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1.
Ann Transplant ; 26: e931832, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Kidney transplant services all over the world were severely impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The optimum management of kidney transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 remains uncertain. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a multicenter cohort study of kidney transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection in Saudi Arabia. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to study predictors of graft and patient outcomes at 28 days after coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosis. RESULTS We included 130 kidney transplant recipients, with a mean age of 48.7(±14.4) years. Fifty-nine patients were managed at home with daily follow-up utilizing a dedicated clinic, while 71 (54.6%) required hospital admission. Acute kidney injury occurred in 35 (26.9%) patients. Secondary infections occurred in 38 (29.2%) patients. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies testing was carried out in 84 patients, of whom 70 tested positive for IgG and/or IgM. Fourteen patients died (10.8%). A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age, creatinine at presentation, acute kidney injury, and use of azithromycin were significantly associated with worse patient survival. Graft loss was associated with requiring renal replacement therapy and development of secondary infections. CONCLUSIONS Despite kidney transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection having higher rate of hospital admission and mortality compared to the general population, a significant number of them can be managed using a telemedicine clinic. Most kidney transplant patients seem to mount an antibody response following coronavirus disease 2019 infection, and it remains to be seen if they will have a similar response to the incoming vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy , Saudi Arabia , Telemedicine , Virus Shedding
2.
Ther Apher Dial ; 26(1): 171-177, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255062

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical features of the patients on HD with COVID-19 and determine the prognostic factors. In this single-center prospective study, a total of 58 chronic renal failure patients on HD and diagnosed COVID-19 infection were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to their need for intensive care unit referral. Demographic features of the patients, clinical manifestations, laboratory data, treatments, and clinical outcome were evaluated. The mean age of 58 HD patients was 63.2 ± 13.8 (30-93) years and female-male ratio was 0.34. SARS-CoV2-PCR positivity rate was 32.8%. 85.2% of patients (n = 46) had bilateral lesions and 14.8% (n = 8) had unilateral one lesion in chest CT. The most common symptoms were fatigue (in 44 patients, 80%) and dyspnea (in 31 patients, 56.4%). The most common comorbidity was HT (in 37 patients, 67.3%). The patients who need intensive care and died were older (p = 0.015). We observed lower platelet and eosinophil counts, potassium levels, higher AST, troponin and CRP levels in the group of patients who need intensive care and died than the group who survived (p = 0.043, 0.005, 0.033, 0.007, 0.001, <0.001, respectively). 15.5% of the patients (n = 9) were transferred to intensive care unit. Among them, two were discharged with cure and seven patients died. Mortality rate was 12.1%. Older age, lower platelet and eosinophil counts and higher AST, troponin and CRP levels were prognostic risk factors in our HD patients who needed intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Renal Dialysis , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Elife ; 102021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128149

ABSTRACT

End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients are at high risk of severe COVID-19. We measured 436 circulating proteins in serial blood samples from hospitalised and non-hospitalised ESKD patients with COVID-19 (n = 256 samples from 55 patients). Comparison to 51 non-infected patients revealed 221 differentially expressed proteins, with consistent results in a separate subcohort of 46 COVID-19 patients. Two hundred and three proteins were associated with clinical severity, including IL6, markers of monocyte recruitment (e.g. CCL2, CCL7), neutrophil activation (e.g. proteinase-3), and epithelial injury (e.g. KRT19). Machine-learning identified predictors of severity including IL18BP, CTSD, GDF15, and KRT19. Survival analysis with joint models revealed 69 predictors of death. Longitudinal modelling with linear mixed models uncovered 32 proteins displaying different temporal profiles in severe versus non-severe disease, including integrins and adhesion molecules. These data implicate epithelial damage, innate immune activation, and leucocyte-endothelial interactions in the pathology of severe COVID-19 and provide a resource for identifying drug targets.


COVID-19 varies from a mild illness in some people to fatal disease in others. Patients with severe disease tend to be older and have underlying medical problems. People with kidney failure have a particularly high risk of developing severe or fatal COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 have high levels of inflammation, causing damage to tissues around the body. Many drugs that target inflammation have already been developed for other diseases. Therefore, to repurpose existing drugs or design new treatments, it is important to determine which proteins drive inflammation in COVID-19. Here, Gisby, Clarke, Medjeral-Thomas et al. measured 436 proteins in the blood of patients with kidney failure and compared the levels between patients who had COVID-19 to those who did not. This revealed that patients with COVID-19 had increased levels of hundreds of proteins involved in inflammation and tissue injury. Using a combination of statistical and machine learning analyses, Gisby et al. probed the data for proteins that might predict a more severe disease progression. In total, over 200 proteins were linked to disease severity, and 69 with increased risk of death. Tracking how levels of blood proteins changed over time revealed further differences between mild and severe disease. Comparing this data with a similar study of COVID-19 in people without kidney failure showed many similarities. This suggests that the findings may apply to COVID-19 patients more generally. Identifying the proteins that are a cause of severe COVID-19 ­ rather than just correlated with it ­ is an important next step that could help to select new drugs for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Forecasting , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proteomics/methods , Renal Dialysis/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Nephron ; 144(5): 245-247, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024277

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread very rapidly in China and worldwide. In this article, we report on a 75-year-old man infected with 2019 novel coronavirus who has end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). COVID-19 patients with ESKD need isolation dialysis, but most of them cannot be handled in time due to limited continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines. CRRT provided benefits for this patient by removing potentially damaging toxins and stabilizing his metabolic and hemodynamic status. With the control of uremia and fluid status, this patient ended up with an uneventful post-CRRT course, absence of clinical symptoms, and negative PCR tests. Greater efforts are needed to decrease the mortality of COVID-19-infected ESKD patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Renal Dialysis , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2055-2066, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969528

ABSTRACT

Clinical and laboratory data on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Beijing, China, remain extremely limited. In this study, we summarized the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 from a designated hospital in Beijing. In total, 55 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Beijing 302 Hospital were enrolled in this study. Demographic data, symptoms, comorbidities, laboratory values, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected and retrospectively analyzed. A total of 15 (27.3%) patients had severe symptoms, the mean age was 44.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 34.0-56.0), and the median incubation period was 7.5 days (IQR, 5.0-11.8). A total of 26 (47.3%) patients had exposure history in Wuhan of less than 2 weeks, whereas 20 (36.4%) patients were associated with familial clusters. Also, eighteen (32.7%) patients had underlying comorbidities including hypertension. The most common symptom of illness was fever (45; 81.8%); 51 (92.7%) patients had abnormal findings on chest computed tomography. Laboratory findings showed that neutrophil count, percentage of lymphocyte, percentage of eosinophil, eosinophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, albumin, and serum ferritin are potential risk factors for patients with a poor prognosis. A total of 26 patients (47.3%) were still hospitalized, whereas 29 (52.7%) patients had been discharged. Compared with patients in Wuhan, China, the symptoms of patients in Beijing are relatively mild. Older age, more comorbidities, and more abnormal prominent laboratory markers were associated with a severe condition. On the basis of antiviral drugs, it is observed that antibiotics treatment, appropriate dosage of corticosteroid, and gamma globulin therapy significantly improve patients' outcomes. Early identification and timely medical treatment are important to reduce the severity of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , China , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Disease/therapy , Coronary Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Eosinophils/pathology , Eosinophils/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fever/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/virology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
FEBS J ; 287(17): 3681-3688, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960853

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), higher morbidity and mortality are associated with age, male gender, and comorbidities, such as chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular pathologies, hypertension, kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. All of the above conditions are characterized by increased sympathetic discharge, which may exert significant detrimental effects on COVID-19 patients, through actions on the lungs, heart, blood vessels, kidneys, metabolism, and/or immune system. Furthermore, COVID-19 may also increase sympathetic discharge, through changes in blood gases (chronic intermittent hypoxia, hyperpnea), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)1/ACE2 imbalance, immune/inflammatory factors, or emotional distress. Nevertheless, the potential role of the sympathetic nervous system has not yet been considered in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. In our opinion, sympathetic overactivation could represent a so-far undervalued mechanism for a vicious circle between COVID-19 and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronary Disease/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/metabolism , Sympathetic Nervous System/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/pathology , Coronary Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/pathology , Hypertension/virology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Kidney Failure, Chronic/pathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Male , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/pathology , Obesity/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology , Sympathetic Nervous System/virology
8.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1-15, 2020 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted on kidney-related outcomes of three recent pandemics: SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, which were associated with potentially fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A search of all published studies until 16 June 2020 was performed. The incidence/prevalence and mortality risk of acute and chronic renal events were evaluated, virus prevalence, and mortality in preexisting hemodialysis patients was investigated. RESULTS: A total of 58 eligible studies involving 13452 hospitalized patients with three types of coronavirus infection were included. The reported incidence of new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) was 12.5% (95% CI: 7.6%-18.3%). AKI significantly increased the mortality risk (OR = 5.75, 95% CI 3.75-8.77, p < 0.00001) in patients with coronavirus infection. The overall rate of urgent-start kidney replacement therapy (urgent-start KRT) use was 8.9% (95% CI: 5.0%-13.8%) and those who received urgent-start KRT had a higher risk of mortality (OR = 3.43, 95% CI 2.02-5.85, p < 0.00001). Patients with known chronic kidney disease (CKD) had a higher mortality than those without CKD (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.56-2.49, p < 0.00001). The incidence of coronavirus infection was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.9%-11.1%) in prevalent hemodialysis patients with an overall mortality rate of 26.2% (95% CI: 20.6%-32.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Primary kidney involvement is common with coronavirus infection and is associated with significantly increased mortality. The recognition of AKI, CKD, and urgent-start KRT as major risk factors for mortality in coronavirus-infected patients are important steps in reducing future mortality and long-term morbidity in hospitalized patients with coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology
9.
Hemodial Int ; 25(2): 205-213, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939725

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a very high transmission disease with a variable prognosis in the general population. Patients in hemodialysis therapy are particularly vulnerable to developing an infectious disease, but the incidence and prognosis of hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 is still unclear. The main objective is to describe the experience of our dialysis unit in preventing and controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Preventive structural and organizational changes were applied to all patients and health care personnel in order to limit the risk of local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection. FINDINGS: The Nephrology department at Sant Joan Despí Moises Broggi Hospital-Consorci Sanitari Integral is a reference for two satellite hemodialysis centers caring for 156 patients. We combine our own hemodialysis maintenance program for 87 patients with hospitalized patients from peripheral hemodialysis centers. In this area, the reported incident rate of COVID-19 in these peripherical hemodialysis centers was 9.5% to 19.9% and the death rate 25% to 30.5%. In our hemodialysis program, the incidence rate was 5.7%. Three out of five required hospitalization (60%) and nobody died. DISCUSSION: Although the risk of local transmission of the disease was very high due to the increase in hemodialysis patients from peripheral centers admitted to hospital, the incidence rate of COVID-19 was very low in our own hemodialysis patients. We believe that the structural and organizational changes adopted early on and the diagnosis algorithm played an important role in minimizing the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(11): 2758-2761, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690917

ABSTRACT

We report detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in hemodialysis effluent from a patient in Japan with coronavirus disease and prolonged inflammation. Healthcare workers should observe strict standard and contact precautions and use appropriate personal protective equipment when handling hemodialysis circuitry from patients with diagnosed coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross Infection/virology , Kidneys, Artificial/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Equipment Contamination , Humans , Japan , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Nephrol ; 94(4): 207-211, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China and now has spread to many countries. Limited data are available for hemodialysis patients with COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 66-year-old man with confirmed COVID-19 and parainfluenza virus infection in Wuhan. We describe the clinical characteristics, radiological findings, and treatment of the hemodialysis patient, including the patient's initial pneumonia at presentation with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our case underscores the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with other pathogens in hemodialysis patients and the importance of early identification of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Renal Dialysis , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Pandemics , Paramyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Paramyxoviridae Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1819-1825, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642184

ABSTRACT

There is minimal information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in immunocompromised individuals. We have studied 10 patients treated at 12 adult care hospitals. Ten kidney transplant recipients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by polymerase chain reaction, and 9 were admitted. The median age was 57 (interquartile range [IQR] 47-67), 60% were male, 40% Caucasian, and 30% Black/African American. Median time from transplant to COVID-19 testing was 2822 days (IQR 1272-4592). The most common symptom was fever, followed by cough, myalgia, chills, and fatigue. The most common chest X-ray and computed tomography abnormality was multifocal patchy opacities. Three patients had no abnormal findings. Leukopenia was seen in 20% of patients, and allograft function was stable in 50% of patients. Nine patients were on tacrolimus and a mycophenolic antimetabolite, and 70% were on prednisone. Hospitalized patients had their antimetabolite agent stopped. All hospitalized patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Three patients died (30%), and 5 (50%) developed acute kidney injury. Kidney transplant recipients infected with COVID-19 should be monitored closely in the setting of lowered immunosuppression. Most individuals required hospitalization and presenting symptoms were similar to those of nontransplant individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
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