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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2135379, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520147

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is a need for studies to evaluate the risk factors for COVID-19 and mortality among the entire Medicare long-term dialysis population using Medicare claims data. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 and mortality in Medicare patients undergoing long-term dialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, claims-based cohort study compared mortality trends of patients receiving long-term dialysis in 2020 with previous years (2013-2019) and fit Cox regression models to identify risk factors for contracting COVID-19 and postdiagnosis mortality. The cohort included the national population of Medicare patients receiving long-term dialysis in 2020, derived from clinical and administrative databases. COVID-19 was identified through Medicare claims sources. Data were analyzed on May 17, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 2 main outcomes were COVID-19 and all-cause mortality. Associations of claims-based risk factors with COVID-19 and mortality were investigated prediagnosis and postdiagnosis. Results: Among a total of 498 169 Medicare patients undergoing dialysis (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-74] years; 215 935 [43.1%] women and 283 227 [56.9%] men), 60 090 (12.1%) had COVID-19, among whom 15 612 patients (26.0%) died. COVID-19 rates were significantly higher among Black (21 787 of 165 830 patients [13.1%]) and Hispanic (13 530 of 86 871 patients [15.6%]) patients compared with non-Black patients (38 303 of 332 339 [11.5%]), as well as patients with short (ie, 1-89 days; 7738 of 55 184 patients [14.0%]) and extended (ie, ≥90 days; 10 737 of 30 196 patients [35.6%]) nursing home stays in the prior year. Adjusting for all other risk factors, residing in a nursing home 1 to 89 days in the prior year was associated with a higher hazard for COVID-19 (hazard ratio [HR] vs 0 days, 1.60; 95% CI 1.56-1.65) and for postdiagnosis mortality (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.25-1.37), as was residing in a nursing home for an extended stay (COVID-19: HR, 4.48; 95% CI, 4.37-4.59; mortality: HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.16). Black race (HR vs non-Black: HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.23-1.28) and Hispanic ethnicity (HR vs non-Hispanic: HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.64-1.72) were associated with significantly higher hazards of COVID-19. Although home dialysis was associated with lower COVID-19 rates (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.75-0.80), it was associated with higher mortality (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25). Conclusions and Relevance: These results shed light on COVID-19 risk factors and outcomes among Medicare patients receiving long-term chronic dialysis and could inform policy decisions to mitigate the significant extra burden of COVID-19 and death in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Medicare , Renal Dialysis , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
3.
Neuropeptides ; 90: 102201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446996

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global emergency with high mortality. There are few effective treatments, and many severe patients are treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Japanese Kampo medicine ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is effective in treating ICU patients with COVID-19. Nine patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the ICU were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent respiratory management with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and enteral nutrition. Four patients received NYT (7.5 g daily) from an elemental diet tube. We retrospectively examined the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), length of IMV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, rate of tracheostomy, and mortality rate. The median age of the enrolled participants was 60.0 years (4 men and 5 women). The median body mass index was 27.6. The most common comorbidity was diabetes (4 patients, 44%), followed by hypertension (3 patients, 33%) and chronic kidney disease (2 patients, 22%). The median length of IMV, ICU stay, and hospital stay were all shorter in the NYT group than in the non-NYT group (IMV; 4.0 days vs 14.3 days, ICU; 5.3 days vs 14.5 days, hospital stay; 19.9 days vs 28.2 days). In the NYT and non-NYT groups, the median PNI at admission was 29.0 and 31.2, respectively. One week after admission, the PNI was 30.7 in the NYT group and 24.4 in non-NYT group. PNI was significantly (p = 0.032) increased in the NYT group (+13.6%) than in the non-NYT group (-22.0%). The Japanese Kampo medicine NYT might be useful for treating patients with severe COVID-19 in ICU. This study was conducted in a small number of cases, and further large clinical trials are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Medicine, Kampo , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Enteral Nutrition , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2851-2862, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with increased risk of post-acute sequelae involving pulmonary and extrapulmonary organ systems-referred to as long COVID. However, a detailed assessment of kidney outcomes in long COVID is not yet available. METHODS: We built a cohort of 1,726,683 US Veterans identified from March 1, 2020 to March 15, 2021, including 89,216 patients who were 30-day survivors of COVID-19 and 1,637,467 non-infected controls. We examined risks of AKI, eGFR decline, ESKD, and major adverse kidney events (MAKE). MAKE was defined as eGFR decline ≥50%, ESKD, or all-cause mortality. We used inverse probability-weighted survival regression, adjusting for predefined demographic and health characteristics, and algorithmically selected high-dimensional covariates, including diagnoses, medications, and laboratory tests. Linear mixed models characterized intra-individual eGFR trajectory. RESULTS: Beyond the acute illness, 30-day survivors of COVID-19 exhibited a higher risk of AKI (aHR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.86 to 2.04), eGFR decline ≥30% (aHR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.37), eGFR decline ≥40% (aHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.37 to 1.51), eGFR decline ≥50% (aHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.51 to 1.74), ESKD (aHR, 2.96; 95% CI, 2.49 to 3.51), and MAKE (aHR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.58 to 1.74). Increase in risks of post-acute kidney outcomes was graded according to the severity of the acute infection (whether patients were non-hospitalized, hospitalized, or admitted to intensive care). Compared with non-infected controls, 30-day survivors of COVID-19 exhibited excess eGFR decline (95% CI) of -3.26 (-3.58 to -2.94), -5.20 (-6.24 to -4.16), and -7.69 (-8.27 to -7.12) ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, respectively, in non-hospitalized, hospitalized, and those admitted to intensive care during the acute phase of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who survived COVID-19 exhibited increased risk of kidney outcomes in the post-acute phase of the disease. Post-acute COVID-19 care should include attention to kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , United States
7.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20572, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332303

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyse the demographics, risk factors and in-hospital mortality rates of patients admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: In this single-centre retrospective cohort study at the University Hospital Basel, we included all patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection hospitalised from 27 February 2020 to 10 May 2021. Patients’ characteristics were extracted from the electronic medical record system. The primary outcome of this study was temporal trends of COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were COVID-19-related mortality in patients hospitalised on the intensive care unit (ICU), admission to ICU, renal replacement therapy and length of hospital stay, as well as a descriptive analysis of risk factors for in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: During the study period we included 943 hospitalisations of 930 patients. The median age was 65 years (interquartile range [IQR] 53–76) and 63% were men. The numbers of elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities and need for renal replacement therapy decreased from the first and second to the third wave. The median length of stay and need for ICU admission were similar in all waves. Throughout the study period 88 patients (9.3%) died during the hospital stay. Crude in-hospital mortality was similar over the course of the first two waves (9.5% and 10.2%, respectively), whereas it decreased in the third wave (5.4%). Overall mortality in patients without comorbidities was low at 1.6%, but it increased in patients with any comorbidity to 12.6%. Predictors of all-cause mortality over the whole period were age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per 10-year increase 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–2.26; p <0.001), male sex (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.00–2.82; p = 0.048), immunocompromising condition (aOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.01–4.33; p = 0.048) and chronic kidney disease (aOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.35–3.76; p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: In our study in-hospital mortality was 9.5%, 10.2% and 5.4% in the first, second and third waves, respectively. Age, immunocompromising condition, male sex and chronic kidney disease were factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Importantly, patients without any comorbidity had a very low in-hospital mortality regardless of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Switzerland/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254258, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317142

ABSTRACT

Underlying diseases might be risk factors for poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19); however, we still do not know whether these diseases are independent factors affecting prognosis, which type of underlying diseases are risk factors, and which type of clinical outcomes are affected. We retrospectively reviewed cohort data from 7,590 de-identified patients with COVID-19 who were diagnosed using severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 RNA polymerase chain reaction test up to May 15, 2020. We used linked-medical claims data provided by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea. Underlying diseases were identified using the diagnostic codes in the patients' files from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019. The total mortality rate was 3.0% in patients with COVID-19. After adjusting for age, sex, and concomitant chronic conditions, we found that congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary diseases, diabetes without chronic complications, renal diseases, and malignancy were factors that significantly increased the cost of treatment. Cerebrovascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, and paralysis were found to be independent factors significant in prolonging hospital stay. Diabetes with chronic complications was independently associated with intensive care unit admission. In addition, underlying congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR], 1.724; P = 0.003), dementia (OR, 1.598; P = 0.012), diabetes with and without chronic complications (OR, 1.821; P = 0.002 and OR, 1.518; P = 0.022, respectively), renal disease (OR, 2.299; P = 0.002), and malignancy (OR, 1.529; P = 0.039) were significant factors associated with death, even after adjustments. Underlying diseases were significant independent factors of the poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19. The effects were variable according to the type of underlying disease and clinical outcome. Therefore, patients with COVID-19 with underlying diseases should be monitored more closely because they are more at risk of a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Survival Analysis
10.
Clin Nephrol ; 96(2): 67-81, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278660

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has now spread into a worldwide pandemic. The pulmonary manifestations of this disease have been well described in literature, however COVID-19 can also cause severe and lasting harm in other organs including the kidneys, heart, and pancreas. Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 has multiple renal manifestations which impact the prognosis and mortality of this disease. Here we present a literature review of the current evidence of renal involvement in COVID-19 patients and the potential for future directions in management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis
11.
Pancreas ; 50(3): 393-398, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of increased serum pancreatic enzymes (PEs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has not yet been fully understood. We aimed to investigate the frequency and the impact on clinical outcome of PE elevation and acute pancreatitis in such patients. METHODS: Clinical data, laboratory tests, and cross-sectional images were analyzed from COVID-19 patients admitted to the Tor Vergata Hospital in Rome. Variables associated with PE abnormalities, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death were investigated through univariate and multivariate analyses and Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Pancreatic enzymes were available in 254 of 282 COVID-19 patients. Among these, 66 patients (26%) showed mild elevation of PE, and 11 patients (4.3%) had severe elevation (>3 times of the upper limit of normal). Overall, 2 patients met the diagnostic criteria for acute pancreatitis. Hepatic and renal involvements were associated with PE elevation. Multivariate analysis showed that mild and severe PE elevations were significantly associated with ICU admission (odds ratios, 5.51 [95% confidence interval, 2.36-12.89; P < 0.0001] and 26.2 [95% confidence interval, 4.82-142.39; P < 0.0001]). CONCLUSIONS: Increase in serum PE, but not acute pancreatitis, is frequent in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and associates with ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Pancreas/enzymology , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/blood , Kidney Diseases/enzymology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Pancreatitis/blood , Pancreatitis/enzymology , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 397, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a major global health threat with a great number of deaths worldwide. Despite abundant data on that many COVID-19 patients also displayed kidney disease, there is limited information available about the recovery of kidney disease after discharge. METHODS: Retrospective and prospective cohort study to patients with new-onset kidney disease during the COVID-19 hospitalization, admitted between January 28 to February 26, 2020. The median follow-up was 4 months after discharge. The follow-up patients were divided into the recovery group and non-recovery group. Descriptive statistics and between-groups comparison were used. RESULTS: In total, 143 discharged patients with new-onset kidney disease during the COVID-19 hospitalization were included. Patients had a median age was 64 (IQR, 51-70) years, and 59.4% of patients were men. During 4-months median follow-up, 91% (130 of 143) patients recovered from kidney disease, and 9% (13 of 143) patients haven't recovered. The median age of patients in the non-recovery group was 72 years, which was significantly higher than the median age of 62 years in the recovery group. Discharge serum creatinine was significantly higher in the non-recovery group than in the recovery group. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the new-onset kidney diseases during hospitalization of COVID-19 patients recovered 4 months after discharge. We recommend that COVID-19 patients with new-onset kidney disease be followed after discharge to assess kidney recovery, especially elderly patients or patients with high discharge creatinine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Creatinine/blood , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Proteinuria/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
13.
Pancreas ; 50(3): 393-398, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of increased serum pancreatic enzymes (PEs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has not yet been fully understood. We aimed to investigate the frequency and the impact on clinical outcome of PE elevation and acute pancreatitis in such patients. METHODS: Clinical data, laboratory tests, and cross-sectional images were analyzed from COVID-19 patients admitted to the Tor Vergata Hospital in Rome. Variables associated with PE abnormalities, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death were investigated through univariate and multivariate analyses and Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Pancreatic enzymes were available in 254 of 282 COVID-19 patients. Among these, 66 patients (26%) showed mild elevation of PE, and 11 patients (4.3%) had severe elevation (>3 times of the upper limit of normal). Overall, 2 patients met the diagnostic criteria for acute pancreatitis. Hepatic and renal involvements were associated with PE elevation. Multivariate analysis showed that mild and severe PE elevations were significantly associated with ICU admission (odds ratios, 5.51 [95% confidence interval, 2.36-12.89; P < 0.0001] and 26.2 [95% confidence interval, 4.82-142.39; P < 0.0001]). CONCLUSIONS: Increase in serum PE, but not acute pancreatitis, is frequent in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and associates with ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Pancreas/enzymology , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/blood , Kidney Diseases/enzymology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Pancreatitis/blood , Pancreatitis/enzymology , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models
15.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 449-459, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116287

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes many deleterious effects throughout the body. Prior studies show that the incidence of acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients could be as high as 25%. There are also autopsy reports showing evidence of viral tropism to the renal system. In this regard, COVID-19 can damage the kidneys and increase a patient's risk of requiring dialysis. Available evidence suggests that renal involvement in COVID-19 infection is not uncommon, and there has been an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease related to the pandemic. In this literature analysis, we address COVID-19 and its effects on the renal system, including the pathophysiologic mechanisms. We also address current studies on the causes of injury to the renal system, the cause of kidney failure, its effect on mortality, the impact on dialysis patients, and the impact on renal transplant patients. COVID-19 disease may have unique features in individuals on chronic dialysis and kidney transplant recipients, requiring increased vigilance in limiting viral transmission in perioperative, in-patient, and dialysis center settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Kidney/virology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Kidney Diseases/virology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Dialysis/trends , Treatment Outcome
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1551-1553, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted healthcare services for kidney disease patients. Lockdown and social distancing were mandated in Kurdistan, Iraq to combat the transmission of the infection. The report analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on kidney disease patient care in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. METHODS: This study took place in the Duhok Kidney Disease and Transplant Center and compared data from February-April 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: The average number of patients visiting the consultation unit per week was reduced from 68.67 ± 13.6, to 33.42 ± 29.36 (P = 0.001) during the pandemic. In the dialysis unit, weekly hemodialysis sessions were reduced from 341.5 to 306.42 sessions (P = 0.002). The number of patients visiting the kidney transplant consultation unit was significantly reduced (135.7 ± 37.7 versus 102.5 ± 26.3; P = 0.005). The number of kidney transplant operations per week was reduced from 1.167 to 0.5 (P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted healthcare services and may continue to impart long-term negative consequences for kidney disease patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Patient Care/trends , Quarantine/trends , Adult , Female , Humans , Iraq/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
18.
J Intern Med ; 289(5): 726-737, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst the COVID-19 diagnostic test has a high false-negative rate, not everyone initially negative is re-tested. Michigan Medicine, a primary regional centre, provided an ideal setting for studying testing patterns during the first wave of the pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To identify the characteristics of patients who underwent repeated testing for COVID-19 and determine if repeated testing was associated with downstream outcomes amongst positive cases. METHODS: Characteristics, test results, and health outcomes for patients presenting for a COVID-19 diagnostic test were collected. We examined whether patient characteristics differed with repeated testing and estimated a false-negative rate for the test. We then studied repeated testing patterns in patients with severe COVID-19-related outcomes. RESULTS: Patient age, sex, body mass index, neighbourhood poverty levels, pre-existing type 2 diabetes, circulatory, kidney, and liver diseases, and cough, fever/chills, and pain symptoms 14 days prior to a first test were associated with repeated testing. Amongst patients with a positive result, age (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: (1.05, 1.34)) and pre-existing kidney diseases (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: (1.41, 3.68)) remained significant. Hospitalization (OR: 7.88; 95% CI: (5.15, 12.26)) and ICU-level care (OR: 6.93; 95% CI: (4.44, 10.92)) were associated with repeated testing. The estimated false-negative rate was 23.8% (95% CI: (19.5%, 28.5%)). CONCLUSIONS: Whilst most patients were tested once and received a negative result, a meaningful subset underwent multiple rounds of testing. These results shed light on testing patterns and have important implications for understanding the variation of repeated testing results within and between patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , False Negative Reactions , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Public Reporting of Healthcare Data , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Drugs R D ; 21(1): 9-27, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986820

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In December 2019, an outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began, resulting in a number of antivirals and immune modulators being repurposed to treat the associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Many patients requiring treatment for COVID-19 may have either pre-existing renal or hepatic disease or experience acute renal/hepatic injury as a result of the acute infection. Altered renal or hepatic function can significantly affect drug concentrations of medications due to impaired drug metabolism and excretion, resulting in toxicity or reduced efficacy. The aim of this paper is to review the pharmacokinetics and available study data for the experimental COVID-19 therapies in patients with any degree of renal or hepatic impairment to make recommendations for dosing. METHODS: COVID-19 agents included in these recommendations were listed as primaries on the University of Liverpool COVID-19 drug interaction website ( www.covid19-druginteractions.org ), initially identified from Clinicialtrials.gov and ChicCTR.org.cn. A literature search was performed using PubMed and EMBASE as well as product licences and pharmacokinetic databases. FINDINGS: Remdesivir, dexamethasone, azithromycin, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, atazanavir, hydroxychloroquine, interferon beta, ribavirin, tocilizumab, anakinra and sarilumab were identified as experimental drugs being used in COVID-19 trials as of November 2020. Limited study data was found for these drugs in patients with renal or hepatic impairment for COVID-19 or other indications. Recommendations were made based on available data, consideration of pharmacokinetic properties (including variability), the dosing and anticipated treatment duration of each regimen in COVID-19 and known toxicities. CONCLUSION: Dosing of drugs used to treat COVID-19 in patients with renal or hepatic impairment is complex. These recommendations were produced to provide guidance to clinicians worldwide who are treating patients with COVID-19, many of whom will have some degree of acute or chronic renal or hepatic impairment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20848, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951959

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and subsequent COVID-19 pandemic initiated intense research into the mechanisms of action for this virus. It was quickly noted that COVID-19 presents more seriously in conjunction with other human disease conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and lung diseases. We conducted a bioinformatics analysis of COVID-19 comorbidity-associated gene sets, identifying genes and pathways shared among the comorbidities, and evaluated current knowledge about these genes and pathways as related to current information about SARS-CoV-2 infection. We performed our analysis using GeneWeaver (GW), Reactome, and several biomedical ontologies to represent and compare common COVID-19 comorbidities. Phenotypic analysis of shared genes revealed significant enrichment for immune system phenotypes and for cardiovascular-related phenotypes, which might point to alleles and phenotypes in mouse models that could be evaluated for clues to COVID-19 severity. Through pathway analysis, we identified enriched pathways shared by comorbidity datasets and datasets associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Databases, Genetic , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Hepatitis/epidemiology , Hepatitis/genetics , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/genetics , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/genetics , Mice , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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