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1.
Aust Health Rev ; 47(3): 362-368, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237810

ABSTRACT

Objectives To project the prevalence of people receiving dialysis in Australia for 2021-30 to inform service planning and health policy. Methods Estimates were based on data from 2011 to 2020 from the Australia & New Zealand Dialysis & Transplant (ANZDATA) Registry and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. We projected dialysis and functioning kidney transplant recipient populations for the years 2021-30. Discrete-time, non-homogenous Markov models were built on probabilities for transition between three mutually exclusive states (Dialysis, Functioning Transplant, Death), for five age groups. Two scenarios were employed - stable transplant rate vs a continued increase - to assess the impact of these scenarios on the projected prevalences. Results Models projected a 22.5-30.4% growth in the dialysis population from 14 554 in 2020 to 17 829 ('transplant growth') - 18 973 ('transplant stable') by 2030. An additional 4983-6484 kidney transplant recipients were also projected by 2030. Dialysis incidence per population increased and dialysis prevalence growth exceeded population ageing in 40-59 and 60-69 year age groups. The greatest dialysis prevalence growth was seen among those aged ≥70 years. Conclusion Modelling of the future prevalence of dialysis use highlights the increasing demand on services expected overall and especially by people aged ≥70 years. Appropriate funding and healthcare planning must meet this demand.


Subject(s)
Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , New Zealand/epidemiology , Prevalence , Registries , Renal Dialysis
2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 29(19): 3013-3026, 2023 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prolonged symptoms after corona virus disease 2019 (Long-COVID) in dialysis-dependent patients and kidney transplant (KT) recipients are important as a possible risk factor for organ dysfunctions, especially gastrointestinal (GI) problems, during immunosuppressive therapy. AIM: To identify the characteristics of GI manifestations of Long-COVID in patients with dialysis-dependent or KT status. METHODS: This observational, prospective study included patients with COVID-19 infection, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, with the onset of symptoms between 1 January 2022 and 31 July 2022 which was explored at 3 mo after the onset, either through the out-patient follow-up or by telephone interviews. RESULTS: The 645 eligible participants consisted of 588 cases with hemodialysis (HD), 38 patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 19 KT recipients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 infection during the observation. Of these, 577 (89.5%) cases agreed to the interviews, while 64 (10.9%) patients with HD and 4 (10.5%) cases of PD were excluded. The mean age was 52 ± 11 years with 52% women. The median dialysis duration was 7 ± 3 and 5 ± 1 years for HD and PD groups, respectively, and the median time post-transplantation was 6 ± 2 years. Long-COVID was identified in 293/524 (56%) and 21/34 (62%) in HD and PD, respectively, and 7/19 (37%) KT recipients. Fatigue was the most prevalent (96%) of the non-GI tract symptoms, whereas anorexia (90.9%), loss of taste (64.4%), and abdominal pain (62.5%) were the first three common GI manifestations of Long-COVID. Notably, there were 6 cases of mesenteric panniculitis from 19 patients with GI symptoms in the KT group. CONCLUSION: Different from patients with non-chronic kidney disease, there was a high prevalence of GI manifestations of Long-COVID in dialysis-dependent patients and KT recipients. An appropriate long-term follow-up in these vulnerable populations after COVID-19 infection is possibly necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Prospective Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cohort Studies , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology
3.
Clin Transplant ; 37(5): e14936, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (ca-AMR) remains unclear. Tocilizumab (TCZ), a monoclonal antibody against IL-6, has been proposed as a therapeutic option. We reported our experience treating ca-AMR with TCZ either as the first line option or as a rescue therapy. METHODS: We studied 11 adult kidney transplant recipients with biopsy-proven ca-AMR and preserved kidney function (eGFR 57 ± 18) who were treated with TCZ (8 mg/kg IV monthly). All biopsies were prompted by abnormal surveillance biomarker testing with DSA and/or dd-cfDNA. Clinical monitoring included dd-cfDNA and DSA testing every 3 months during the treatment with TCZ. RESULTS: In this cohort, ca-AMR was diagnosed at a median of 90 months (range 14-224) post-transplant, and 4 of 11 patients had DSA negative ca-AMR. Patients received a minimum of 3 months of TCZ, with 6 patients receiving at least 12 months of TCZ. Dd-cfDNA was elevated in all patients, with a median 2.24% at the start of TCZ treatment. After 6 months of TCZ treatment, 8/11 patients had dd- cfDNA <1%, and 3/11 had values <0.5%. Among those who completed at least 12 months of TCZ, dd-cfDNA decreased by 29% at 6 months (p = .05) and 47% by 12 months (p = .04). DSA also stabilized and, by 12 months, was reduced by 29% (p = .047). Graft function remained stable with no graft loss during treatment. There was a nonsignificant trend towards proteinuria reduction. During the course of treatment with tocilizumab, two patients experienced moderate to severe infections. CONCLUSIONS: In our early short-term experience, TCZ appears to reduce graft injury as measured by dd-cfDNA and modulate the immune response as evident by a modest reduction in immunodominant DSA MFI. Allograft function and proteinuria also stabilized.


Subject(s)
Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Isoantibodies , Proteinuria
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(5)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231754

ABSTRACT

Apolipoprotein 1 (APOL1) risk variants (G1 and G2) are associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in patients of African ancestry. The prevalence of APOL1 two risk variants is lower in Hispanics and very rare in European and Asian populations. APOL1 two risk variants in donor kidneys is associated with recipient kidney graft loss, however the effect of recipient risk variant in the kidney transplant outcome is unclear. Here, we present a late adolescent male with FSGS and end stage renal disease with one APOL1 risk variant (G2) who had immediate recurrence of FSGS in the post-KT period. There was an excellent response to few sessions of plasmapheresis and Rituximab with no further recurrence of FSGS in the 1 year follow-up period. It needs to be seen whether the recipient APOL1 single risk variant causes increased susceptibility to kidney graft loss on a long run via recurrent or de novo pathologies.


Subject(s)
Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , Kidney Transplantation , Adolescent , Humans , Male , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/genetics , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/pathology , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , Risk Factors , Kidney/pathology , Recurrence
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 45: 10, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242906

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, Cryptosporidium spp. is a common parasite that affects domestic and wild animals, including humans, and causes diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. The fecal-oral pathway accounts for the majority of its transfer. Although C. parvum and C. hominis are the most common zoonotic species in humans, other zoonotic species can also infect immunocompetent and immunocompromised people. Patients undergoing renal transplants are more likely to contract cryptosporidiosis, which can cause severe and potentially fatal diarrhea. A 41-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency department complained of a sudden onset, severe and continuous fatigue, and a feverish sensation of two-day duration. Two days prior to the current admission, the patient started to complain of weakness affecting his whole body, as well as a fever of 39°C and continuous yellowish diarrhea occurring 4-5 times daily without blood. Stool analysis revealed a cryptosporidium infection. The patient underwent surgery for kidney transplantation. The donated kidney was the left one from his brother and was attached to the patient´s right groin. As illustrated by our example, cryptosporidiosis should be considered a significant cause of acute, persistent, watery diarrhea in immunocompromised kidney transplant recipients. Patients undergoing renal transplants should be instructed to wash their hands frequently, stay away from young animals, sick people, and swimming pools in order to lower their risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Animals , Humans , Adult , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Diarrhea/etiology , Feces/parasitology
6.
Transpl Int ; 36: 11153, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231146

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective cohort study, we analyze the early humoral and cellular response in 64 adolescents KTx recipients, after two or three doses of mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 against different variants of COVID-19. After 2 doses, 77.8% % of children with no history of infection had a positive humoral response with a median anti-S IgG level of 1107 (IQR, 593-2,658) BAU/mL. All the patients with a history of infection responded with a higher median IgG level (3,265 (IQR, 1,492-8,178) BAU/mL). In non-responders after 2 doses, 75% responded after a third dose with a median Ab titer at 355 (IQR, 140-3,865 BAU/mL). Neutralizing activity was significantly lower against the delta and the omicron variants compared to the wild-type strain and did not improve after a 3rd dose, while infection did provide higher levels of neutralizations against the variants. T cell specific response correlated with humoral response and no patient displayed a cellular response without a humoral response. Adolescent KTx recipients exhibit a high seroconversion rate after only two doses. A third injection, induces a response in the majority of the non-responders patients but did not counterbalance the strong decrease in neutralizing antibody activities against variants highlighting the need for boosters with specific vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adolescent , Humans , Child , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Transplant Recipients
7.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 28(3): 197-206, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328276

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The deceased donor organ pool has broadened beyond young, otherwise healthy head trauma victims. But an abundance of donated organs only benefits patients if they are accepted, expeditiously transported and actually transplanted. This review focuses on postdonation challenges and opportunities to increase the number of transplants through improved organ utilization. RECENT FINDINGS: We build upon recently proposed changes in terminology for measuring organ utilization. Among organs recovered for transplant, the nonuse rate (NUR REC ) has risen above 25% for kidneys and pancreata. Among donors, the nonuse rate (NUR DON ) has risen to 40% for livers and exceeds 70% for thoracic organs. Programme-level variation in offer acceptance rates vastly exceeds variation in the traditional, 1-year survival benchmark. Key opportunities to boost utilization include donation after circulatory death and hepatitis C virus (HCV)+ organs; acute kidney injury and suboptimal biopsy kidneys; older and steatotic livers. SUMMARY: Underutilization of less-than-ideal, yet transplant-worthy organs remains an obstacle to maximizing the impact of the U.S. transplant system. The increased risk of inferior posttransplant outcomes must always be weighed against the risks of remaining on the waitlist. Advanced perfusion technologies; tuning allocation systems for placement efficiency; and data-driven clinical decision support have the potential to increase utilization of medically complex organs.


Subject(s)
Heart Transplantation , Kidney Transplantation , Organ Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Humans , United States , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Tissue Donors , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 997343, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325367

ABSTRACT

Repeated vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 increases serological response in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) with high interindividual variability. No decision support tool exists to predict SARS-CoV-2 vaccination response to third or fourth vaccination in KTR. We developed, internally and externally validated five different multivariable prediction models of serological response after the third and fourth vaccine dose against SARS-CoV-2 in previously seronegative, COVID-19-naïve KTR. Using 20 candidate predictor variables, we applied statistical and machine learning approaches including logistic regression (LR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-regularized LR, random forest, and gradient boosted regression trees. For development and internal validation, data from 590 vaccinations were used. External validation was performed in four independent, international validation cohorts comprising 191, 184, 254, and 323 vaccinations, respectively. LASSO-regularized LR performed on the whole development dataset yielded a 20- and 10-variable model, respectively. External validation showed AUC-ROC of 0.840, 0.741, 0.816, and 0.783 for the sparser 10-variable model, yielding an overall performance 0.812. A 10-variable LASSO-regularized LR model predicts vaccination response in KTR with good overall accuracy. Implemented as an online tool, it can guide decisions whether to modulate immunosuppressive therapy before additional active vaccination, or to perform passive immunization to improve protection against COVID-19 in previously seronegative, COVID-19-naïve KTR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination
9.
Transpl Immunol ; 79: 101864, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at greater risk of serious illness and death than the general population. To date, the efficacy and safety of the fourth dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in KTRs have not been systematically discussed. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis included articles from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Med Online published before May 15, 2022. Studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of a fourth dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in kidney transplant recipients were selected. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 727 KTRs. The overall pooled seropositivity rate after the fourth COVID-19 vaccine was 60% (95% CI, 49%-71%, I2 = 87.83%, p > 0.01). The pooled proportion of KTRs seronegative after the third dose that transitioned to seropositivity after the fourth dose was 30% (95% CI, 15%-48%, I2 = 94.98%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The fourth dose of the COVID-19 vaccine was well tolerated in KTRs with no serious adverse effects. Some KTRs showed a reduced response even after receiving the fourth vaccine dose. Overall, the fourth vaccine dose effectively improved seropositivity in KTRs, as recommended by the World Health Organization for the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Transplant Recipients
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 951576, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313576

ABSTRACT

After kidney transplantation, patients exhibit a poor response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. However, the efficacy and adverse effects of vaccines based on different platforms in these patients remain unclear. We prospectively analyzed both anti-spike protein antibody and cellular responses 1 month after the first and second doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in 171 kidney transplant patients. Four vaccines, including one viral vector (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, n = 30), two mRNA (mRNA1273, n = 81 and BNT162b2, n = 38), and one protein subunit (MVC-COV1901, n = 22) vaccines were administered. Among the four vaccines, mRNA1273 elicited the strongest humoral response and induced the highest interferon-γ levels in patients with a positive cellular response against the spike protein. Antiproliferative agents were negatively associated with both the antibody and cellular responses. A transient elevation in creatinine levels was noted in approximately half of the patients after the first dose of mRNA1273 or ChadOx1, and only one of them presented with borderline cellular rejection without definite causality to vaccination. In conclusion, mRNA1273 had better immunogenicity than the other vaccines. Further, renal function needs to be carefully monitored after vaccination, and vaccination strategies should be tailored according to the transplant status and vaccine characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Creatinine , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Protein Subunits , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7263, 2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320843

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is poor in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The factors related to poor immunogenicity to vaccination in KTRs are not well defined. Here, observational study demonstrated no severe adverse effects were observed in KTRs and healthy participants (HPs) after first or second dose of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine. Different from HPs with excellent immunity against SARS-CoV-2, IgG antibodies against S1 subunit of spike protein, receptor-binding domain, and nucleocapsid protein were not effectively induced in a majority of KTRs after the second dose of inactivated vaccine. Specific T cell immunity response was detectable in 40% KTRs after the second dose of inactivated vaccine. KTRs who developed specific T cell immunity were more likely to be female, and have lower levels of total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, and blood tacrolimus concentrations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that blood unconjugated bilirubin and tacrolimus concentration were significantly negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity response in KTRs. Altogether, these data suggest compared to humoral immunity, SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity response are more likely to be induced in KTRs after administration of inactivated vaccine. Reduction of unconjugated bilirubin and tacrolimus concentration might benefit specific cellular immunity response in KTRs following vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Female , Humans , Male , Tacrolimus , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Cellular , Bilirubin , Immunity, Humoral , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral
13.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(Suppl 3): 85-88, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309190

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In children with end-stage renal disease, chronic liver failure, or acute liver failure, liver transplant and kidney transplant are the most effective modalities for better clinical outcomes compared with other therapies. However, children are particularly susceptible to surgical complications, so pediatric solid-organ transplants should be reserved for centers with substantial experience and multidisciplinary expertise. Here, we assessed liver and kidney transplants performed at our center in 2021. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 3, 1975, to December 31, 2021, we performed 701 liver transplants and 3290 kidney transplants. From January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2021, we performed 21 liver transplants (19 in children) and 114 kidney transplants (12 in children). We recorded age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, etiologies, laboratory values, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: For the year 2021, we performed 19 pediatric liver transplants and 12 pediatric kidney transplants. Mean age of liver recipients was 3.4 years, and 8 were male patients. The most common etiology was biliary atresia (n = 7). All liver grafts were from living related donors who were first-degree (n = 16) or second- degree (n = 3) relatives of the recipients. Mean hospital stay was 17.6 days. All but 2 liver transplant recipients were discharged successfully (2 died from sepsis in the early postoperative period). Mean age of kidney transplant recipients was 14.1 years, and 4 were male patients. The most common etiology was vesicoureteral reflux (n = 3). One kidney graft was from a deceased donor, with the rest from living related donors who were first-degree relatives of the recipients (n = 11; mother for 8 recipients and father for 3 recipients). Mean hospital stay was 4.3 days. All kidney transplant recipients were discharged successfully. CONCLUSIONS: Solid-organ transplants for young children are often complex but can be performed successfully at experienced transplant centers.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Graft Survival , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver , Living Donors , Male , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Semin Nephrol ; 42(5): 151318, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311244

ABSTRACT

The acute coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on the incidence and prevalence of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease globally and in low-income settings. Chronic kidney disease increases the risk of developing COVID-19 and COVID-19 causes acute kidney injury directly or indirectly and is associated with high mortality in severe cases. Outcomes of COVID-19-associated kidney disease were not equitable globally owing to a lack of health infrastructure, challenges in diagnostic testing, and management of COVID-19 in low-income settings. COVID-19 also significantly impacted kidney transplant rates and mortality among kidney transplant recipients. Vaccine availability and uptake remains a significant challenge in low- and lower-middle-income countries compared with high-income countries. In this review, we explore the inequities in low- and lower-middle-income countries and highlight the progress made in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of patients with COVID-19 and kidney disease. We recommend further studies into the challenges, lessons learned, and progress made in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of patients with COVID-19-related kidney diseases and suggest ways to improve the care and management of patients with COVID-19 and kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Health Inequities
15.
J Am Coll Surg ; 236(4): 848-857, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypothermic machine perfusion is frequently used in evaluating marginal kidneys with poor perfusion parameters (PPP) contributing to delays in kidney placement or discard. We examined outcomes in deceased donor kidney transplants with PPP compared with those with optimal perfusion parameters (OPP). STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective single-center cohort study from 2001 to 2021 comparing PPP (n = 91) with OPP (n = 598) deceased donor kidney transplants. PPP was defined as terminal flow ≤80 mL/min and terminal resistance ≥0.40 mmHg/mL/min. OPP was defined as terminal flow ≥120 mL/min and terminal resistance ≤0.20 mmHg/mL/min. RESULTS: Mean terminal flow was PPP 66 ± 16 vs OPP 149 ± 21 mL/min and resistance was PPP 0.47 ± 0.10 vs OPP 0.15 ± 0.04 mmHg/mL/min (both p < 0.001). Donor age, donation after cardiac death, and terminal serum creatinine levels were similar between groups. Mean Kidney Donor Profile Index was higher among PPP donors (PPP 65 ± 23% vs OPP 52 ± 27%, p < 0.001). The PPP transplant group had more females and lower weight and BMI. Delayed graft function was comparable (PPP 32% vs OPP 27%, p = 0.33) even though cold ischemia times trended toward longer in PPP kidneys (PPP 28 ± 10 vs OPP 26 ± 9 hours, p = 0.09). One-year patient survival (PPP 98% vs OPP 97%, p = 0.84) and graft survival (PPP 91% vs OPP 92%, p = 0.23) were equivalent. PPP did predict inferior overall and death-censored graft survival long-term (overall hazard ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.23 and death-censored hazard ratio 1.77, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.74). At 1 year, the estimated glomerular filtration rate was higher with OPP kidneys (PPP 40 ± 17 vs OPP 52 ± 19 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term outcomes in PPP kidneys were comparable to OPP kidneys despite higher Kidney Donor Profile Index and longer cold ischemia times, suggesting a role for increased utilization of these organs with careful recipient selection.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , Female , Humans , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Kidney/surgery , Tissue Donors , Graft Survival , Perfusion
16.
J Bras Nefrol ; 44(3): 376-382, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303093

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplant recipients are a subgroup of patients at higher risk of critical forms of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and poor outcomes due to immunosuppression treatment. Herein, we present data from a single center cohort of kidney transplant recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In a prospective study, baseline characteristics, clinical features, antiviral and immunosuppression management were compared between outpatients and hospitalized patients, during a one-year period. RESULTS: Seventy-seven kidney transplant recipients were analyzed, including outpatients and hospitalized patients, with a median age of 57.7 (IQR 49.7-64.9) years. Twenty-eight (36.4%) were managed as outpatients, while 49 (63.6%) patients required hospital admission. Among hospitalized patients, 18.4% were admitted in ICU, 49% had AKI, and 20.4% died. Immunosuppression adjustments were performed in 95.9% of hospitalized patients, with dose of anti-metabolites adjusted in 83.7%, mTOR inhibitors in 14.3%, calcineurin inhibitors in 12.2%, and corticosteroid therapy in 81.6%. CONCLUSION: Among hospitalized patients, immunosuppression management included reduction or withdrawal of anti-metabolite and increase of corticosteroid dose. AKI occurred in almost half of patients and mortality in hospitalized patients reached 20%, reflecting greater disease severity than the general population.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Calcineurin Inhibitors , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2196893, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293282

ABSTRACT

Patients received kidney transplantation (KTR) have a low seroconversion rate after vaccination. Our objective was to compare the seroconversion rates and adverse effects of additional different vaccinations in KTR patients in existing studies. Databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and others. Three high-quality RCT were included and showed no statistical difference in seroconversion rates between the two vaccines (RR = 0.93[0.76,1.13]). There was no statistical difference in seroconversion rates between the sexes, for men (RR = 0.93[0.69,1.25]) and women (RR = 0.91[0.62,1.33]). Among the adverse effects there was no statistically significant difference in fever (RR = 1.06[0.44,2.57]), while for injection site pain there was a statistically significant difference (RR = 1.14[1.18,1.84]). There was no significant difference in seroconversion rates in patients with KTR who received the two additional vaccines. Patients injected with the viral vector vaccine were less painful than those injected with the mRNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Female , Humans , Male , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Seroconversion , Vaccination/adverse effects
18.
Transplant Proc ; 55(5): 1121-1124, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the normal population, a high monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) level is an important biomarker for the progression of COVID-19. This study investigated whether MCP-1 level can determine the disease prognosis in kidney transplant (KT) patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 89 patients, including 49 KT patients (group 1) diagnosed with COVID-19 who required hospitalization, and 40 KT patients who did not have COVID-19 disease (group 2), were included. Demographic characteristics and laboratory results of the patients were recorded. The serum reserved for MCP-1 was stored at -80°C and studied blindly by a single microbiologist at the end of the study. RESULTS: While the mean age of the patients was 51.0 years (40.0-59.50) in group 1, it was 48.0 years (40.75-54.75) in group 2 (P > .05). In terms of the female sex, it was 36 (73.5%) and 27 (67.5%) in group 1 and group 2, respectively (P > .05). Similarly, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding primary disease and basal graft function (P > .05). There was a statistically significant difference in inflammation indicators in group 1 compared with group 2 (P < .05). A correlation was found between inflammation indicators and COVID-19 (P < .05). However, no significant correlation was detected between COVID-19 disease and MCP-1 levels in both groups (P > .05). Also, according to basal MCP-1 levels, we did not find a significant difference between survival and nonsurvival patients (164.0 pg/mL [146.0-202.0] vs 156.0 pg/mL [143.0-173.0], respectively (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Monocyte chemoattractant protein, an indicator of inflammation, was not found to predict the prognosis of COVID-19 disease in kidney recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Prognosis , Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins , Inflammation , Transplant Recipients
19.
Clin Transplant ; 37(6): e14983, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have spread to millions of persons worldwide. Many vaccines have been developed; however, their efficacy in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients is yet to be determined. METHODS: This is a prospective observational, non-interventional single-center study on the safety and efficacy of a COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate immunogenicity according to SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibody titer after two vaccine doses. The secondary aims were to investigate the safety of the vaccines, solicited local and systemic adverse reactions, incidence of COVID-19 post-vaccination, and effects on transplant graft function. Baseline investigations were conducted on pediatric renal transplant recipients, and recruited participants were advised to have the Comirnaty® mRNA vaccine according to protocol. RESULTS: A total of 48 patients (male, n = 31, 64.6%; female, n = 17, 35.4%), median age 14 [12-16] years were included, and all received two doses of the vaccine. The vaccine had a favorable safety and side-effect profile. The S-antibody titer of all patients ranged between .4 and 2,500 U/ml and was > 50 U/ml in 89% of the patients. No difference in the measured antibody immune response was noted between infected and uninfected children. No major side effects were reported. CONCLUSION: The vaccine had a favorable safety profile in 12- to 15-year-old kidney transplant recipients, producing a greater measured antibody response than that in older transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
20.
Transpl Immunol ; 78: 101839, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Differences in serologic response to COVID-19 infection or vaccination were reported in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR) compared to non-immunocompromised patients. This study aims to compare the serologic response of naturally infected or vaccinated pediatric KTR to that of controls. METHODS: Thirty-eight KTR and 42 healthy children were included; aged ≤18 years, with a previously confirmed COVID-19 infection or post COVID-19 vaccination. Serological response was measured by anti-spike protein IgG antibody titers. Response post third vaccine was additionally assessed in KTR. RESULTS: Fourteen children in each group had previously confirmed infection. KTR were significantly older and developed a 2-fold higher antibody titer post-infection compared to controls [median (interquartile range [IQR]) age: 14.9 (7.8, 17.5) vs. 6.3 (4.5, 11.5) years, p = 0.02; median (IQR) titer: 1695 (982, 3520) vs. 716 (368, 976) AU/mL, p = 0.03]. Twenty-four KTR and 28 controls were vaccinated. Antibody titer was lower in KTR than in controls [median (IQR): 803 (206, 1744) vs. 8023 (3032, 30,052) AU/mL, p < 0.001]. Fourteen KTR received third vaccine. Antibody titer post booster in KTR reached similar levels to those of controls post two doses [median (IQR) 5923 (2295, 12,278) vs. 8023 (3034, 30,052) AU/mL, p = 0.37] and to KTR post natural infection [5282 AU/mL (2583, 13,257) p = 0.8]. CONCLUSION: Serologic response to COVID-19 infection was significantly higher in KTR than in controls. Antibody level in KTR was higher in response to infection vs. vaccination, contrary to reports in the general population. Response to vaccination in KTR reached levels comparable to controls only after third vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Transplant Recipients , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Testing
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