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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(12): 12498-12506, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dialysis patients are at high risk of being infected by the novel coronavirus. This article aimed to share our experience in preparing hemodialysis centers in fighting against the COVID-19 in Sichuan province. METHODS: To control COVID-19, the Sichuan Renal Disease Quality Control Center (SRDQCC) organized a multidisciplinary team to draft and distribute documents for dialysis centers. The SRDQCC also established an online education system and a registry. A survey was used to assess the resources and the preparation of the dialysis centers. Patients with infected COVID-19 were transferred to the referral hospitals and treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in isolated rooms. RESULTS: All 21 regions in Sichuan province had designated specific referral hospitals for COVID-19. The documents drafted by the SRDQCC were distributed to all dialysis centers. A total of 313 records from the survey showed that 96% (301/313) of the dialysis centers had set up an emergency program based on the relevant documents. Only 39% (121/313) of the centers had emergency isolated room(s) for COVID-19. Also, 22% (68/313) of the centers had their patient(s) moved to other centers. The online system educated medical staff in 87% (271/313) of the centers. The online registry received 329 records. Four cases of COVID-19-infected dialysis patients were reported until March 3rd, 2020. There were no outbreaks of COVID-19 in any dialysis center in Sichuan province. CONCLUSIONS: The experience of dialysis centers in Sichuan province in fighting against COVID-19 is worth sharing. Dialysis centers need to be prepared to cope with infectious epidemics guided by national as well as regional quality control centers or other similar organizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26257, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, an initial risk-adapted allocation is crucial for managing medical resources and providing intensive care. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to identify factors that predict the overall survival rate for COVID-19 cases and develop a COVID-19 prognosis score (COPS) system based on these factors. In addition, disease severity and the length of hospital stay for patients with COVID-19 were analyzed. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a nationwide cohort of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases between January and April 2020 in Korea. The cohort was split randomly into a development cohort and a validation cohort with a 2:1 ratio. In the development cohort (n=3729), we tried to identify factors associated with overall survival and develop a scoring system to predict the overall survival rate by using parameters identified by the Cox proportional hazard regression model with bootstrapping methods. In the validation cohort (n=1865), we evaluated the prediction accuracy using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The score of each variable in the COPS system was rounded off following the log-scaled conversion of the adjusted hazard ratio. RESULTS: Among the 5594 patients included in this analysis, 234 (4.2%) died after receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis. In the development cohort, six parameters were significantly related to poor overall survival: older age, dementia, chronic renal failure, dyspnea, mental disturbance, and absolute lymphocyte count <1000/mm3. The following risk groups were formed: low-risk (score 0-2), intermediate-risk (score 3), high-risk (score 4), and very high-risk (score 5-7) groups. The COPS system yielded an area under the curve value of 0.918 for predicting the 14-day survival rate and 0.896 for predicting the 28-day survival rate in the validation cohort. Using the COPS system, 28-day survival rates were discriminatively estimated at 99.8%, 95.4%, 82.3%, and 55.1% in the low-risk, intermediate-risk, high-risk, and very high-risk groups, respectively, of the total cohort (P<.001). The length of hospital stay and disease severity were directly associated with overall survival (P<.001), and the hospital stay duration was significantly longer among survivors (mean 26.1, SD 10.7 days) than among nonsurvivors (mean 15.6, SD 13.3 days). CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed predictive COPS system may assist in making risk-adapted decisions for the allocation of medical resources, including intensive care, during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2948-2957, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions to care for patients with advanced CKD. METHODS: We investigated the incidence of documented ESKD, ESKD treatment modalities, changes in eGFR at dialysis initiation, and use of incident central venous catheters (CVCs) by epidemiologic week during the first half of 2020 compared with 2017-2019 historical trends, using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data. We used Poisson and logistic regression for analyses of incidence and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Incidence of documented ESKD dropped dramatically in 2020 compared with the expected incidence, particularly during epidemiologic weeks 15-18 (April, incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.78). The decrease was most pronounced for individuals aged ≥75 years (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.73). Pre-emptive kidney transplantation decreased markedly during weeks 15-18 (IRR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.67). Mean eGFR at dialysis initiation decreased by 0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in weeks 19-22; non-Hispanic Black patients exhibited the largest decrease, at 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The odds of initiating dialysis with eGFR <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were highest during weeks 19-22 (May, OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17), corresponding to an absolute increase of 2.9%. The odds of initiating peritoneal dialysis (versus hemodialysis) were 24% higher (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.34) in weeks 11-14, an absolute increase of 2.3%. Initiation with a CVC increased by 3.3% (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients starting treatment for ESKD fell to a level not observed since 2011. Changes in documented ESKD incidence and other aspects of ESKD-related care may reflect differential access to care early in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/statistics & numerical data , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , United States , Young Adult
4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2948-2957, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions to care for patients with advanced CKD. METHODS: We investigated the incidence of documented ESKD, ESKD treatment modalities, changes in eGFR at dialysis initiation, and use of incident central venous catheters (CVCs) by epidemiologic week during the first half of 2020 compared with 2017-2019 historical trends, using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data. We used Poisson and logistic regression for analyses of incidence and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Incidence of documented ESKD dropped dramatically in 2020 compared with the expected incidence, particularly during epidemiologic weeks 15-18 (April, incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.78). The decrease was most pronounced for individuals aged ≥75 years (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.73). Pre-emptive kidney transplantation decreased markedly during weeks 15-18 (IRR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.67). Mean eGFR at dialysis initiation decreased by 0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in weeks 19-22; non-Hispanic Black patients exhibited the largest decrease, at 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The odds of initiating dialysis with eGFR <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were highest during weeks 19-22 (May, OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17), corresponding to an absolute increase of 2.9%. The odds of initiating peritoneal dialysis (versus hemodialysis) were 24% higher (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.34) in weeks 11-14, an absolute increase of 2.3%. Initiation with a CVC increased by 3.3% (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients starting treatment for ESKD fell to a level not observed since 2011. Changes in documented ESKD incidence and other aspects of ESKD-related care may reflect differential access to care early in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/statistics & numerical data , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , United States , Young Adult
6.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(5): e556-e558, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404075

ABSTRACT

While all patients with chronic disease have undoubtedly been affected by the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, individuals with end-stage renal failure have suffered significant excess morbidity and mortality. Patients on haemodialysis have received extensive research and media attention into their vulnerability to the disease; however, those receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) have been much less visible. We surveyed a selection of patients from a cohort receiving PD at a tertiary renal unit in Birmingham, UK. We devised a questionnaire looking at patients' experience of shielding, accessing both dialysis and general medical care during the pandemic, and their thoughts about the pandemic and the future. Concerning findings were apparent from this. Attending hospital was the most commonly cited reason for being unable to shield, and multiple patients experienced difficulties accessing care while unwell during this period. Worryingly, 58% of respondents indicated that they feel negatively, or feel ambivalent, about the future. Patients receiving PD have suffered significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic and face ongoing difficulties and risks while accessing medical care. It is vital that this cohort is not forgotten in the planning of renal services during the pandemic, and that special attention is paid to both their physical and mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Peritoneal Dialysis , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Hemodial Int ; 25(4): 416-423, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270836

ABSTRACT

An increasing demand for in-center dialysis services has been largely driven by a rapid growth of the older population progressing to end-stage kidney disease. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, efforts to encourage home-based dialysis options have increased due to risks of infective transmission for patients receiving hemodialysis in center-based units. There are various practical and clinical advantages for patients receiving hemodialysis at home. However, the lack of caregiver support, cognitive and physical impairment, challenges of vascular access, and preparation and training for home hemodialysis (HHD) initiation may present as barriers to successful implementation of HHD in the older dialysis population. Assessment of an older patient's frailty status may help clinicians guide patients when making decisions about HHD. The development of an assisted HHD care delivery model and advancement of telehealth and technology in provision of HHD care may increase accessibility of HHD services for older patients. This review examines these factors and explores current unmet needs and barriers to increasing access, inclusion, and opportunities of HHD for the older dialysis population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Aged , Hemodialysis, Home , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Transplant ; 35(8): e14292, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249408

ABSTRACT

To predict whether the COVID-19 pandemic and transplant center responses could have resulted in preventable deaths, we analyzed registry information of the US end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient population awaiting kidney transplantation. Data were from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the United States Renal Data System. Based on 2019 OPTN reports, annualized reduction in kidney transplantation of 25%-100% could result in excess deaths of wait-listed (deceased donor) transplant candidates from 84 to 337 and living donor candidate excess deaths from 35 to 141 (total 119-478 potentially preventable deaths of transplant candidates). Changes in transplant activity due to COVID-19 varied with some centers shutting down while others simply heeded known or suspected pandemic risks. Understanding potential excess mortality for ESRD transplant candidates when circumstances compel curtailment of transplant activity may inform policy and procedural aspects of organ transplant systems allowing ways to best inform patients and families as to potential risks in shuttering organ transplant activity. Considering that more than 700 000 Americans have ESRD with 100 000 awaiting a kidney transplant, our highest annual estimate of 478 excess total deaths from postponing kidney transplantation seems modest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Living Donors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Waiting Lists
10.
J Nephrol ; 34(4): 985-989, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248762

ABSTRACT

The health crisis induced by the pandemic of coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has had a major impact on dialysis patients in France. The incidence of infection with acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic was 3.3% among dialysis patients-13 times higher than in the general population. The corresponding mortality rate was high, reaching 21%. As of 19th April, 2021, the cumulative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in French dialysis patients was 14%. Convergent scientific data from France, Italy, the United Kingdom and Canada show that home dialysis reduces the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by a factor of at least two. Unfortunately, home dialysis in France is not sufficiently developed: the proportion of dialysis patients being treated at home is only 7%. The obstacles to the provision of home care for patients with end-stage kidney disease in France include (i) an unfavourable pricing policy for home haemodialysis and nurse visits for assisted peritoneal dialysis (PD), (ii) insufficient training in home dialysis for nephrologists, (iii) the small number of administrative authorizations for home dialysis programs, and (iv) a lack of structured, objective information on renal replacement therapies for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). We propose a number of pragmatic initiatives that could be simultaneously enacted to improve the situation in three areas: (i) the provision of objective information on renal replacement therapies for patients with advanced CKD, (ii) wider authorization of home dialysis networks and (iii) price increases in favour of home dialysis procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Hemodialysis, Home , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Nephrol ; 34(4): 999-1006, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245798

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In this observational study, we describe the change in the clinical profile and outcome of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) over the course of the outbreak, among patients requiring dialysis, including chronic haemodialysis therapy. METHODS: This is a single-centre prospective observational study of patients with COVID-19 (as confirmed by RT-PCR) and renal failure requiring haemodialysis. Their clinical profiles and outcomes were analysed, vis-à-vis the changing disease severity. FINDINGS: A total of 483 patients were included, of whom 416 had end-stage renal disease and were on maintenance haemodialysis. Patients who were symptomatic at presentation had significantly higher levels of Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p < 0.001), higher degrees of lung involvement (p < 0.001) and required more respiratory support (p < 0.001). The overall mortality observed was 18.8%. In the late phases of the outbreak, there was a significant increase in disease severity without a statistically significant increase in mortality. Predictors of mortality on univariate analysis were age, diabetes mellitus, acute on chronic kidney disease, presence of symptoms on admission, NLR, CRP, LDH, computed tomography (CT) chest grades 3 and 4, and need for respiratory support; however, only age and the renal syndrome of acute on chronic kidney disease retained significance on multivariate analysis (p0.003 and p0.019, respectively). CONCLUSION: Among patients on haemodialysis, higher mortality was observed in patients who were older, and among those with acute on chronic kidney disease. In the late phase of the outbreak, there was a statistically significant increase in disease severity without a corresponding increase in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 198, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on dialysis are vulnerable to contracting COVID-19 infection, with mortality as high as 31 % in this group. Population demographics in the UAE are dissimilar to many other countries and data on antibody responses to COVID-19 is also limited. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients who developed COVID-19, the impact of the screening strategy, and to assess the antibody response to a subset of dialysis patients. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of COVID19 infection in all our haemodialysis patients, who were tested regularly for COVID 19, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic. In addition, IgG antibody serology was also performed to assess response to COVID-19 in a subset of patients. RESULTS: 152 (13 %) of 1180 dialysis patients developed COVID-19 during the study period from 1st of March to the 1st of July 2020. Of these 81 % were male, average age of 52​ years and 95 % were on in-centre haemodialysis. Family and community contact was most likely source of infection in most patients. Fever (49 %) and cough (48 %) were the most common presenting symptoms, when present. Comorbidities in infected individuals included hypertension (93 %), diabetes (49 %), ischaemic heart disease (30 %). The majority (68 %) developed mild disease, whilst 13 % required critical care. Combinations of drugs including hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, camostat, tocilizumab and steroids were used based on local guidelines. The median time to viral clearance defined by two negative PCR tests was 15 days [IQR 6-25]. Overall mortality in our cohort was 9.2 %, but ICU mortality was 65 %. COVID-19 IgG antibody serology was performed in a subset (n = 87) but 26 % of PCR positive patients (n = 23) did not develop a significant antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports a lower mortality in this patient group compared with many published series. Asymptomatic PCR positivity was present in 40 %. Rapid isolation of positive patients may have contributed to the relative lack of spread of COVID-19 within our dialysis units. The lack of antibody response in a few patients is concerning.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Viremia/diagnosis
14.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 154, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving haemodialysis (HD) are a vulnerable group of patients with increased mortality from COVID-19. Despite improved understanding, the duration of host immunity following COVID-19 infection and role of serological testing alone or in addition to real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing in the HD population is not fully understood, which this study aimed to investigate. METHODS: There were two parts to this study. Between 15th March 2020 to 15th July 2020, patients receiving HD who tested positive on rRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were recruited into the COVID-19 arm, whilst asymptomatic patients without a previous diagnosis of COVID-19 were recruited to the epidemiological arm of the Salford Kidney Study (SKS). All patients underwent monthly testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as per routine clinical practice since August 2020. The aims were twofold: firstly, to determine seroprevalence and COVID-19 exposure in the epidemiological arm; secondly, to assess duration of the antibody response in the COVID-19 arm. Baseline characteristics were reviewed between groups. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Mann-Whitney U and Chi-squared tests were used for testing significance of difference between groups. RESULTS: In our total HD population of 411 patients, 32 were PCR-positive for COVID-19. Of the remaining patients, 237 were recruited into the SKS study, of whom 12 (5.1%) had detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Of the 32 PCR-positive patients, 27 (84.4%) were symptomatic and 25 patients admitted to hospital due to their symptoms. Of the 22 patients in COVID-19 arm that underwent testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies beyond 7 months, all had detectable antibodies. A higher proportion of the patients with COVID-19 were frail compared to patients without a diagnosis of COVID-19 (64.3% vs 34.1%, p = 0.003). Other characteristics were similar between the groups. Over a median follow up of 7 months, a higher number of deaths were recorded in patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 compared to those without (18.7% vs 5.9%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Serological testing in the HD population is a valuable tool to determine seroprevalence, monitor exposure, and guide improvements for infection prevention and control (IPC) measures to help prevent local outbreaks. This study revealed HD patients mount a humoral response detectable until at least 7 months after COVID-19 infection and provides hope of similar protection with the vaccines recently approved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(5): 748-756.e1, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152906

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients receiving maintenance dialysis are a highly vulnerable population due to their comorbidities and circumstances that limit physical distancing during treatment. This study sought to characterize the risk factors for and outcomes following COVID-19 in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Maintenance dialysis patients in clinics of a midsize national dialysis provider that had at least 1 patient who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from February to June 2020. PREDICTORS: Demographics, dialysis characteristics, residence in a congregated setting, comorbid conditions, measurements of frailty, and use of selected medications. OUTCOMES: COVID-19, defined as having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and all-cause mortality among those with COVID-19. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Logistic regression analyses conducted to identify clinical characteristics associated with COVID-19 and risk factors associated with mortality among patients following COVID-19. RESULTS: 438 of 7948 (5.5%) maintenance dialysis patients developed COVID-19. Male sex, Black race, in-center dialysis (vs home dialysis), treatment at an urban clinic, residence in a congregate setting, and greater comorbidity were associated with contracting COVID-19. Odds of COVID-19 were 17-fold higher for those residing in a congregated setting (odds ratio [OR], 17.10 [95% CI, 13.51-21.54]). Of the 438 maintenance dialysis patients with COVID-19, 109 (24.9%) died. Older age, heart disease, and markers of frailty were associated with mortality. LIMITATIONS: No distinction was detected between symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positivity, with asymptomatic screening limited by testing capacity during this initial COVID-19 surge period. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is common among patients receiving maintenance dialysis, particularly those residing in congregate settings. Among maintenance dialysis patients with COVID-19, mortality is high, exceeding 20%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/etiology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
16.
J Nephrol ; 34(2): 337-344, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown increased anxiety, depression, and stress levels among different populations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the impact of the pandemic on the mental health of dialysis patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the mental health of dialysis patients during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the period preceding the pandemic. METHODS: Data originate from the ongoing multicentre observational Dutch nOcturnal and hoME dialysis Study To Improve Clinical Outcomes (DOMESTICO). Patients who filled in a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaire during the pandemic and six to three months prior were included. The mean difference in Mental Component Summary (MCS) score of the Short Form 12 (SF-12) was analysed with multilevel linear regression. A McNemar test was used to compare presence of mental health-related symptoms during and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 177 patients were included. The mean MCS score prior to COVID-19 was 48.08 ± 10.15, and 49.00 ± 10.04 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The adjusted mean MCS score was 0.93 point (95% CI - 0.57 to 2.42) higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than during the period prior to the pandemic. Furthermore, no difference in the presence of the following mental health-related symptoms was found during the COVID-19 pandemic: feeling anxious, feeling sad, worrying, feeling nervous, trouble falling asleep, and trouble staying asleep. CONCLUSIONS: The mental health of dialysis patients appears to be unaffected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Dialysis patients may be better able to cope with the pandemic, since they have high resilience and are less impacted by social distancing measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Netherlands Trial Register NL6519, date of registration: 22 August 2017.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Mental Health , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24893, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138015

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Chronic renal replacement therapy by either a kidney transplant (KTX) or hemodialysis (HD) predisposes patients to an increased risk for adverse outcomes of COVID-19. However, details on this interaction remain incomplete. To provide further characterization, we undertook a retrospective observational cohort analysis of the majority of the hemodialysis and renal transplant population affected by the first regional outbreak of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Germany. In a region of 250,000 inhabitants we identified a total of 21 cases with SARS-CoV-2 among 100 KTX and 260 HD patients, that is, 7 KTX with COVID-19, 14 HD with COVID-19, and 3 HD with asymptomatic carrier status. As a first observation, KTX recipients exhibited trends for a higher mortality (43 vs 18%) and a higher proportion of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (57 vs 27%) when compared to their HD counterparts. As a novel finding, development of ARDS was significantly associated with the time spent on previous renal replacement therapy (RRT), defined as the composite of dialysis time and time on the transplant (non-ARDS 4.3 vs ARDS 10.6 years, P = .016). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an OR of 1.7 per year of RRT. The association remained robust when analysis was confined to KTX patients (5.1 vs 13.2 years, P = .002) or when correlating the time spent on a renal transplant alone (P = .038). Similarly, longer RRT correlated with death vs survival (P = .0002). In conclusion our data suggest renal replacement vintage as a novel risk factor for COVID-19-associated ARDS and death. The findings should be validated by larger cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 950-957, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly, which poses great challenges to patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Here we report the clinical features of 66 hemodialysis patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: Retrospective, single-center case series of the 66 hemodialysis patients with confirmed COVID-19 from 1 January to 5 March 2020; the final date of follow-up was 25 March 2020. RESULTS: The clinical data were collected from 66 hemodialysis patients with confirmed COVID-19. The incidence of COVID-19 in our center was 11.0% (66/602), of which 18 patients died. According to different prognosis, hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 were divided into the survival and death group. A higher incidence of fever and dyspnea was found in the death group compared with the survival group. Meanwhile, patients in the death group were often accompanied by higher white blood cell count, prolonged PT time, increased D-dimer (p < .05). More patients in the death group showed hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes damage. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis suggested that fever, dyspnea, and elevated D-dimer were independent risk factors for death in hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.077; 95% CI, 1.014 to 1.439; p = .044; OR, 1.146; 95% CI, 1.026 to 1.875; p = .034, OR, 4.974; 95% CI, 3.315 to 6.263; p = .007, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors of fever, dyspnea, and elevated D-dimer could help clinicians to identify hemodialysis patients with poor prognosis at an early stage of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Dyspnea , Fever , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Risk Assessment/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/epidemiology , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Renal Dialysis/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Nephrol ; 34(2): 365-368, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120210

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in major disruption to the delivery of both routine and urgent healthcare needs in many institutions across the globe. Vascular access (VA) for haemodalysis (HD) is considered the patient's lifeline and its maintenance is essential for the continuation of a life saving treatment. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the provision of VA for dialysis was already constrained. Throughout the pandemic, inevitably, many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not received timely intervention for VA care. This could have a detrimental impact on dialysis patient outcomes in the near future and needs to be addressed urgently. Many societies have issued prioritisation to allow rationing based on clinical risk, mainly according to estimated urgency and need for treatment. The recommendations recently proposed by the European and American Vascular Societies in the COVID-19 pandemic era regarding the triage of various vascular operations into urgent, emergent and elective are debatable. VA creation and interventions maintain the lifeline of complex HD patients, and the indication for surgery and other interventions warrants patient-specific clinical judgement and pathways. Keeping the use of central venous catheters at a minimum, with the goal of creating the right access, in the right patient, at the right time, and for the right reasons, is mandatory. These strategies may require local modifications. Risk assessments may need specific "renal pathways" to be developed rather than applying standard surgical risk stratification. In conclusion, in order to recover from the second wave of COVID-19 and prepare for further phases, the provision of the best dialysis access, including peritoneal dialysis, will require working closely with the multidisciplinary team involved in the assessment, creation, cannulation, surveillance, maintenance, and salvage of definitive access.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/standards , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/trends , Comorbidity , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/trends , Risk Assessment
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