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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522936

ABSTRACT

After radical nephrectomy, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) recurs locally in <3% of patients. Recurrences typically occur 1-2 years postoperatively and grow at 5-20 mm per year. In contrast, this patient's recurrence was unexpectedly large and swift. A 71-year-old woman was initially found on workup for recurrent urinary tract infections to have a 12 cm left renal tumour. After negative staging scans, she progressed to left open radical nephrectomy. Histology revealed a stage T2b 12 cm ccRCCwith sarcomatoid differentiation, International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade 4, with clear margins. Only 3 months later, the patient developed left-sided abdominal pain, and CT scans revealed a 15 cm left retroperitoneal local recurrence, as well as widespread peritoneal tumours. In discussion with her treating team, the patient and her family elected not to undergo biopsy or systemic therapy. The patient was palliated and passed away 8 days after re-presentation.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms , Aged , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Female , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Nephrectomy , Treatment Outcome
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522934

ABSTRACT

Renal arteriovenous malformation is a primarily congenital renal vascular abnormality. It is usually diagnosed incidentally on imaging, and the most common subtype is 'cirsoid', consisting of multiple, enlarged arterial feeders interconnecting with draining veins. We present a 74-year-old woman with an incidental finding of what was at first considered a hypervascularised kidney tumour but turned out to be a left intrarenal arteriovenous malformation associated with a left renal vein thrombosis. Selective endovascular embolisation was performed. The cause-consequence relationship between the arteriovenous malformation and the thrombosis is unique. To our knowledge, no such case has ever been reported.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Malformations , Kidney Neoplasms , Urologic Diseases , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Arteriovenous Malformations/complications , Arteriovenous Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Renal Veins/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
3.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(1): 20-31, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526974

ABSTRACT

The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global infection, and is seriously threatening human life, especially cancer patients. Thus, we sought to determine the clinical roles of ACE2 (the cell entry receptor of SARS-CoV-2) in ccRCC (clear cell renal cell carcinoma). TCGA, GEO and TIP datasets, and immunohistochemistry and western blot results were used to determine the prognostic and clinicopathological characteristics of ACE2. ACE2 expression was down-regulated in ccRCC tissues and cell lines. The multivariate Cox regression analysis results indicated that increased ACE2 expression was independent predictor of longer OS (HR: 0.8259, 95%CI: 0.7734-0.8819, P<0.0001) and RFS (HR: 0.8023, 95%CI: 0.7375-0.8729, P<0.0001) in ccRCC patients. Lower ACE2 expression was also associated with advanced tumor stage, higher histological grade and pathological stage, and metastasis. Besides, ACE2 expression was significantly positively and negatively correlated with CD4 Naïve infiltration and CD4 Memory infiltration, respectively. Moreover, higher CD4 Naïve and lower CD4 Memory infiltration levels were associated with better pathological features and longer OS and RFS. Furthermore, high ACE2 expression group in decreased CD4 Naïve, enriched CD4 Naïve and enriched CD4 memory cohort had favorable prognosis. These findings identified that AEC2 was significantly reduced in ccRCC, and decreased ACE2 was related to worse pathological features and poor prognosis. Low ACE2 expression in ccRCC may partially affect the prognosis due to altered immune cells infiltration levels.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/metabolism , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/immunology , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/immunology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(1): 33-38, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine effect of body mass index (BMI) on safety and cancer-related outcomes of thermal ablation for renal cell carcinoma (RRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 427 patients (287 men and 140 women; mean [SD] age, 72 [12] y) who were treated with thermal ablation for RCC between October 2006 and December 2017. Patients were stratified by BMI into 3 categories: normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥ 30 kg/m2). Of 427 patients, 71 (16%) were normal weight, 157 (37%) were overweight, and 199 (47%) were obese. Complication rates, local recurrence, and residual disease were compared in the 3 cohorts. RESULTS: No differences in technical success between normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were identified (P = .72). Primary technique efficacy rates for normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were 91%, 94%, and 93% (P = .71). There was no significant difference in RCC specific-free survival, disease-free survival, and metastasis-free survival between obese, overweight, and normal-weight groups (P = .72, P = .43, P = .99). Complication rates between the 3 cohorts were similar (normal weight 4%, overweight 2%, obese 3%; P = .71). CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided renal ablation is safe, feasible, and effective regardless of BMI.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Cryosurgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Microwaves/therapeutic use , Obesity/diagnosis , Radiofrequency Ablation , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/secondary , Cryosurgery/adverse effects , Cryosurgery/mortality , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Microwaves/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Obesity/mortality , Patient Safety , Radiofrequency Ablation/adverse effects , Radiofrequency Ablation/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 108: 106482, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 20-60% of patients with initially locally advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) develop metastatic disease despite optimal surgical excision. Adjuvant strategies have been tested in RCC including cytokines, radiotherapy, hormones and oral tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), with limited success. The predominant global standard-of-care after nephrectomy remains active monitoring. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are effective in the treatment of metastatic RCC; RAMPART will investigate these agents in the adjuvant setting. METHODS/DESIGN: RAMPART is an international, UK-led trial investigating the addition of ICIs after nephrectomy in patients with resected locally advanced RCC. RAMPART is a multi-arm multi-stage (MAMS) platform trial, upon which additional research questions may be addressed over time. The target population is patients with histologically proven resected locally advanced RCC (clear cell and non-clear cell histological subtypes), with no residual macroscopic disease, who are at high or intermediate risk of relapse (Leibovich score 3-11). Patients with fully resected synchronous ipsilateral adrenal metastases are included. Participants are randomly assigned (3,2:2) to Arm A - active monitoring (no placebo) for one year, Arm B - durvalumab (PD-L1 inhibitor) 4-weekly for one year; or Arm C - combination therapy with durvalumab 4-weekly for one year plus two doses of tremelimumab (CTLA-4 inhibitor) at day 1 of the first two 4-weekly cycles. The co-primary outcomes are disease-free-survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes include safety, metastasis-free survival, RCC specific survival, quality of life, and patient and clinician preferences. Tumour tissue, plasma and urine are collected for molecular analysis (TransRAMPART). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN #: ISRCTN53348826, NCT #: NCT03288532, EUDRACT #: 2017-002329-39, CTA #: 20363/0380/001-0001, MREC #: 17/LO/1875, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03288532, RAMPART grant number: MC_UU_12023/25, TransRAMPART grant number: A28690 Cancer Research UK, RAMPART Protocol version 5.0.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Chronic Disease , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Quality of Life , Recurrence
8.
Curr Oncol ; 28(5): 3403-3407, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390556

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous regression of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a rare event, often associated with an activation of innate immunity by various triggers. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a strong inflammatory response in some patients and a cytokine storm is one of the main causes of severe morbidity and mortality associated with the virus. Here, we describe two cases of patients with histologically and radiologically proven mRCC whose treatment was delayed due to COVID-19 and who experienced spontaneous tumour regression following the infection. Both patients reported here had predominantly pulmonary and mediastinal involvement and underwent nephrectomy. The interval between the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the detection of tumour regression was 3 and 4 months, respectively. Although approved vaccines and other measures are clearly the best way to prevent COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, we hypothesize that innate immunity activation by the infection can contribute to tumour regression in special circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317020

ABSTRACT

The clinical and immunologic implications of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic for patients with cancer receiving systemic anticancer therapy have introduced a multitude of clinical challenges and academic controversies. This review summarizes the current evidence, discussion points, and recommendations regarding the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with cancer during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with a focus on patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). More specifically, we summarize the theoretical concepts and available objective data regarding the relationships between ICIs and the antiviral immune response, along with recommended clinical approaches to the management of melanoma and RCC patient cohorts receiving ICIs throughout the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional insights regarding the use of ICIs in the setting of current and upcoming COVID-19 vaccines and broader implications toward future pandemics are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/immunology , Kidney Neoplasms/immunology , Melanoma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/therapy , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Kidney Neoplasms/therapy , Melanoma/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
10.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(8): 1925-1939, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266906

ABSTRACT

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) allow entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells and play essential roles in cancer therapy. However, the functions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in kidney cancer remain unclear, especially as kidneys are targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: UCSC Xena project, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases (GSE30589 and GSE59185) were searched for gene expression in human tissues, gene expression data, and clinical information. Several bioinformatics methods were utilized to analyze the correlation between ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with respect to the prognosis of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) and kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP). Results: ACE2 expression was significantly upregulated in tumor tissue, while its downregulation was associated with low survival in KIRC and KIRP patients. TMPRSS2 was downregulated in KIRC and KIRP, and its expression was not correlated with patient survival. According to clinical risk factor-based prediction models, ACE2 exhibits predictive accuracy for kidney cancer prognosis and is correlated with metabolism and immune infiltration. In an animal model, ACE2 expression was remarkably downregulated in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells compared to in the control. Conclusion: ACE2 expression is highly correlated with various metabolic pathways and is involved in immune infiltration.it plays a crucial role than TMPRSS2 in diagnosing and prognosis of kidney cancer patients. The overlap in ACE2 expression between kidney cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that patients with KIRC or KIRP are at high risk of developing serious symptoms.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/complications , Kidney Neoplasms/complications , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/immunology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Chlorocebus aethiops , Down-Regulation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Neoplasms/immunology , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Neoplasm Proteins/biosynthesis , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Organ Specificity , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Tissue Array Analysis , Vero Cells
11.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(3): e369-e376, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised a variety of ethical dilemmas for health care providers. Limited data are available on how a patient's concomitant cancer diagnosis affected ethical concerns raised during the early stages of the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all COVID-related ethics consultations registered in a prospectively collected ethics database at a tertiary cancer center between March 14, 2020, and April 28, 2020. Primary and secondary ethical issues, as well as important contextual factors, were identified. RESULTS: Twenty-six clinical ethics consultations were performed on 24 patients with cancer (58.3% male; median age, 65.5 years). The most common primary ethical issues were code status (n = 11), obligation to provide nonbeneficial treatment (n = 3), patient autonomy (n = 3), resource allocation (n = 3), and delivery of care wherein the risk to staff might outweigh the potential benefit to the patient (n = 3). An additional nine consultations raised concerns about staff safety in the context of likely nonbeneficial treatment as a secondary issue. Unique contextual issues identified included concerns about public safety for patients requesting discharge against medical advice (n = 3) and difficulties around decision making, especially with regard to code status because of an inability to reach surrogates (n = 3). CONCLUSION: During the early pandemic, the care of patients with cancer and COVID-19 spurred a number of ethics consultations, which were largely focused on code status. Most cases also raised concerns about staff safety in the context of limited benefit to patients, a highly unusual scenario at our institution that may have been triggered by critical supply shortages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cancer Care Facilities , Ethics Consultation/trends , Neoplasms , Resuscitation Orders/ethics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/ethics , Child , Decision Making , Ethics Committees, Clinical , Female , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/ethics , Kidney Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Medical Futility , Mental Competency , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma , New York City , Occupational Health/ethics , Patients' Rooms , Personal Autonomy , Proxy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcoma , Young Adult
12.
World J Urol ; 39(12): 4295-4303, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the cancellation or deferment of many elective cancer surgeries. We performed a systematic review on the oncological effects of delayed surgery for patients with localised or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the targeted therapy (TT) era. METHOD: The protocol of this review is registered on PROSPERO(CRD42020190882). A comprehensive literature search was performed on Medline, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL using MeSH terms and keywords for randomised controlled trials and observational studies on the topic. Risks of biases were assessed using the Cochrane RoB tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. For localised RCC, immediate surgery [including partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN)] and delayed surgery [including active surveillance (AS) and delayed intervention (DI)] were compared. For metastatic RCC, upfront versus deferred cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) were compared. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included for quantitative analysis. Delayed surgery was significantly associated with worse cancer-specific survival (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.23-2.27, p < 0.01) in T1a RCC, but no significant difference was noted for overall survival. For localised ≥ T1b RCC, there were insufficient data for meta-analysis and the results from the individual reports were contradictory. For metastatic RCC, upfront TT followed by deferred CN was associated with better overall survival when compared to upfront CN followed by deferred TT (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.86, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Noting potential selection bias, there is insufficient evidence to support the notion that delayed surgery is safe in localised RCC. For metastatic RCC, upfront TT followed by deferred CN should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Time-to-Treatment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Nephrectomy , Survival Rate
13.
In Vivo ; 35(3): 1805-1810, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Kidney cancers account for about 2% of human malignancies. In recent decades, the incidence of this cancer type has gradually increased, mainly due to advances in imaging. The metastatic potential of these cancers is significant: a quarter of patients will immediately present with metastases and more than one third of patients treated with nephrectomy for a localized disease will develop metastases during their course. In total, more than half of patients will suffer from the consequences of metastasis. The median survival at this stage is only thirteen months, so the therapeutic challenge is immense. CASE REPORT: The present case report describes a case of left renal clear cell carcinoma with brain, lung, right adrenal, bone and lymph node metastases in a 55-year-old male. The patient received only one line of anticancer treatment with sunitinib, which could not be continued due to haemorrhagic manifestations in brain metastases. The treatment was changed with immunotherapy which showed its effect even if it was stopped due to the patient wishes in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic. CONCLUSION: Immunotherapy opens the doors to a new era in treatment of metastatic renal cancer and shows efficiency even after it has been stopped.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/drug therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 316.e1-316.e3, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141562

ABSTRACT

While primarily a respiratory illness, infection with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is associated with pathologic changes in coagulation, characterized by both thromboembolic and bleeding events. We present the case of a 22-year-old female diagnosed with renal angiomyolipoma (AML) rupture 2 weeks after COVID-19 infection, ultimately requiring admission for hemorrhage control via endovascular embolization. Emergency medicine physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for renal AML rupture and other spontaneous bleeding events in patients with recent COVID-19 infection due to a possible correlation between the two.


Subject(s)
Angiomyolipoma/complications , COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , Kidney Neoplasms/complications , Angiomyolipoma/diagnostic imaging , Angiomyolipoma/therapy , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Female , Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/therapy , Rupture , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Urologia ; 88(1): 3-8, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105635

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically hit all Europe and Northern Italy in particular. The reallocation of medical resources has caused a sharp reduction in the activity of many medical disciplines, including urology. The restricted availability of resources is expected to cause a delay in the treatment of urological cancers and to negatively influence the clinical history of many cancer patients. In this study, we describe COVID-19 impact on uro-oncological management in Piedmont/Valle d'Aosta, estimating its future impact. METHODS: We performed an online survey in 12 urological centers, belonging to the Oncological Network of Piedmont/Valle d'Aosta, to estimate the impact of COVID-19 emergency on their practice. On this basis, we then estimated the medical working capacity needed to absorb all postponed uro-oncological procedures. RESULTS: Most centers (77%) declared to be "much"/"very much" affected by COVID-19 emergency. If uro-oncological consultations for newly diagnosed cancers were often maintained, follow-up consultations were more than halved or even suspended in around two out of three centers. In-office and day-hospital procedures were generally only mildly reduced, whereas major uro-oncological procedures were more than halved or even suspended in 60% of centers. To clear waiting list backlog, the urological working capacity should dramatically increase in the next months; delays greater than 1 month are expected for more than 50% of uro-oncological procedures. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 emergency has dramatically slowed down uro-oncological activity in Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta. Ideally, uro-oncological patients should be referred to COVID-19-free tertiary urological centers to ensure a timely management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Health Services Accessibility , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Urologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Urology/statistics & numerical data , Appointments and Schedules , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Kidney Neoplasms/epidemiology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Urologic Neoplasms/surgery , Urology/organization & administration
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627186, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094168

ABSTRACT

After the COVID-19 outbreak, non-evidence based guidelines were published to advise clinicians on the adjustment of oncological treatment during this pandemic. As immune checkpoint inhibitors directly affect the immune system, concerns have arisen about the safety of immunotherapy during this pandemic. However, data on the immune response in oncology patients treated with immunotherapy are still lacking. Here, we present the adaptive immune response in a SARS-CoV-2 infected patient who was treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors for advanced renal cell cancer. To evaluate the immune response in this patient, the number of T cells and their major subsets were measured according to expression of markers for co-signalling, maturation, and chemotaxis at baseline, during therapy, and during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, plasma samples were analyzed for IgM and IgG antibodies and the ability of these antibodies to neutralise SARS-CoV-2. Despite several risk factors for an impaired immune response to SARS-CoV-2, both T- and B-cell responses were observed. Moreover, after treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, a sufficient cellular and humoral immune response was achieved in this SARS-CoV-2 infected patient. These findings warrant renewed discussion on withholding of immune checkpoint inhibitors during an ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnosis , Immunotherapy/methods , Ipilimumab/therapeutic use , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nivolumab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/drug therapy , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
18.
Urologia ; 88(3): 218-222, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069489

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as a pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Since then, this pandemic has dramatically affected the entire world, even radically influencing the way patients are framed at triage. Symptoms and tests in most cases lead to a correct diagnosis; however, error may be around the corner. CASE REPORT: A 60 years old patient was referred with weight loss, fatigue and mild fever for 3 weeks as he was working in a COVID-19 ward. After a positive swab and chest CT scan, he was admitted in the hospital and treated as mild COVID-19 patient. A CT scan performed after the patient was discharged revealed a renal lesion misidentified as a tumor then clarified to be an abscess which retrospectively appears to be the main cause of his symptoms. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should consider other life-threatening disease in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with similar symptoms to minimize mistakes and avoid further unnecessary investigations.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Abscess/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Abdominal Abscess/complications , Abdominal Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Abscess/surgery , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Anesthetists , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Complications , Drainage , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Weight Loss
19.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 335-340, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Large or bilateral multiple renal cell carcinoma (RCC) without/with tumor thrombus (TT) in the renal vein (RV) or inferior vena cava (IVC) poses a challenge to the surgeon due to the potential for massive hemorrhage, tumor thromboemboli and dialysis, and the situation is more critical due to Covid-19 pandemic. We report our experience and measures in dealing with challenging cases of large or multiple RCCs without/with TT during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 4/2020-10/2020, five patients underwent RCC resection with/without TT. Patients 1 and 2 had RCCs/TT in RV; Patient 3 had RCC/TT supradiaphragmatic below right atrium; Patient-4 had a 26 cm RCC; Patient-5 had multiple RCCS as part of Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome. RESULTS: Patients were preoperatively tested negative for Covid-19. Operation times were 105, 85, 255, 200 and 247 minutes for Patients 1-5. Estimated blood loss was: 100, 50, 3,900,100 and 50 ml, respectively. Patient 3 underwent RCC resection en bloc with IVC/TT. Patients 1 and 2 underwent resections of RCC/TT in RV. Patient 4 underwent a 26 cm RCC resection. Patient 5 underwent laparoscopic bilateral radical nephrectomies. No immediate postoperative complications were reported. CONCLUSION: We successfully managed 5 challenging cases of RCCs despite the recommendations imposed by hospitals due to Covid-19 pandemic, with favorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/complications , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnosis , Kidney Neoplasms/complications , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , Biopsy , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating , Nephrectomy , Renal Veins/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
20.
Actas Urol Esp (Engl Ed) ; 45(3): 207-214, 2021 Apr.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064691

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The suspension of most elective surgeries during COVID-19 pandemic caused the lengthening of urology surgical waiting lists. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on urology surgical waiting list in a high-volume hospital. METHODS: An observational descriptive study was designed. All patients included in the urology surgical waiting list of our high-volume center on May 1st 2020 (46 days after the suspension of elective surgery) were analyzed. Baseline variables, priority on the waiting list, main urological disease, type of scheduled surgery, and waiting time were recorded. Other variables recorded were the presence of a urinary catheter, number of accesses to the emergency department, evidence of COVID-19 infection, number of deaths and their cause. The waiting time for each disease was compared with the time to surgery in 2019. RESULTS: A total of 350 patients were included. The mean (SD) time on the waiting list was 97.33 (55.47) days. Priority 1 patients, who normally should undergo surgery within 30 days, were on the waiting list for a mean (SD) time of 60.51 (20.14) days. They were mainly patients with ureteral lithiasis (25.6%), high-risk or muscle-invasive bladder cancer (20.9%) and high-risk prostate cancer (13.9%). The mean waiting time had already significantly exceeded the mean time to surgery in 2019 for radical cystectomy (p = 0.04) and URS (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The suspension of most elective surgeries due to COVID-19 had a significant impact on urology surgical waiting list of our high-volume center, especially in priority 1 group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Urologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Waiting Lists , Aged , Analysis of Variance , Cystectomy/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Health Priorities , Hospitals, High-Volume , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Prostatic Hyperplasia/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Ureteral Calculi/epidemiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data
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