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1.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1695-1703, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound effect on transplantation activity in the United States and globally. Several single-center reports suggest higher morbidity and mortality among candidates waitlisted for a kidney transplant and recipients of a kidney transplant. We aim to describe 2020 mortality patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States among kidney transplant candidates and recipients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using national registry data for waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients collected through April 23, 2021, we report demographic and clinical factors associated with COVID-19-related mortality in 2020, other deaths in 2020, and deaths in 2019 among waitlisted candidates and transplant recipients. We quantify excess all-cause deaths among candidate and recipient populations in 2020 and deaths directly attributed to COVID-19 in relation to prepandemic mortality patterns in 2019 and 2018. RESULTS: Among deaths of patients who were waitlisted in 2020, 11% were attributed to COVID-19, and these candidates were more likely to be male, obese, and belong to a racial/ethnic minority group. Nearly one in six deaths (16%) among active transplant recipients in the United States in 2020 was attributed to COVID-19. Recipients who died of COVID-19 were younger, more likely to be obese, had lower educational attainment, and were more likely to belong to racial/ethnic minority groups than those who died of other causes in 2020 or 2019. We found higher overall mortality in 2020 among waitlisted candidates (24%) than among kidney transplant recipients (20%) compared with 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates higher rates of mortality associated with COVID-19 among waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients in the United States in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Transplant Recipients , Waiting Lists/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
2.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 83, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid transplant patients are susceptible to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). While the vast majority of PJP cases occur within the first 6 months after transplantation, very few PJP cases are seen beyond 1 year post-transplantation (late-onset PJP). PJP and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2) share quite a few common clinical manifestations and imaging findings, making the diagnosis of PJP often underappreciated during the current COVID-19 pandemic. To date, only 1 case of kidney transplantation who developed COVID-19 and late-onset PJP has been reported, but this patient also suffered from many other infections and died from respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. A successful treatment of kidney patients with COVID-19 and late-onset PJP has not been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 55-year-old male kidney transplant patient with COVID-19 who also developed late-onset PJP. He received a combined treatment strategy, including specific anti-pneumocystis therapy, symptomatic supportive therapy, adjusted immunosuppressive therapy, and use of antiviral drugs/antibiotics, ending with a favorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of prompt and differential diagnosis of PJP in kidney transplant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are required to clarify if kidney transplant patients with COVID-19 could be prone to develop late-onset PJP and how these patients should be treated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/drug therapy
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6760-6764, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544331

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than a hundred million individuals and caused more than three million deaths worldwide. Specific risk groups were defined for increased risk of mortality and morbidity in COVID-19, and renal transplant recipients are at a significantly increased risk regarding outcomes due to their immunosuppressed conditions. This study evaluated the general characteristics of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection. Among 1257 transplant cases, 56 had COVID-19 infection, and 23 (41%) were hospitalized during the 9-month study period. Among all COVID-19 cases, 58% were male with a mean age of 45.5 (±13.2, 19-71) years, and the most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (70.9%) and diabetes (23.6%). Hospitalized patients were older (p = 0.03) and had higher rates of hypertension (p = 0.008), diabetes (p = 0.002), and ischemic heart disease (p = 0.03). Therapeutic management included antimetabolite withdrawal and prednisolone increase in 71%, calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal in 8% and decrease in 58%, hydroxychloroquine in 17%, tocilizumab in 3%, and antivirals in 67% of patients. Acute kidney injury and respiratory failure developed in 34% and 85%, respectively. The mortality rate was 23%. These results emphasized that the COVID-19 infection in renal transplant recipients significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, these patients should be intervened earlier and monitored closely to prevent poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kidney/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258987, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523428

ABSTRACT

Several studies of patients with COVID-19 have evaluated biological markers for predicting outcomes, most of them retrospectively and with a wide scope of clinical severity. We followed a prospective cohort of patients admitted in hospital wards with moderate COVID-19 disease, including those with a history of kidney transplantation, and examined the ability of changes in routine hematologic laboratory parameters to predict and mirror the patients' clinical course regarding the severity of their condition (classified as critical vs. non-critical) and in-hospital mortality or hospital discharge. Among the 68 patients, 20 (29%) were kidney transplanted patients (KT), and they had much higher mortality than non-kidney transplanted patients in this cohort (40% X 8.3%). Lymphocytes, neutrophils and neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio (NLR) at admission and platelets as well as the red blood cells parameters hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RDW by the time of hospital discharge or death clearly differentiated patients progressing to critical disease and those with clinical recovery. Patients with deteriorating clinical courses presented elevated and similar NLRs during the first week of hospitalization. However, they were dramatically different at hospital discharge, with a decrease in the survivors (NLR around 5.5) and sustained elevation in non-survivors (NLR around 21). Platelets also could distinguish survivors from non-survivors among the critical patients. In conclusion, routine hematologic tests are useful to monitor the clinical course of COVID-19 patients admitted with moderate disease. Unexpectedly, changes in hematologic tests, including lymphopenia, were not predictive of complicated outcomes among KT recipients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Blood Cells/pathology , COVID-19/mortality , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
6.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 36(11): 2094-2105, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has exposed haemodialysis (HD) patients and kidney transplant (KT) recipients to an unprecedented life-threatening infectious disease, raising concerns about kidney replacement therapy (KRT) strategy during the pandemic. This study investigated the association of the type of KRT with COVID-19 severity, adjusting for differences in individual characteristics. METHODS: Data on KT recipients and HD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 1 December 2020 were retrieved from the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database. Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, frailty and comorbidities were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for 28-day mortality risk in all patients and in the subsets that were tested because of symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 1670 patients (496 functional KT and 1174 HD) were included; 16.9% of KT and 23.9% of HD patients died within 28 days of presentation. The unadjusted 28-day mortality risk was 33% lower in KT recipients compared with HD patients {HR 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.85]}. In a fully adjusted model, the risk was 78% higher in KT recipients [HR 1.78 (95% CI 1.22-2.61)] compared with HD patients. This association was similar in patients tested because of symptoms [fully adjusted model HR 2.00 (95% CI 1.31-3.06)]. This risk was dramatically increased during the first post-transplant year. Results were similar for other endpoints (e.g. hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and mortality >28 days) and across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: KT recipients had a greater risk of a more severe course of COVID-19 compared with HD patients, therefore they require specific infection mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Registries , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(3): 708-722, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is a leading cause of transplant failure. Blocking IL-6 has been proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy. METHODS: We performed a phase 2 randomized pilot trial to evaluate the safety (primary endpoint) and efficacy (secondary endpoint analysis) of the anti-IL-6 antibody clazakizumab in late ABMR. The trial included 20 kidney transplant recipients with donor-specific, antibody-positive ABMR ≥365 days post-transplantation. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive 25 mg clazakizumab or placebo (4-weekly subcutaneous injections) for 12 weeks (part A), followed by a 40-week open-label extension (part B), during which time all participants received clazakizumab. RESULTS: Five (25%) patients under active treatment developed serious infectious events, and two (10%) developed diverticular disease complications, leading to trial withdrawal. Those receiving clazakizumab displayed significantly decreased donor-specific antibodies and, on prolonged treatment, modulated rejection-related gene-expression patterns. In 18 patients, allograft biopsies after 51 weeks revealed a negative molecular ABMR score in seven (38.9%), disappearance of capillary C4d deposits in five (27.8%), and resolution of morphologic ABMR activity in four (22.2%). Although proteinuria remained stable, the mean eGFR decline during part A was slower with clazakizumab compared with placebo (-0.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -1.96 to 0.03 versus -2.43; 95% CI, -3.40 to -1.46 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month, respectively, P=0.04). During part B, the slope of eGFR decline for patients who were switched from placebo to clazakizumab improved and no longer differed significantly from patients initially allocated to clazakizumab. CONCLUSIONS: Although safety data indicate the need for careful patient selection and monitoring, our preliminary efficacy results suggest a potentially beneficial effect of clazakizumab on ABMR activity and progression.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Adult , Allografts , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/physiopathology , Humans , Infections/etiology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Isoantibodies/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 479-494, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Binding of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) to kidney allograft endothelial cells that does not activate the classic complement cascade can trigger the recruitment of innate immune effectors, including NK cells. Activated NK cells contribute to microvascular inflammation leading to chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Recipient NK cells can also trigger antibody-independent microvascular inflammation by sensing the absence of self HLA class I molecules ("missing self") on allograft endothelial cells. This translational study investigated whether the condition of missing self amplifies DSA-dependent NK cell activation to worsen chronic AMR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 1682 kidney transplant recipients who underwent an allograft biopsy at Lyon University Hospital between 2004 and 2017, 135 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AMR and were enrolled in the study. Patients with complement-fixing DSAs identified by a positive C3d binding assay (n=73, 54%) had a higher risk of transplant failure (P=0.002). Among the remaining patients with complement-independent chronic AMR (n=62, 46%), those in whom missing self was identified through donor and recipient genotyping exhibited worse allograft survival (P=0.02). In multivariable analysis, only proteinuria (HR: 7.24; P=0.01) and the presence of missing self (HR: 3.57; P=0.04) were independent predictors for transplant failure following diagnosis of chronic AMR. Cocultures of human NK cells and endothelial cells confirmed that addition of missing self to DSA-induced NK cell activation increased endothelial damage. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of missing self at the time of diagnosis of chronic AMR identifies patients at higher risk for kidney transplant failure.


Subject(s)
Allografts/pathology , Complement Activation/physiology , Graft Rejection/etiology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/blood , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Killer Cells, Natural/physiology , Adult , Allografts/immunology , Cell Culture Techniques , Complement C3d/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Female , Graft Rejection/blood , Graft Rejection/pathology , Graft Survival , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
Transplantation ; 105(11): e234-e243, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about SARS-CoV-2 vaccines efficacy in renal transplant recipients (RTR) are lacking. METHODS: To reveal predictors for humoral response to BNT162b2 vaccine among RTR, patients were divided into positive (N = 42) and negative (N = 78) response groups based on receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) ≥1.1 and neutralizing antibodies (NA) ≥16 dilution versus RBD IgG <1.1 or NA <16, respectively. NA were detected using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-virus. RESULTS: NA were detected in only 42 of 120 (35%) of RTR versus 197 of 202 (97.5%) immunocompetent controls (P < 0.001). NA geometric mean titers in RTR were significantly lower versus the control group {83.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.5-138.8) versus 482 (95% CI, 411-566), P < 0.001}. In a multivariable analysis, mycophenolic acid (MPA) dose and hemoglobin level were found to be independent predictors for antibody response in RTR. A positive response rate of 27% versus 63% was observed in patients on and off MPA, respectively. An increase in MPA dose by 1 mg/kg weight reduced the odds for a positive response by 17% (odds ratio = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.92; P < 0.001). Geometric mean titers for RBD IgG were significantly reduced as MPA daily dose increased. Hemoglobin blood level <13 g/dL reduced the antibody response by 63% (P = 0.04). Pain at the injection site after the second vaccine dose was significantly higher in the responders versus nonresponders (20.5% versus 5.5%, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Only 35% of RTR develop NA to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. MPA is a major suppressor of antibody response in RTR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9318725, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476889

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a special risk for both immunosuppressed patients, especially transplant recipients. Although the knowledge about this infection is growing, many uncertainties remain, particularly regarding the kidney. Kidney transplant recipients (KDRs) should be considered immunocompromised hosts since a potential risk for infection, comorbidity, and immunosuppression exposure exists. Additionally, the management of immunosuppressive agents in KDRs remains challenging. Potential drug interactions with immunosuppressive treatment escalated the risk of unwanted side effects. In this review, we aimed to attain an augmented awareness and improved management immunosuppressant for COVID-19 KDRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacokinetics , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20073, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462039

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation recipients (KTR) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at higher risk of death than general population. However, mortality risk factors in KTR are still not clearly identified. Our objective was to systematically analyze published evidence for risk factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 KTR. Electronic databases were searched for eligible studies on 1 August 2021. All prospective and retrospective studies of COVID-19 in KTR were considered eligible without language restriction. Since data in case reports and series could potentially be subsets of larger studies, only studies with ≥ 50 patients were included. Random-effects model meta-analysis was used to calculate weighted mean difference (WMD) and pooled odds ratio (OR) of factors associated with mortality. From a total 1,137 articles retrieved, 13 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis comprising 4,440 KTR. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were significantly older (WMD 10.5 years, 95% CI 9.3-11.8). KTR of deceased donor were at higher risk of death (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.10-2.74). Comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and active cancer significantly increased mortality risk. KTR with dyspnea (OR 5.68, 95% CI 2.11-15.33) and pneumonia (OR 10.64, 95% CI 3.37-33.55) at presentation were at higher mortality risk, while diarrhea decreased the risk (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47-0.78). Acute kidney injury was associated with mortality (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.36-7.70). Inflammatory markers were significantly higher in the non-survivors, including C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukine-6. A number of COVID-19 mortality risk factors were identified from KTR patient characteristics, presenting symptoms, and laboratory investigations. KTR with these risk factors should receive more intensive monitoring and early therapeutic interventions to optimize health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transplant Recipients
15.
Transplant Proc ; 53(9): 2685-2687, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has especially affected kidney transplant (KT) recipients, who are more vulnerable than the general population because of their immunosuppressive status and added comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors related to infection and mortality from COVID-19 in KT recipients. METHODS: The study included 113 stable KT recipients who had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 infection between March 2020 and February 2021, from a total of 2150 KT recipients. Outcomes related to patient survival were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) age of the patients was 56 (14) years; 62% (n = 70) were men. The median time between KT and infection was 88 months (interquartile range, 39-155 months); 90% (n = 102) were on tacrolimus therapy and 81% (n = 92) on mycophenolate mofetil. The clinical presentation was pneumonia (n = 57; 51%), fever (n = 61; 54%), cough (n = 62; 55%), dyspnea (n = 43; 38%), lymphopenia (n = 57; 50%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 28; 25%). A total of 21% (n = 24) required intubation and intensive care unit admission, and 27 patients (25%) were asymptomatic. A total of 9% (n = 10) received hydroxychloroquine therapy plus azithromycin, 11% (n = 12) tocilizumab, 3.7% (n = 4) lopinavir/ritonavir, 49% (n = 55) steroids, 0.9% (n = 1) remdesivir, and 9.3% (n = 11) convalescent plasma. Immunosuppression was reduced in all symptomatic patients. Nineteen patients (17%) died. Cox univariate analysis showed that the factors significantly associated with death were patient age, presence of pneumonia or lymphopenia, and elevated C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in KT recipients with COVID-19 is very high, more than for the general population. Risk factors are patient age, presence of pneumonia or lymphopenia, and a higher C-reactive protein level at the time of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Transplant Recipients
16.
Am J Transplant ; 20(12): 3326-3340, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455499

ABSTRACT

The eIF5A hypusination inhibitor GC7 (N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane) was shown to protect from ischemic injuries. We hypothesized that GC7 could be useful for preconditioning kidneys from donors before transplantation. Using a preclinical porcine brain death (BD) donation model, we carried out in vivo evaluation of GC7 pretreatment (3 mg/kg iv, 5 minutes after BD) at the beginning of the 4h-donor management, after which kidneys were collected and cold-stored (18h in University of Wisconsin solution) and 1 was allotransplanted. Groups were defined as following (n = 6 per group): healthy (CTL), untreated BD (Vehicle), and GC7-treated BD (Vehicle + GC7). At the end of 4h-management, GC7 treatment decreased BD-induced markers, as radical oxygen species markers. In addition, GC7 increased expression of mitochondrial protective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC1α) and antioxidant proteins (superoxyde-dismutase-2, heme oxygenase-1, nuclear factor [erythroid-derived 2]-like 2 [NRF2], and sirtuins). At the end of cold storage, GC7 treatment induced an increase of NRF2 and PGC1α mRNA and a better mitochondrial integrity/homeostasis with a decrease of dynamin- related protein-1 activation and increase of mitofusin-2. Moreover, GC7 treatment significantly improved kidney outcome during 90 days follow-up after transplantation (fewer creatininemia and fibrosis). Overall, GC7 treatment was shown to be protective for kidneys against BD-induced injuries during donor management and subsequently appeared to preserve antioxidant defenses and mitochondria homeostasis; these protective effects being accompanied by a better transplantation outcome.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , Reperfusion Injury , Adenosine , Allopurinol , Animals , Brain Death , Glutathione , Insulin , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Preservation Solutions , Peptide Initiation Factors/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins , Raffinose , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Swine
17.
Infection ; 49(6): 1265-1275, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453923

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplant recipients and patients on the waiting list for kidney transplant who acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection are at serious risk of developing severe COVID-19, with an increased risk of mortality for the their immunosuppressive state; other risk factors for mortality have been identified in some comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, asthma and chronic lung disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a sharp reduction in kidney transplants in most countries, mainly due to the concern of patients on the waiting list for their potential increased susceptibility to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare facilities and for the difficulties of transplant centers to ensure full activity as hospitals have had to focus most of their attention on COVID-19 patients. Indeed, while the infection curve continued its exponential rise, there was a vertical decline in kidney donation/transplant activity. CONCLUSION: This review article focuses on the damage induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection on kidney and on the adverse effect of this pandemic on the entire kidney transplant sector.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
20.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1695-1703, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound effect on transplantation activity in the United States and globally. Several single-center reports suggest higher morbidity and mortality among candidates waitlisted for a kidney transplant and recipients of a kidney transplant. We aim to describe 2020 mortality patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States among kidney transplant candidates and recipients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using national registry data for waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients collected through April 23, 2021, we report demographic and clinical factors associated with COVID-19-related mortality in 2020, other deaths in 2020, and deaths in 2019 among waitlisted candidates and transplant recipients. We quantify excess all-cause deaths among candidate and recipient populations in 2020 and deaths directly attributed to COVID-19 in relation to prepandemic mortality patterns in 2019 and 2018. RESULTS: Among deaths of patients who were waitlisted in 2020, 11% were attributed to COVID-19, and these candidates were more likely to be male, obese, and belong to a racial/ethnic minority group. Nearly one in six deaths (16%) among active transplant recipients in the United States in 2020 was attributed to COVID-19. Recipients who died of COVID-19 were younger, more likely to be obese, had lower educational attainment, and were more likely to belong to racial/ethnic minority groups than those who died of other causes in 2020 or 2019. We found higher overall mortality in 2020 among waitlisted candidates (24%) than among kidney transplant recipients (20%) compared with 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates higher rates of mortality associated with COVID-19 among waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients in the United States in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Transplant Recipients , Waiting Lists/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
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