbidities, clinical course, outcomes and characteristics linked to hospitalization were analyzed including temporal survival analysis. Fifty-seven percent of patients had a least one major comorbidity. Mortality without comorbidity was in 3.8% patients. Further investigation of admission features and medical history was conducted. Comorbidities associated with mortality were diabetes (n = 54 deceased/73 diagnosed,74% tested POS;98.2% with diabetic history deceased; Wilcoxon p (Wp) = .044), hypertension (14/44,32% POS, 25.5%; Wp = 0.030), renal (6/16, 37.5% POS,11%; Wp = 0.000), and cardiac (6/21, 28.6% POS,11%; Wp = 0.015). Kaplan survival plots were statistically significant for these four indicators. Data suggested glucose >215 or hemoglobin A1c >9.5 for young adults on admission was associated with increased mortality. Clinically documented respiratory distress on admission was statistically significant outcome related to mortality (X2 = 236.6842, df = 1, p < .0001). Overall, 28.9% required supportive oxygen beyond nasal cannula. Nasal cannula oxygen alone was required for 71.1%, who all lived. Non-invasive ventilation was required for 7.8%, and invasive mechanical ventilation 21.0% (in which 7.3% lived, 13.7% died). Temporal survival analysis demonstrated statistically significant response for Time to Death <10 days (X2 = 18.508, df = 1, p = .000); risk lessened considerably for 21 day cut off (X2 = 3.464, df = 1, p = .063), followed by 31 or more days of hospitalization (X2 = 2.212, df = 1, p = .137).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Hypertension/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Diabetes Complications/complications , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/virology , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Kidney Diseases/virology , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1387-1395, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938477

ABSTRACT

The lungs are the most commonly affected organ by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the kidneys are also frequently affected. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 can not only cause new kidney damage but also increase the difficulty of treatment and care as well as mortality for people with underlying kidney diseases. Kidney involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly manifests as kidney tubular injury. Proteinuria is the main clinical sign. To reduce patient mortality, kidney complications should be given increased attention in the diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study reviews the existing literature and discusses COVID-19 infection in combination with kidney diseases in terms of kidney damage, pathogenesis, and treatment to guide clinical anti-epidemic responses.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/virology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Curr Drug Targets ; 22(1): 52-67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It becomes increasingly evident that the SARS-CoV-2 infection is not limited to the respiratory system. In addition to being a target of the virus, the kidney also seems to have a substantial influence on the outcomes of the disease. METHODS: Data was obtained by a comprehensive and non-systematic search in the PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus and SciELO databases, using mainly the terms "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "chronic kidney disease", "renal transplantation", acute kidney injury" and "renal dysfunction" Discussion: The membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is the receptor for SARS-CoV- -2, and this interaction may lead to an imbalance of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), associated with worse clinical presentations of COVID-19, including acute pulmonary injury, hyperinflammatory state and hematological alterations. In the framework of renal diseases, the development of acute kidney injury is associated mostly with immune alterations and direct cytopathic lesions by the virus, leading to higher mortality. As for chronic kidney disease, the patients at a non-terminal stage have a worse prognosis, while the hemodialysis patients appear to have mild courses of COVID-19, probably due to lower chances of being affected by the cytokine storm. Furthermore, the current scenario is unfavorable to kidney donation and transplantation. The relationship between COVID-19 and immunosuppression in kidney transplantation recipients has been greatly discussed to determine whether it increases mortality and how it interacts with immunosuppressive medications. CONCLUSION: The kidney and the RAS exert fundamental roles in the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and more research is required to have a complete understanding of the repercussions caused by COVID-19 in renal diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Kidney Diseases/surgery , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney Transplantation , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nephron ; 144(5): 213-221, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829878

ABSTRACT

Here, we review the most recent findings on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on kidney diseases, including acute kidney injury, and examine the potential effects of ARBs on the outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Lastly, we discuss the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with existing chronic renal disorders, particularly those in dialysis and with kidney transplants.


Subject(s)
Angiotensins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Kidney/virology , Kidney Transplantation , Nephrologists , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
18.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110176, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728773

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection causes considerable morbidity and mortality, especially to those who are aged, have impaired renal function and are obese. We propose to examine the potential utility of oral activated charcoal with the hypothesis that such treatment would lower absorption of microbiome derived toxins and ameliorate systemic oxidant stress and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Charcoal/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Kidney Diseases/complications , Obesity/complications , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/microbiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Models, Theoretical , Oxidants/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Risk
19.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 3001-3013, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703756

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is now a global outbreak of disease. The antiviral treatment acts as one of the most important means of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Alteration of physiological characteristics in special populations may lead to the change in drug pharmacokinetics, which may result in treatment failure or increased adverse drug reactions. Some potential drugs have shown antiviral effects on SARS-CoV-2 infections, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, interferon alpha, and remedsivir. Here, we reviewed the literature on clinical effects in COVID-19 patients of these antiviral agents and provided the potential antiviral agent options for pregnant women, elderly patients, liver or renal dysfunction patients, and severe or critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy or ECMO after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Blood Purif ; 50(1): 132-136, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690598

ABSTRACT

It is of crucial importance to diagnose patients in a timely and clear manner during the outbreak of COVID-19. Different causes of pneumonia makes it difficult to differentiate COVID-19 from others. Hemodialysis patients are a special group of people in this outbreak. We present a successfully treated case of a patient with maintenance hemodialysis from acute eosinophilic pneumonia for using meropenem when treating bacterial pneumonia, avoiding possible panic and waste of quarantine materials in dialysis centers.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/complications , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Bacterial/etiology , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/etiology , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Bacterial/therapy , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/therapy , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
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