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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2948-2957, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions to care for patients with advanced CKD. METHODS: We investigated the incidence of documented ESKD, ESKD treatment modalities, changes in eGFR at dialysis initiation, and use of incident central venous catheters (CVCs) by epidemiologic week during the first half of 2020 compared with 2017-2019 historical trends, using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data. We used Poisson and logistic regression for analyses of incidence and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Incidence of documented ESKD dropped dramatically in 2020 compared with the expected incidence, particularly during epidemiologic weeks 15-18 (April, incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.78). The decrease was most pronounced for individuals aged ≥75 years (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.73). Pre-emptive kidney transplantation decreased markedly during weeks 15-18 (IRR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.67). Mean eGFR at dialysis initiation decreased by 0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in weeks 19-22; non-Hispanic Black patients exhibited the largest decrease, at 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The odds of initiating dialysis with eGFR <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were highest during weeks 19-22 (May, OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17), corresponding to an absolute increase of 2.9%. The odds of initiating peritoneal dialysis (versus hemodialysis) were 24% higher (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.34) in weeks 11-14, an absolute increase of 2.3%. Initiation with a CVC increased by 3.3% (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients starting treatment for ESKD fell to a level not observed since 2011. Changes in documented ESKD incidence and other aspects of ESKD-related care may reflect differential access to care early in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/statistics & numerical data , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , United States , Young Adult
2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2948-2957, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions to care for patients with advanced CKD. METHODS: We investigated the incidence of documented ESKD, ESKD treatment modalities, changes in eGFR at dialysis initiation, and use of incident central venous catheters (CVCs) by epidemiologic week during the first half of 2020 compared with 2017-2019 historical trends, using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data. We used Poisson and logistic regression for analyses of incidence and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Incidence of documented ESKD dropped dramatically in 2020 compared with the expected incidence, particularly during epidemiologic weeks 15-18 (April, incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.78). The decrease was most pronounced for individuals aged ≥75 years (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.73). Pre-emptive kidney transplantation decreased markedly during weeks 15-18 (IRR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.67). Mean eGFR at dialysis initiation decreased by 0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in weeks 19-22; non-Hispanic Black patients exhibited the largest decrease, at 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The odds of initiating dialysis with eGFR <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were highest during weeks 19-22 (May, OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17), corresponding to an absolute increase of 2.9%. The odds of initiating peritoneal dialysis (versus hemodialysis) were 24% higher (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.34) in weeks 11-14, an absolute increase of 2.3%. Initiation with a CVC increased by 3.3% (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients starting treatment for ESKD fell to a level not observed since 2011. Changes in documented ESKD incidence and other aspects of ESKD-related care may reflect differential access to care early in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/statistics & numerical data , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , United States , Young Adult
4.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(7): 651-658, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323414

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has emerged as a global pandemic with significant impacts on health care systems. The present study was conducted to analyze the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on nephrology and transplant services and clinical training at our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study was conducted at the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Centre (Ahmedabad, India). Our institute is one of the largest tertiary care centers of its kind in India with around 400 total inpatient beds for nephrology, urology, and transplant patients. In 2019, our center had annual outpatient and inpatient numbers of 132 181 and 7471, respectively, and conducted 412 renal transplant procedures. For this study, monthly data on number of outpatients, inpatients, and patients undergoing renal transplant, as well as various nonelective procedures, conducted in 2019 and 2020 were collected and analyzed. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on various non-COVID-19-related health care facilities and on clinical training and research activities at our institute. RESULTS: During the 2020 COVID-19 period, the number of outpatients and inpatients was greatly reduced compared with data from 2019. A similar decrease was seen in patients undergoing hemodialysis, renal transplant, and nonelective procedures at our center. The COVID-19 period also greatly affected clinical training of residents enrolled at our institute and research activities, as a result of focus on COVID-19 as a priority. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of reduced numbers of outpatients and inpatients on workflow, as well as reduced numbers of renal transplants and nonelective procedures on the health of our patients, are unknown. Hence, a strategic scheme is needed to develop new health care models that can help manage the COVID-19 pandemic at present and any further waves arising in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Nephrology/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Prospective Studies
5.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 17(8): 554-568, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319029

ABSTRACT

Although overall donation and transplantation activity is higher in Europe than on other continents, differences between European countries in almost every aspect of transplantation activity (for example, in the number of transplantations, the number of people with a functioning graft, in rates of living versus deceased donation, and in the use of expanded criteria donors) suggest that there is ample room for improvement. Herein we review the policy and clinical measures that should be considered to increase access to transplantation and improve post-transplantation outcomes. This Roadmap, generated by a group of major European stakeholders collaborating within a Thematic Network, presents an outline of the challenges to increasing transplantation rates and proposes 12 key areas along with specific measures that should be considered to promote transplantation. This framework can be adopted by countries and institutions that are interested in advancing transplantation, both within and outside the European Union. Within this framework, a priority ranking of initiatives is suggested that could serve as the basis for a new European Union Action Plan on Organ Donation and Transplantation.


Subject(s)
Organ Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Europe/epidemiology , European Union , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Organ Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Stakeholder Participation , Tissue and Organ Procurement/organization & administration , Tissue and Organ Procurement/statistics & numerical data , Waiting Lists/mortality
7.
Transplant Proc ; 53(4): 1146-1153, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104308

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus, which first appeared in 2019, developed into a pandemic during 2020. It remains unclear to what extent the pandemic endangers the safety of kidney transplantation programs. In this study, we evaluated the short-term outcomes of our patients receiving a kidney transplant during the first phase and compared them with patients who received a kidney transplant immediately before the coronavirus pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our retrospective study includes 34 kidney transplant recipients between October 1, 2019, and April 30, 2020. Nineteen patients from the phase immediately prior to the first coronavirus wave (pre-corona group), and 15 patients from the phase of the first coronavirus wave (corona group) were studied. We retrospectively evaluated demographic data, postoperative short-term outcomes and complications, immunosuppression regime, coronavirus infection status, and behavior during the first phase of the pandemic. RESULTS: There were no differences between the 2 groups regarding short-term outcomes and postoperative complications or in immunosuppressive medication. After the introduction of intensified hygienic conditions and routine swabs prior to transplantation, no nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred. In the outpatient setting, none of the patients developed a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The majority of patients performed voluntary quarantine. CONCLUSIONS: The short-term outcomes after kidney transplantation during the first phase of the coronavirus pandemic were comparable to pre-pandemic patients, and no SARS-CoV-2-associated death or transplant failure occurred in our small cohort. We considered patient compliance with hygiene and self-isolation measures very high. Nevertheless, in further phases of the pandemic, the continuation of the living kidney donation program must be critically evaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/virology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 26(3): 252-254, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088144

ABSTRACT

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with a high mortality rate among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited data on the clinical features, ethnicity, inpatient glycaemic control and outcomes in patients with diabetes related ESRD in the literature. We report the clinical features and outcomes of 39 consecutive ESRD patients (28 on haemodialysis [HD] and 11 with renal transplant) secondary to diabetic kidney disease admitted to a university hospital with COVID-19. We observed a high prevalence of patients of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity hospitalized with COVID-19 with a 73% and 54% prevalence in renal transplant and HD groups respectively. The mortality rate of our cohort was 36%. Nearly a one-third of HD patients and one-fifth of transplant patients had hypoglycaemic events during COVID-19 hospitalization. Adjustment of diabetes treatment was frequently required. Our data highlight the importance of integrated multidisciplinary care of patients with diabetes related ESRD hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Caribbean Region , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/ethnology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/ethnology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Patient Care Team , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Actas Urol Esp (Engl Ed) ; 44(10): 665-673, 2020 Dec.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986881

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has changed the urological practice around the world. Our objective is to describe the outcomes presented by patients undergoing surgery in the urology department of a tertiary hospital, across the pandemic phases. METHODS: Observational, cohort study including all patients undergoing surgery from March 1 to May 14. According to the hospital organization, we identified three periods: there were no changes during the first two weeks (1st. period), the following seven weeks, when only urgent interventions were carried out after performance of nasopharyngeal swab test (2nd. period), and finally, elective surgery was resumed on May 4, after the implementation of a multidisciplinary screening protocol (3rd. period). Demographic, baseline, surgical and perioperative variables, as well as postoperative outcomes, were obtained in a retrospective (periods 1 and 2) and prospective (period 3) manner. Telephone follow-up was initiated at least 3 weeks after hospital discharge. RESULTS: 103 urological surgeries were performed, and 11 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, 8 of them within the 1st. PERIOD: The diagnosis was already known in 1 patient, while the other 10 developed the disease in an average of 25 days after the intervention and 16,6 days after discharge. Of seven transplant patients, four got the infection. Three deaths were recorded due to the disease: a 69-year-old woman transplanted and two men over 80 with comorbidities and high anesthetic risk who underwent drainage of retroperitoneal abscess and retrograde intrarenal surgery, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affected renal transplant recipients or elderly patients with high anesthetic risk, during the first 2 weeks of the pandemic. After implementing preoperative PCR tests and a comprehensive screening protocol, cases were substantially reduced, and safe surgical procedures were achieved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Urologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers , Urology Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data
10.
Actas Urol Esp (Engl Ed) ; 45(2): 116-123, 2021 Mar.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935348

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the national transplant activity has been reduced due to the overload of the health system and concern for patient safety in this situation. The aim of our work is to expose the activity of kidney transplantation in Cantabria during the state of alarm, as well as to assess the safety of the transplantation program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of kidney transplants performed in our Center from the beginning of the state of alarm until the beginning of the lockdown easing in Cantabria. Descriptive analysis of the demographic data of recipients and their donors, intraoperative data and postoperative outcomes. Comparative analysis with the data of the same period in 2017-2019, by means of the χ2 for categorical variables, Student's T and Mann-Whitney U tests in case of quantitative variables of normal and non-normal distribution, respectively. RESULTS: Fifteen kidney transplants were performed in the period described. Delayed renal function (DRF) was seen in 7.5% of patients, and 26.6% showed data of acute rejection; no patient presented COVID-19 disease. Comparative analysis showed a remarkable increase in the number of transplants in comparison with previous periods (15 vs 5.6), at the expense of donors from outside Cantabria (93.3%). We found no statistically significant differences in terms of cold ischemia time (p=0.77), DRF (p=0.73), need for dialysis (p=0.54), or appearance of post-surgical complications (p=0.61). CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of the pandemic in our region, and the adoption of strict protective measures has allowed the early and safe resumption of the renal transplantation program, increasing the number of transplants performed compared to previous years and maintaining comparable early post-operative results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Pandemics , Adult , Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cold Ischemia , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Rejection/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Diseases/surgery , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute/chemically induced , Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Pancreas Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Plasmapheresis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Reoperation/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 26(3): 252-254, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889796

ABSTRACT

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with a high mortality rate among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited data on the clinical features, ethnicity, inpatient glycaemic control and outcomes in patients with diabetes related ESRD in the literature. We report the clinical features and outcomes of 39 consecutive ESRD patients (28 on haemodialysis [HD] and 11 with renal transplant) secondary to diabetic kidney disease admitted to a university hospital with COVID-19. We observed a high prevalence of patients of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity hospitalized with COVID-19 with a 73% and 54% prevalence in renal transplant and HD groups respectively. The mortality rate of our cohort was 36%. Nearly a one-third of HD patients and one-fifth of transplant patients had hypoglycaemic events during COVID-19 hospitalization. Adjustment of diabetes treatment was frequently required. Our data highlight the importance of integrated multidisciplinary care of patients with diabetes related ESRD hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Caribbean Region , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/ethnology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/ethnology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Patient Care Team , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5703963, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-878206

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a virus that causes a potentially deadly syndrome that affects especially the respiratory tract. Kidney-transplanted patients are immunosuppressed and more susceptible to viral infections. We have examined our transplantation activity to explore the future role of kidney transplantation from deceased and living donors in COVID-19 era. Patients and Methods. The activity of our transplant center of Naples (one of the two transplant centers in Campania, South Italy) continued during the COVID-19 pandemic. We have analysed the kidney transplants carried out between March 9 and June 9, 2020, comparing these data with the numbers of procedures performed in the two previous years. Moreover, we have considered the possibility of performing living donor transplants during a worldwide pandemic. Results: From March 9, 2020, when the Italian lockdown begun, till June 9, 2020, five kidney transplants have been performed at our transplant center in Naples, all from deceased donors. The donors and the recipients have been screened for COVID-19 infection, and the patients, all asymptomatic, followed strict preventive measures and were fully informed about the risks of surgery and immunosuppression during a pandemic. All the transplanted patients remained COVID negative during the follow-up. The number of transplants performed has been constant compared to the same months of 2018 and 2019. In agreement with the patients, we decided to postpone living donor transplants to a period of greater control of the SARS-CoV-2 spread in Italy. Conclusion: Deceased donor kidney transplantation should continue, especially in a region with moderate risk, like Campania, with a more careful selection of donors and recipients, preferring standard donors and recipients without severe comorbidities. Living donor transplantation program, instead, should be postponed to a period of greater control of the SARS-CoV-2 spread, as it is an elective surgery and its delay does not determine additional risks for patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/psychology , Living Donors/psychology , Living Donors/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 419, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a worldwide pandemic with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, overwhelming healthcare systems globally. Preliminary reports suggest a high incidence of infection and mortality with SARS-CoV-2 in patients receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT). The aims of this study are to report characteristics, rates and outcomes of all patients affected by infection with SARS-CoV-2 undergoing KRT in Scotland. METHODS: Study design was an observational cohort study. Data were linked between the Scottish Renal Registry, Health Protection Scotland and the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group national data sets using a unique patient identifier (Community Health Index (CHI)) for each individual by the Public Health and Intelligence unit of Public Health, Scotland. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: During the period 1st March 2020 to 31st May 2020, 110 patients receiving KRT tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 amounting to 2% of the prevalent KRT population. Of those affected, 86 were receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and 24 had a renal transplant. Patients who tested positive were older and more likely to reside in more deprived postcodes. Mortality was high at 26.7% in the dialysis patients and 29.2% in the transplant patients. CONCLUSION: The rate of detected SARS-CoV-2 in people receiving KRT in Scotland was relatively low but with a high mortality for those demonstrating infection. Although impossible to confirm, it appears that the measures taken within dialysis units coupled with the national shielding policy, have been effective in protecting this population from infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Renal Replacement Therapy , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology
15.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(1): 143-151, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, COVID-19 infections began to rise exponentially in the USA, placing substantial burden on the healthcare system. As a result, there was a rapid change in transplant practices and policies, with cessation of most procedures. Our goal was to understand changes to pediatric kidney transplantation (KT) at the national level during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: Using SRTR data, we examined changes in pediatric waitlist registration, waitlist removal or inactivation, and deceased donor and living donor (DDKT/LDKT) events during the start of the disease transmission in the USA compared with the same time the previous year. RESULTS: We saw an initial decrease in DDKT and LDKT by 47% and 82% compared with expected events and then a continual increase, with numbers reaching expected prepandemic levels by May 2020. In the early phase of the pandemic, waitlist inactivation and removals due to death or deteriorating condition rose above expected values by 152% and 189%, respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in new waitlist additions (IRR 0.49 0.65 0.85) and LDKT (IRR 0.17 0.38 0.84) in states with high vs. low COVID activity. Transplant recipients during the pandemic were more likely to have received a DDKT, but had similar calculated panel-reactive antibody (cPRA) values, waitlist time, and cause of kidney failure as before the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic initially reduced access to kidney transplantation among pediatric patients in the USA but has not had a sustained effect.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Living Donors/statistics & numerical data , Waiting Lists/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(10): 2413-2423, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. However, risk factors for COVID-19 disease in patients with kidney transplants remain poorly defined. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent kidney transplantation and were actively followed up in two hospitals in Paris on March 1st, 2020. Patients were screened for baseline and transplant characteristics, functional parameters, comorbidities, and immunosuppressive therapies. COVID-19 disease was assessed. Patients were followed up during the pandemic until April 30th, 2020 by the COVID-19 SLS KT survey program, including teleconsulting, at-home monitoring for patients with COVID-19, and a dedicated phone hotline platform. RESULTS: Among 1216 patients with kidney transplants enrolled, 66 (5%) patients were identified with COVID-19 disease, which is higher than the incidence observed in the general population in France (0.3%). Their mean age was 56.4±12.5 years, and 37 (56%) patients were men. The following factors were independently associated with COVID-19 disease: non-White ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.23 to 3.78; P=0.007), obesity (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.19 to 4.05; P=0.01), asthma and chronic pulmonary disease (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.49 to 6.41; P=0.002), and diabetes (OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.92 to 5.77; P<0.001). The mortality rate related to COVID-19 disease was 1% in the overall study population and 24% in COVID-19-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with kidney transplants display a high risk of mortality. Non-White ethnicity and comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, asthma, and chronic pulmonary disease were associated with higher risk of developing COVID-19 disease. It is imperative that policy makers urgently ensure the integration of such risk factors on response operations against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , France , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/organization & administration , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data
19.
Ann Transplant ; 25: e925755, 2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676253

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic is challenging. Modifying the immunosuppression protocols is controversial and not evidence based. In this study, we aim to review the published literature of kidney transplant recipients who encountered COVID-19. A literature review was performed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and World Health Organization databases to identify relevant English-language articles published up to May 7, 2020. There were 24 articles that reported 129 kidney transplant recipients who encountered COVID-19. The age mean was 54.2 years with 73.7% as males. The most commonly reported presentations in order were fever (82.3%), cough (58%), shortness of breath (33.2%), and fatigue (30.7%). Acute kidney injury was observed in 34.1% of patients. Kidney transplant patients encountered COVID-19 were maintained on tacrolimus (Tac, 92%), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, 78.8%), and prednisone (Pred, 77%) and were manage by holding MMF in 79.1% of patients and holding Tac in 34.4% of patients. In all, 20% of patients needed Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and 24.6% of patients required mechanical ventilation. In all, 18.8% of patients had died compared to the reported general population COVID-19 mortality of 3.4%. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients may be different from the general population with a higher rate of severe disease, complications including renal failure, and mortality.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/surgery , Adult , COVID-19 , Databases, Factual , Female , Graft Survival , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , World Health Organization
20.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3140-3148, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638753

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients may be at a high risk of developing critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness due to chronic immunosuppression and comorbidities. We identified hospitalized adult kidney transplant recipients at 12 transplant centers in the United States, Italy, and Spain who tested positive for COVID-19. Clinical presentation, laboratory values, immunosuppression, and treatment strategies were reviewed, and predictors of poor clinical outcomes were determined through multivariable analyses. Among 9845 kidney transplant recipients across centers, 144 were hospitalized due to COVID-19 during the 9-week study period. Of the 144 patients, 66% were male with a mean age of 60 (±12) years, and 40% were Hispanic and 25% were African American. Prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (95%), diabetes (52%), obesity (49%), and heart (28%) and lung (19%) disease. Therapeutic management included antimetabolite withdrawal (68%), calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal (23%), hydroxychloroquine (71%), antibiotics (74%), tocilizumab (13%), and antivirals (14%). During a median follow-up period of 52 days (IQR: 16-66 days), acute kidney injury occurred in 52% cases, with respiratory failure requiring intubation in 29%, and the mortality rate was 32%. The 46 patients who died were older, had lower lymphocyte counts and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels, and had higher serum lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 levels. In sum, hospitalized kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 have higher rates of acute kidney injury and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , North America/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
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