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2.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526737

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2851-2862, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with increased risk of post-acute sequelae involving pulmonary and extrapulmonary organ systems-referred to as long COVID. However, a detailed assessment of kidney outcomes in long COVID is not yet available. METHODS: We built a cohort of 1,726,683 US Veterans identified from March 1, 2020 to March 15, 2021, including 89,216 patients who were 30-day survivors of COVID-19 and 1,637,467 non-infected controls. We examined risks of AKI, eGFR decline, ESKD, and major adverse kidney events (MAKE). MAKE was defined as eGFR decline ≥50%, ESKD, or all-cause mortality. We used inverse probability-weighted survival regression, adjusting for predefined demographic and health characteristics, and algorithmically selected high-dimensional covariates, including diagnoses, medications, and laboratory tests. Linear mixed models characterized intra-individual eGFR trajectory. RESULTS: Beyond the acute illness, 30-day survivors of COVID-19 exhibited a higher risk of AKI (aHR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.86 to 2.04), eGFR decline ≥30% (aHR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.37), eGFR decline ≥40% (aHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.37 to 1.51), eGFR decline ≥50% (aHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.51 to 1.74), ESKD (aHR, 2.96; 95% CI, 2.49 to 3.51), and MAKE (aHR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.58 to 1.74). Increase in risks of post-acute kidney outcomes was graded according to the severity of the acute infection (whether patients were non-hospitalized, hospitalized, or admitted to intensive care). Compared with non-infected controls, 30-day survivors of COVID-19 exhibited excess eGFR decline (95% CI) of -3.26 (-3.58 to -2.94), -5.20 (-6.24 to -4.16), and -7.69 (-8.27 to -7.12) ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, respectively, in non-hospitalized, hospitalized, and those admitted to intensive care during the acute phase of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who survived COVID-19 exhibited increased risk of kidney outcomes in the post-acute phase of the disease. Post-acute COVID-19 care should include attention to kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , United States
4.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 50(7): 441-444, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been at the forefront of public and scientific attention since the initial report in December 2019. The kidney is one of the target organs of the causative SARS-CoV-2 virus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to discuss the current understanding of COVID-19 renal disease from a primary care perspective, with the caveat that our knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical course and outcome of the disease is still rapidly evolving. DISCUSSION: The kidney is one of the target organs of the causative SARS-CoV-2 virus, affecting the endothelium, podocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells. Clinical presentation ranges from isolated proteinuria, haematuria to severe acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy. Renal dysfunction associated with COVID-19 has a worse prognosis whether it be in the form of AKI or worsening of pre-existing chronic kidney disease, or in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Kidney Diseases/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Kidney Diseases/pathology
5.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269953

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
6.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(1): 1-17, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152898

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has brought into focus the key role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which serves as a cell surface receptor required for the virus to enter cells. SARS-CoV-2 can decrease cell surface ACE2 directly by internalization of ACE2 bound to the virus and indirectly by increased ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17)-mediated shedding of ACE2. ACE2 is widely expressed in the heart, lungs, vasculature, kidney and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where it counteracts the deleterious effects of angiotensin II (AngII) by catalyzing the conversion of AngII into the vasodilator peptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)). The down-regulation of ACE2 by SARS-CoV-2 can be detrimental to the cardiovascular system and kidneys. Further, decreased ACE2 can cause gut dysbiosis, inflammation and potentially worsen the systemic inflammatory response and coagulopathy associated with SARS-CoV-2. This review aims to elucidate the crucial role of ACE2 both as a regulator of the renin-angiotensin system and a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 as well as the implications for Coronavirus disease 19 and its associated cardiovascular and renal complications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/enzymology , Heart Diseases/enzymology , Kidney Diseases/enzymology , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/genetics , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Kidney Diseases/genetics , Kidney Diseases/metabolism , Kidney Diseases/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Nephron ; 145(3): 275-279, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127626

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Determining whether SARS-CoV-2 causes direct infection of the kidneys is challenging due to limitations in imaging and molecular tools. Subject of Review: A growing number of conflicting kidney biopsy and autopsy reports highlight this controversial issue. Second Opinion: Based on the collective evidence, therapies that improve hemodynamic stability and oxygenation, or dampen complement activation, are likely to ameliorate acute kidney injury in COVID-19. At this time, whether inhibition of viral infection and replication directly modulates kidney damage is inconclusive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Autopsy , Biopsy , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Kidney Diseases/virology , Nephritis, Interstitial/etiology
8.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 449-459, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116287

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes many deleterious effects throughout the body. Prior studies show that the incidence of acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients could be as high as 25%. There are also autopsy reports showing evidence of viral tropism to the renal system. In this regard, COVID-19 can damage the kidneys and increase a patient's risk of requiring dialysis. Available evidence suggests that renal involvement in COVID-19 infection is not uncommon, and there has been an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease related to the pandemic. In this literature analysis, we address COVID-19 and its effects on the renal system, including the pathophysiologic mechanisms. We also address current studies on the causes of injury to the renal system, the cause of kidney failure, its effect on mortality, the impact on dialysis patients, and the impact on renal transplant patients. COVID-19 disease may have unique features in individuals on chronic dialysis and kidney transplant recipients, requiring increased vigilance in limiting viral transmission in perioperative, in-patient, and dialysis center settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Kidney/virology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Kidney Diseases/virology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Dialysis/trends , Treatment Outcome
9.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(2): 106260, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012390

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic. However, the hazard to newborns in pregnancy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the vertical transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from mother to child and developmental toxicity in the fetus. METHODS: All clinical information was recorded on 22 neonates born to mothers with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia in Tongji Hospital. RESULTS: The average birth weight of the 22 newborns (16 males and 6 females) was 2980 g, and the mean gestational week was 37W+3. The birth weight of three babies was <2500 g, and the gestational week of all three low-birth-weight neonates was less than 36W. Three newborns had minor lesions of infection in the lungs as shown by computed tomography (CT) scans. Furthermore, three newborns had elevated SARS-CoV-2-related immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies, and 11 newborns (52.4%) had positive immunoglobin G (IgG) antibodies. Notably, both cystatin C and ß2-microglobulin were increased in all newborns. Five of the 21 tested newborns had leukocytosis, and 11 had increased neutrophil levels. In addition, the aspartate aminotransferase of 18 newborns and the γ-glutamyl transpeptidase of 19 newborns were increased. Total bilirubin was elevated in all newborns and serum albumin was reduced in 20 of 22 newborns. CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to discover that COVID-19 infection in the third trimester of pregnancy could cause fetal kidney developmental injury, as indicated by increased cystatin C and ß2-microglobulin in all neonates. Furthermore, there is the possibility of maternal-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Kidney Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Kidney Diseases/embryology , Male , Neutrophils , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Retrospective Studies , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 401-408, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996066

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the change of various indexes in patients with different types of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Seventy-five patients with COVID-19 were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, and they were classified into moderate, severe and critically severe types according to the disease severity. The basic information, blood routine, pneumonia-related blood indexes, immune-related indexes along with liver, kidney and myocardial indexes in patients with different types were analyzed. The analysis of immune-related indexes showed that the proportions of critically severe patients with abnormal interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 were higher than those of severe and moderate patients. In addition, the proportion of patients with abnormal total cholesterol increased as the severity of disease increased, and the proportion in critically severe patients was significantly higher than that in moderate patients. The patients with a more severe COVID-19 are older and more likely to have a history of hypertension. With the progression of COVID-19, the abnormal proportion of total white blood cell, neutrophils, lymphocytes, IL-2, IL-4, and total cholesterol increased. The change of these indexes in patients with different COVID-19 types could provide reference for the disease severity identification and diagnosis of COVID-19. In addition, the change in the total cholesterol level suggested that COVID-19 would induce some liver function damage in patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
12.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(4): 87-88, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979276

ABSTRACT

At fi rst, COVID-19 was thought to be primarily a respiratory disease, progressing in some patients to serious respiratory symptoms, pneumonia, severe respiratory distress syndrome and even death. Later analysis revealed entire systems were compromised, affecting other vital organs, including the kidneys, and a correlation was observed between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and COVID-19 severity COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cuba , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243343, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975994

ABSTRACT

This study reviewed 395 young adults, 18-35 year-old, admitted for COVID-19 to one of the eleven hospitals in New York City public health system. Demographics, comorbidities, clinical course, outcomes and characteristics linked to hospitalization were analyzed including temporal survival analysis. Fifty-seven percent of patients had a least one major comorbidity. Mortality without comorbidity was in 3.8% patients. Further investigation of admission features and medical history was conducted. Comorbidities associated with mortality were diabetes (n = 54 deceased/73 diagnosed,74% tested POS;98.2% with diabetic history deceased; Wilcoxon p (Wp) = .044), hypertension (14/44,32% POS, 25.5%; Wp = 0.030), renal (6/16, 37.5% POS,11%; Wp = 0.000), and cardiac (6/21, 28.6% POS,11%; Wp = 0.015). Kaplan survival plots were statistically significant for these four indicators. Data suggested glucose >215 or hemoglobin A1c >9.5 for young adults on admission was associated with increased mortality. Clinically documented respiratory distress on admission was statistically significant outcome related to mortality (X2 = 236.6842, df = 1, p < .0001). Overall, 28.9% required supportive oxygen beyond nasal cannula. Nasal cannula oxygen alone was required for 71.1%, who all lived. Non-invasive ventilation was required for 7.8%, and invasive mechanical ventilation 21.0% (in which 7.3% lived, 13.7% died). Temporal survival analysis demonstrated statistically significant response for Time to Death <10 days (X2 = 18.508, df = 1, p = .000); risk lessened considerably for 21 day cut off (X2 = 3.464, df = 1, p = .063), followed by 31 or more days of hospitalization (X2 = 2.212, df = 1, p = .137).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Hypertension/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Diabetes Complications/complications , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/virology , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Kidney Diseases/virology , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
14.
F1000Res ; 9: 659, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972665

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with many potentially fatal complications. Renal involvement in various forms is common in addition to serum electrolyte disturbances. Early reports suggest that hypokalaemia may frequent those with SARS-CoV-2 infection and various aetiological factors may cause this electrolyte disturbance. A Chinese retrospective study has demonstrated renal potassium wasting in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, however, it is not known if these patients were receiving diuretic therapy which may be a contributing factor. This case report illustrates an example of renal potassium wasting in SARS-CoV-2 infection in the absence of diuretics and extra-renal mechanisms with important lessons learned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/physiopathology , Potassium Deficiency/virology , Humans , Potassium , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 25(11): 822-828, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913640

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic poses unprecedented operational challenges to nephrology divisions in every country as they cope with COVID-19-related kidney disease in addition to regular patient care. Although general approaches have been proposed, there is a lack of practical guidance for nephrology division response in a hospital facing a surge of cases. Here, we describe the specific measures that our division has taken in the hope that our experience in Singapore may be helpful to others. METHODS: Descriptive narrative. RESULTS: A compilation of operational responses to the COVID-19 pandemic taken by a nephrology division at a Singapore university hospital. CONCLUSION: Nephrology operational readiness for COVID-19 requires a clinical mindset shift from usual standard of care to a crisis exigency model that targets best outcomes for available resources. Rapid multi-disciplinary efforts that evolve flexibly with the local dynamics of the outbreak are required.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Pathways/trends , Group Practice , Kidney Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Civil Defense/standards , Civil Defense/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Group Practice/organization & administration , Group Practice/trends , Hospitals, University , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Nephrology/trends , Organizational Innovation , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
16.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(3): 333-342, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Laboratory testing and the measurement of appropriate biomarkers play a critical role in managing patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), allowing for disease diagnosis, monitoring progression, prognostication, prediction of treatment response, and risk stratification. We sought to characterize these effects on a more detailed, mechanistic level. METHODS: We reviewed the literature and identified a multitude of reports that describe the unique effects of this virus and its devastating consequences to multiple organ systems in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: There are specific alterations in biomarkers related to coagulation, depopulation of T-cell subtypes, the cytokine storm and inflammation, and kidney and cardiac dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory measurement of specific parameters and the use of appropriate prognostic, predictive, and monitoring biomarkers afford clinicians the ability to make informed medical decisions and guide therapy for patients afflicted with this dreaded disease.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/virology , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/virology
17.
Curr Drug Targets ; 22(1): 52-67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It becomes increasingly evident that the SARS-CoV-2 infection is not limited to the respiratory system. In addition to being a target of the virus, the kidney also seems to have a substantial influence on the outcomes of the disease. METHODS: Data was obtained by a comprehensive and non-systematic search in the PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus and SciELO databases, using mainly the terms "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "chronic kidney disease", "renal transplantation", acute kidney injury" and "renal dysfunction" Discussion: The membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is the receptor for SARS-CoV- -2, and this interaction may lead to an imbalance of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), associated with worse clinical presentations of COVID-19, including acute pulmonary injury, hyperinflammatory state and hematological alterations. In the framework of renal diseases, the development of acute kidney injury is associated mostly with immune alterations and direct cytopathic lesions by the virus, leading to higher mortality. As for chronic kidney disease, the patients at a non-terminal stage have a worse prognosis, while the hemodialysis patients appear to have mild courses of COVID-19, probably due to lower chances of being affected by the cytokine storm. Furthermore, the current scenario is unfavorable to kidney donation and transplantation. The relationship between COVID-19 and immunosuppression in kidney transplantation recipients has been greatly discussed to determine whether it increases mortality and how it interacts with immunosuppressive medications. CONCLUSION: The kidney and the RAS exert fundamental roles in the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and more research is required to have a complete understanding of the repercussions caused by COVID-19 in renal diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Kidney Diseases/surgery , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney Transplantation , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 87(10): 619-631, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-818998

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is primarily considered a respiratory illness, but the kidney may be one of the targets of SARS-CoV-2 infection, since the virus enters cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, which is found in abundance in the kidney. Information on kidney involvement in COVID-19 is limited but is evolving rapidly. This article discusses the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19, its optimal management, and the impact of COVID-19 on patients with chronic kidney disease, patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis, and kidney transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections , Cost of Illness , Kidney Diseases , Pandemics , Patient Care Management/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Kidney Diseases/classification , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Kidney Diseases/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Mol Histol ; 51(6): 613-628, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813346

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) in December 2019 form Wuhan, China leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While the common cold symptoms are observed in mild cases, COVID-19 is accompanied by multiorgan failure in severe patients. The involvement of different organs in severe patients results in lengthening the hospitalization duration and increasing the mortality rate. In this review, we aimed to investigate the involvement of different organs in COVID-19 patients, particularly in severe cases. Also, we tried to define the potential underlying mechanisms of SARS-CoV2 induced multiorgan failure. The multi-organ dysfunction is characterized by acute lung failure, acute liver failure, acute kidney injury, cardiovascular disease, and as well as a wide spectrum of hematological abnormalities and neurological disorders. The most important mechanisms are related to the direct and indirect pathogenic features of SARS-CoV2. Although the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a receptor of SARS-CoV2 in the lung, heart, kidney, testis, liver, lymphocytes, and nervous system was confirmed, there are controversial findings to about the observation of SARS-CoV2 RNA in these organs. Moreover, the organ failure may be induced by the cytokine storm, a result of increased levels of inflammatory mediators, endothelial dysfunction, coagulation abnormalities, and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the organs. Therefore, further investigations are needed to detect the exact mechanisms of pathogenesis. Since the involvement of several organs in COVID-19 patients is important for clinicians, increasing their knowledge may help to improve the outcomes and decrease the rate of mortality and morbidity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Heart Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/virology , Lung/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Myocardium/pathology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Infection ; 49(1): 63-73, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812468

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Knowledge regarding patients' clinical condition at severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection is sparse. Data in the international, multicenter Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-Infected Patients (LEOSS) cohort study may enhance the understanding of COVID-19. METHODS: Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, enrolled in the LEOSS cohort study between March 16, 2020, and May 14, 2020, were analyzed. Associations between baseline characteristics and clinical stages at diagnosis (uncomplicated vs. complicated) were assessed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: We included 2155 patients, 59.7% (1,287/2,155) were male; the most common age category was 66-85 years (39.6%; 500/2,155). The primary COVID-19 diagnosis was made in 35.0% (755/2,155) during complicated clinical stages. A significant univariate association between age; sex; body mass index; smoking; diabetes; cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological, and kidney diseases; ACE inhibitor therapy; statin intake and an increased risk for complicated clinical stages of COVID-19 at diagnosis was found. Multivariable analysis revealed that advanced age [46-65 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.73, 95% CI 1.25-2.42, p = 0.001; 66-85 years: aOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.36-2.74, p < 0.001; > 85 years: aOR 2.38, 95% CI 1.49-3.81, p < 0.001 vs. individuals aged 26-45 years], male sex (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.50, p = 0.040), cardiovascular disease (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.72, p = 0.007), and diabetes (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.04-1.69, p = 0.023) were associated with complicated stages of COVID-19 at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The LEOSS cohort identified age, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and male sex as risk factors for complicated disease stages at SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, thus confirming previous data. Further data regarding outcomes of the natural course of COVID-19 and the influence of treatment are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
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