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1.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 392-398, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage kidney disease receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD) are at increased risk for mortality after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared with the general population. However, it is currently unknown whether the long-term SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular immune responses in patients receiving HD are comparable to individuals with normal kidney function. METHOD: The prospective cohort study included 24 patients treated with maintenance HD and 27 non-renal controls with confirmed history of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In all participants the levels of specific IgG were quantified at three timepoints: 10, 18, and 26 weeks from disease onset. In a subgroup of patients, specific T-cell responses were evaluated. RESULTS: The seropositivity rate declined in controls over time and was 85% and 70.4% at weeks 18 and 26, respectively. All HD patients remained seropositive over the study period. Seropositivity rate at week 26 was greater among patients receiving HD: RR = 1.4 [95%CI: 1.17-1.94] (reciprocal of RR = 0.7 [95% CI: 0.52-0.86]), p = 0.0064. In both groups, IgG levels decreased from week 10 to week 26, but antibodies vanished more rapidly in controls than in HD group (ANOVA p = 0.0012). The magnitude of T-cell response was significantly lower in controls than in HD patients at weeks 10 (p = 0.019) and 26 (p = 0.0098) after COVID-19 diagnosis, but not at week 18. CONCLUSION: Compared with non-renal adults, patients receiving HD maintain significant long-term humoral and cellular immune responses following natural COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2147-2152, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a high rate of mortality in patients with ESKD, and vaccination is hoped to prevent infection. METHODS: Between January 18 and February 24, 2021, 225 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and 45 patients on hemodialysis (HDPs) received two injections of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. The postvaccinal humoral and cellular response was explored in the first 45 KTRs and ten HDPs. RESULTS: After the second dose, eight HDPs (88.9%) and eight KTRs (17.8%) developed antispike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (P<0.001). Median titers of antibodies in responders were 1052 AU/ml (IQR, 515-2689) in HDPs and 671 AU/ml (IQR, 172-1523) in KTRs (P=0.40). Nine HDPs (100%) and 26 KTRs (57.8%) showed a specific T cell response (P=0.06) after the second injection. In responders, median numbers of spike-reactive T cells were 305 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 95-947) in HDPs and 212 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 61-330) in KTRs (P=0.40). In KTRs, the immune response to BNT162b2 seemed influenced by the immunosuppressive regimen, particularly tacrolimus or belatacept. CONCLUSION: Immunization with BNT162b2 seems more efficient in HDPs, indicating that vaccination should be highly recommended in these patients awaiting a transplant. However, the current vaccinal strategy for KTRs may not provide effective protection against COVID-19 and will likely need to be improved.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transplant Recipients
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686808

ABSTRACT

After solid-organ transplantation, reactivation of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) is often observed in seronegative patients and associated with a high risk of disease and mortality. CMV-specific T cells can prevent CMV reactivation. In a phase 1 trial, CMV-seronegative patients with end-stage renal disease listed for kidney transplantation were subjected to CMV phosphoprotein 65 (CMVpp65) peptide vaccination and further investigated for T-cell responses. To this end, CMV-specific CD8+ T cells were characterized by bulk T-cell-receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing and combined single-cell RNA and TCR sequencing. In patients mounting an immune response to the vaccine, a common SYE(N)E TCR motif known to bind CMVpp65 was detected. CMV-peptide-vaccination-responder patients had TCR features distinct from those of non-responders. In a non-responder patient, a monoclonal inflammatory T-cell response was detected upon CMV reactivation. The identification of vaccine-induced CMV-reactive TCRs motifs might facilitate the development of cellular therapies for patients wait-listed for kidney transplantation.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/administration & dosage , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytomegalovirus Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single Molecule Imaging , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology
4.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 27(3): 260-268, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515236

ABSTRACT

AIM: To establish the responses to the Sinopharm HB02 COVID-19 vaccination in the dialysis population, which are not well established. We examined the humoral responses to the Sinopharm COVID vaccine in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: Standard vaccinations (two doses at interval of ~21 days) were given to all consenting haemodialysis patients on dialysis (n = 1296). We measured the antibody responses at 14-21 days after the second vaccine to define the development of anti-spike antibodies >15 AU/ml after vaccination and observed the clinical effects of vaccination. RESULTS: Vaccination was very well tolerated with few side-effects. In those who consented to antibody measurements, (n = 446) baseline sampling showed 77 had positive antibodies, yet received full vaccination without any apparent adverse events. Positive anti-spike antibodies developed in 50% of the 270 baseline negative patients who had full sampling, compared with 78.1% in the general population. COVID infection continues to occur in both vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, but in the whole group vaccination appears to have been associated with a reduction in the case fatality rate. CONCLUSION: The humoral immune responses to standard HB02 vaccination schedules are attenuated in a haemodialysis cohort, but likely the vaccine saves lives. We suggest that an enhanced HB02 vaccination course or antibody checking may be prudent to protect this vulnerable group of patients. We suggest a booster dose of this vaccine at 3 months should be given to all dialysis patients, on the grounds that it is well tolerated even in those with good antibody levels and there may be a survival advantage.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Inactivated
6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2153-2158, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients and patients receiving hemodialysis are immunocompromised populations that are prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination but were excluded from clinical trials of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. Antibody titers and rates of seroconversion after vaccination are lower among patients with CKD and those taking immunosuppressants compared with controls. Data are lacking regarding their humoral response to vaccination to prevent COVID-19. METHODS: This investigation of early serological response after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine included 78 patients undergoing hemodialysis, 74 kidney transplant recipients, and seven healthy controls. We recorded data from the medical file for various clinical parameters, including response to hepatitis B vaccination, and measured antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 at 0, 14, 28, 36, and 58 days after the first injection. RESULTS: In controls, we detected antibodies at a positive level (>13 arbitrary units per ml; AU/ml) at day 14 postinjection, which increased progressively to peak at day 36 (1082 AU/ml; interquartile range [IQR], 735.0-1662.0). Patients undergoing hemodialysis had lower titers that peaked at day 58 (276 AU/ml; IQR, 83.4-526.0). We detected a positive antibody level in only three transplant recipients at day 36. In patients on hemodialysis, those aged <75 years had a higher antibody response versus those aged >75 years, and serum albumin and Kt/V were positively correlated with serological response (P<0.04 and P<0.0, respectively); nonresponders to HBV vaccine had the lowest anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the postvaccination humoral response is strongly inhibited by immunosuppressant therapy in kidney transplant recipients, and is reduced by the uremic condition in patients undergoing hemodialysis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Hepatitis B Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Transplant Recipients
7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(8): 1880-1886, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although reinfection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rare among individuals with few coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk factors, the ability of naturally acquired immunity to prevent reinfection among patients with ESKD is not known. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted among adults with ESKD treated with in-center hemodialysis (ICHD) in the United States. Exposure was ascribed on the basis of the presence or absence of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 at baseline, and separately, a history of documented COVID-19 before study entry. Outcomes were assessed after an infection-free period, and were any SARS-CoV-2 infection (i.e., detected by protocolized PCR tests or during routine clinical surveillance), and clinically manifest COVID-19 (consisting of only the latter). RESULTS: Of 2337 consented participants who met study inclusion criteria, 9.5% were anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive at baseline; 3.6% had a history of COVID-19. Over 6679 patient-months of follow-up, 263 participants had evidence of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 141 who had clinically manifest COVID-19. Presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (versus its absence) at baseline was associated with lower risk of any SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence rate ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.95) and clinically manifest COVID-19 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.67). CONCLUSION: Among patients with ESKD, naturally acquired anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity is associated with a 45% lower risk of subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a 79% lower risk of clinically manifest COVID-19. Because natural immunity is incomplete, patients with ESKD should be prioritized for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, independent of their COVID-19 disease history.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Reinfection/complications , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/immunology , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2147-2152, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a high rate of mortality in patients with ESKD, and vaccination is hoped to prevent infection. METHODS: Between January 18 and February 24, 2021, 225 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and 45 patients on hemodialysis (HDPs) received two injections of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. The postvaccinal humoral and cellular response was explored in the first 45 KTRs and ten HDPs. RESULTS: After the second dose, eight HDPs (88.9%) and eight KTRs (17.8%) developed antispike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (P<0.001). Median titers of antibodies in responders were 1052 AU/ml (IQR, 515-2689) in HDPs and 671 AU/ml (IQR, 172-1523) in KTRs (P=0.40). Nine HDPs (100%) and 26 KTRs (57.8%) showed a specific T cell response (P=0.06) after the second injection. In responders, median numbers of spike-reactive T cells were 305 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 95-947) in HDPs and 212 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 61-330) in KTRs (P=0.40). In KTRs, the immune response to BNT162b2 seemed influenced by the immunosuppressive regimen, particularly tacrolimus or belatacept. CONCLUSION: Immunization with BNT162b2 seems more efficient in HDPs, indicating that vaccination should be highly recommended in these patients awaiting a transplant. However, the current vaccinal strategy for KTRs may not provide effective protection against COVID-19 and will likely need to be improved.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transplant Recipients
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 198, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on dialysis are vulnerable to contracting COVID-19 infection, with mortality as high as 31 % in this group. Population demographics in the UAE are dissimilar to many other countries and data on antibody responses to COVID-19 is also limited. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients who developed COVID-19, the impact of the screening strategy, and to assess the antibody response to a subset of dialysis patients. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of COVID19 infection in all our haemodialysis patients, who were tested regularly for COVID 19, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic. In addition, IgG antibody serology was also performed to assess response to COVID-19 in a subset of patients. RESULTS: 152 (13 %) of 1180 dialysis patients developed COVID-19 during the study period from 1st of March to the 1st of July 2020. Of these 81 % were male, average age of 52​ years and 95 % were on in-centre haemodialysis. Family and community contact was most likely source of infection in most patients. Fever (49 %) and cough (48 %) were the most common presenting symptoms, when present. Comorbidities in infected individuals included hypertension (93 %), diabetes (49 %), ischaemic heart disease (30 %). The majority (68 %) developed mild disease, whilst 13 % required critical care. Combinations of drugs including hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, camostat, tocilizumab and steroids were used based on local guidelines. The median time to viral clearance defined by two negative PCR tests was 15 days [IQR 6-25]. Overall mortality in our cohort was 9.2 %, but ICU mortality was 65 %. COVID-19 IgG antibody serology was performed in a subset (n = 87) but 26 % of PCR positive patients (n = 23) did not develop a significant antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports a lower mortality in this patient group compared with many published series. Asymptomatic PCR positivity was present in 40 %. Rapid isolation of positive patients may have contributed to the relative lack of spread of COVID-19 within our dialysis units. The lack of antibody response in a few patients is concerning.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Viremia/diagnosis
12.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(5): 1033-1036, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The humoral response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the hemodialysis population, including its dynamics over time, remains poorly understood. METHODS: To analyze initial and long-term humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 in a hemodialysis population, we retrospectively evaluated findings from SARS-CoV-2 IgG serologic assays targeting the nucleocapsid antigen or spike antigen up to 6 months of follow-up in patients on hemodialysis in the Paris, France, region who had recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: Our analysis included 83 patients (median age 65 years); 59 (71%) were male and 28 (34%) had presented with severe COVID-19. We observed positive initial SARS-CoV-2 IgG antinucleocapsid serology in 74 patients (89%) at a median of 67 days postdiagnosis. By multivariable analysis, immunocompromised status was the only factor significantly associated with lack of an IgG antinucleocapsid antibody response. Follow-up data were available at 6 months postdiagnosis for 60 of 74 patients (81%) with positive initial antinucleocapsid serology, and 15 (25%) of them had negative antinucleocapsid serology at month 6. In total, 14 of 15 sera were tested for antispike antibodies, 3 of 14 (21%) of which were also negative. Overall, 97% of antinucleocapsid-antibody-positive specimens were also antispike-antibody positive. Female sex, age >70 years, and nonsevere clinical presentation were independently associated with faster IgG antinucleocapsid titer decay in multivariable analysis. After adjustment for sex and age >70 years, nonsevere clinical presentation was the only factor associated with faster decay of IgG antispike antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: This study characterizes evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in patients on hemodialysis and identifies factors that are associated with lack of seroconversion and with IgG titer decay.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transplant Recipients , Transplantation Immunology
13.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 154, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving haemodialysis (HD) are a vulnerable group of patients with increased mortality from COVID-19. Despite improved understanding, the duration of host immunity following COVID-19 infection and role of serological testing alone or in addition to real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing in the HD population is not fully understood, which this study aimed to investigate. METHODS: There were two parts to this study. Between 15th March 2020 to 15th July 2020, patients receiving HD who tested positive on rRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were recruited into the COVID-19 arm, whilst asymptomatic patients without a previous diagnosis of COVID-19 were recruited to the epidemiological arm of the Salford Kidney Study (SKS). All patients underwent monthly testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as per routine clinical practice since August 2020. The aims were twofold: firstly, to determine seroprevalence and COVID-19 exposure in the epidemiological arm; secondly, to assess duration of the antibody response in the COVID-19 arm. Baseline characteristics were reviewed between groups. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Mann-Whitney U and Chi-squared tests were used for testing significance of difference between groups. RESULTS: In our total HD population of 411 patients, 32 were PCR-positive for COVID-19. Of the remaining patients, 237 were recruited into the SKS study, of whom 12 (5.1%) had detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Of the 32 PCR-positive patients, 27 (84.4%) were symptomatic and 25 patients admitted to hospital due to their symptoms. Of the 22 patients in COVID-19 arm that underwent testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies beyond 7 months, all had detectable antibodies. A higher proportion of the patients with COVID-19 were frail compared to patients without a diagnosis of COVID-19 (64.3% vs 34.1%, p = 0.003). Other characteristics were similar between the groups. Over a median follow up of 7 months, a higher number of deaths were recorded in patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 compared to those without (18.7% vs 5.9%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Serological testing in the HD population is a valuable tool to determine seroprevalence, monitor exposure, and guide improvements for infection prevention and control (IPC) measures to help prevent local outbreaks. This study revealed HD patients mount a humoral response detectable until at least 7 months after COVID-19 infection and provides hope of similar protection with the vaccines recently approved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Nephron ; 145(4): 363-370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19) pandemic is the major current health emergency worldwide, adding a significant burden also to the community of nephrologists for the management of their patients. Here, we analyzed the impact of COVID-19 infection in renal patients to assess the time to viral clearance, together with the production and persistence of IgG and IgM antibody response, in consideration of the altered immune capacity of this fragile population. METHODS: Viral clearance and antibody kinetics were investigated in 49 renal patients recovered from COVID-19 infection: 7 of them with chronic decompensated renal failure, 31 under dialysis treatment, and 11 kidney transplant recipients. RESULTS: The time span between the diagnosis of infection and recovery based on laboratory testing (2 negative nasopharyngeal swabs in consecutive days) was 31.7 ± 13.3 days. Three new positive cases were detected from 8 to 13 days following recovery. At the first serological determination after swab negativization, all the patients developed IgG and IgM antibodies. The semiquantitative analysis showed a progressive increase in IgG and a slow reduction in IgM. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: In subjects with decompensated chronic kidney disease, under dialysis and in transplant recipients, viral clearance is lengthened compared to the general population. However, in spite of their common status of immunodepression, all of them were able to produce specific antibodies. These data might provide useful insights for monitoring and planning health-care activities in the weak category of patients with compromised renal function recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome
16.
Blood Purif ; 50(4-5): 610-620, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977568

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected nephrology. Firstly, dialysis patients appear to be at increased risk for infection due to viral transmission next to an enhanced risk for mortality as compared to the general population, even in the face of an often apparently mild clinical presentation. Derangements in the innate and adaptive immune systems may be responsible for a reduced antiviral response, whereas chronic activation of the innate immune system and endothelial dysfunction provide a background for a more severe course. The presence of severe comorbidity, older age, and a reduction of organ reserve may lead to a rapid deterioration of the clinical situation of the patients in case of severe infection. Secondly, patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is related to the severity of the clinical disease. The presence of AKI, and especially the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), is associated with an increased risk of mortality. AKI in COVID-19 has a multifactorial origin, in which direct viral invasion of kidney cells, activation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, a hyperinflammatory response, hypercoagulability, and nonspecific factors such as hypotension and hypoxemia may be involved. Apart from logistic challenges and the need for strict hygiene within units, treatment of patients with ESRD and COVID-19 is not different from that of the general population. Extracorporeal treatment of patients with AKI with RRT can be complicated by frequent filter clotting due to the hypercoagulable state, for which regional citrate coagulation provides a reasonable solution. Also, acute peritoneal dialysis may be a reasonable option in these patients. Whether adjuncts to extracorporeal therapies, such as hemoadsorption, provide additional benefits in the case of severely ill COVID-19 patients needs to be addressed in controlled studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/transmission , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Hemadsorption , Humans , Hygiene , Immunocompromised Host , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infection Control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , Risk , Thrombophilia/etiology , Treatment Outcome
17.
Clin Immunol ; 217: 108509, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: National health-system hospitals of Lombardy faced a heavy burden of admissions for acute respiratory distress syndromes associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Data on patients of European origin affected by COVID-19 are limited. METHODS: All consecutive patients aged ≥18 years, coming from North-East of Milan's province and admitted at San Raffaele Hospital with COVID-19, between February 25th and March 24th, were reported, all patients were followed for at least one month. Clinical and radiological features at admission and predictors of clinical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 500 patients admitted to the Emergency Unit, 410 patients were hospitalized and analyzed: median age was 65 (IQR 56-75) years, and the majority of patients were males (72.9%). Median (IQR) days from COVID-19 symptoms onset was 8 (5-11) days. At hospital admission, fever (≥ 37.5 °C) was present in 67.5% of patients. Median oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 93% (range 60-99), with median PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 267 (IQR 184-314). Median Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score was 9 (IQR 4-16). More than half of the patients (56.3%) had comorbidities, with hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and chronic kidney failure being the most common. The probability of overall survival at day 28 was 66%. Multivariable analysis showed older age, coronary artery disease, cancer, low lymphocyte count and high RALE score as factors independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of COVID-19 patients of European origin, main risk factors for mortality were older age, comorbidities, low lymphocyte count and high RALE.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/immunology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Italy/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Edema/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
18.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(3): 275-283, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is a great threat to the modern world and significant threat to immunocompromised patients, including patients with chronic renal failure. We evaluated COVID-19 incidence among our hemodialysis patients and investigated the most probable immune mechanisms against COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baskent University has 21 dialysis centers across Turkey, with 2420 patients on hemodialysis and 30 on peritoneal dialysis. Among these, we retrospectively evaluated 602 patients (257 female/345 male) with chronic renal failure receiving hemodialysis as renal replacement therapy; 7 patients (1.1%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2. We retrospectively collected patient demographic characteristics, clinical data, and immunological factors affecting the clinical course of the disease. We divided patients into groups and included 2 control groups (individuals with normal renal functions): group I included COVID-19-positive patients with normal renal function, group II included COVID-19-positive hemodialysis patients, group III included COVID-19-negative hemodialysis patients, and group IV included COVID-19-negative patients with normal renal function. Lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and typing of human leukocyte antigens were analyzed in all groups, with killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor genes analyzed only in COVID-19-positive patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: No deaths occurred among the 7 COVID-19-positive hemodialysis patients. Group I patients were significantly older than patients in groups II and III (P = .039, P = .030, respectively) but not significantly different from group IV (P = .060). Absolute counts of natural killer cells in healthy controls were higherthan in other groups (but not significantly). ActivatedT cells were significantly increased in both COVID-19-positive groups versus COVID-19-negative groups. Groups showed significant differences in C and DQ loci with respect to distribution of alleles in both HLA classes. CONCLUSIONS: Although immunocompromised patients are at greater risk for COVID-19, we found lower COVID-19 incidence in our hemodialysis patients, which should be further investigated in in vitro and molecular studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , HLA Antigens/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
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