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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700470

ABSTRACT

As of December 2021, SARS-CoV-2 had caused over 250 million infections and 5 million deaths worldwide. Furthermore, despite the development of highly effective vaccines, novel variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to sustain the pandemic, and the search for effective therapies for COVID-19 remains as urgent as ever. Though the primary manifestation of COVID-19 is pneumonia, the disease can affect multiple organs, including the kidneys, with acute kidney injury (AKI) being among the most common extrapulmonary manifestations of severe COVID-19. In this article, we start by reflecting on the epidemiology of kidney disease in COVID-19, which overwhelmingly demonstrates that AKI is common in COVID-19 and is strongly associated with poor outcomes. We also present emerging data showing that COVID-19 may result in long-term renal impairment and delve into the ongoing debate about whether AKI in COVID-19 is mediated by direct viral injury. Next, we focus on the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by both reviewing previously published data and presenting some novel data on the mechanisms of cellular viral entry. Finally, we relate these molecular mechanisms to a series of therapies currently under investigation and propose additional novel therapeutic targets for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Kidney/virology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Animals , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology
3.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(3): 491-500, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need to assess the long-term outcomes of survivors of critical illness from COVID-19. METHODS: Ninety-two survivors of critical illness from COVID-19 from four hospitals in Hubei Province, China participated in this prospective cohort study. Multiple characteristics, including lung function (lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, chest computed tomography scores, and walking capacity); immune status (SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibody and all subtypes of immunoglobulin (Ig) G against SARS-CoV-2, immune cells in response to ex vivo antigen peptide stimuli, and lymphocyte count and its subtypes); liver, coagulation, and kidney functions; quality of life; cognitive function; and mental status, were assessed after 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Amongst the 92 enrolled survivors, 72 (78%) patients required mechanical ventilation. At 12 months, the predicted percentage diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide was 82% (inter-quartile range [IQR]: 76-97%) with a residual volume of 77 (64-88)%. Other lung function parameters and the 6-min walk test improved gradually over time and were almost back to normal by 12 months. The titres of IgG and neutralising antibody to COVID-19 remained high at 12 months compared with those of controls who were not infected with COVID-19, although IgG titres decreased significantly from 34.0 (IQR: 23.8-74.3) to 15.0 (5.8-24.3) AU ml-1 (P<0.001), whereas neutralising antibodies decreased from 29.99 (IQR: 19.43-53.93) AU ml-1 at 6 months to 19.75 (13.1-29.8) AU ml-1 (P<0.001) at 12 months. In general, liver, kidney, physical, and mental functions also improved over time. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of critical illness from COVID-19 show some persistent long-term impairments in lung function. However, a majority of these tests were normal by 12 months. These patients still had detectable levels of neutralising antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and all types of IgG at 12 months, but the levels had declined over this time period. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: None.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Survivors , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , China , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Walk Test
5.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 381, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney dysfunction occurs in severe COVID-19, and is a predictor of COVID-19 mortality. Whether kidney dysfunction causes severe COVID-19, and hence is a target of intervention, or whether it is a symptom, is unclear because conventional observational studies are open to confounding. To obtain unconfounded estimates, we used Mendelian randomization to examine the role of kidney function in severe COVID-19. METHODS: We used genome-wide significant, uncorrelated genetic variants to predict kidney function, in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and then assessed whether people with genetically instrumented higher eGFR or lower UACR, an indication of better kidney function, had a lower risk of severe COVID-19 (8779 cases, 1,001,875 controls), using the largest available cohorts with extensive genotyping. For comprehensiveness, we also examined their role in COVID-19 hospitalization (24,274 cases, 2,061,529 controls) and all COVID-19 (1,12,612 cases, 2,474,079 controls). RESULTS: Genetically instrumented higher eGFR was associated with lower risk of severe COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83, 0.98) but not related to COVID-19 hospitalization or infection. Genetically instrumented UACR was not related to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney function appears to be one of the key targets for severe COVID-19 treatment. Use of available medications to improve kidney function, such as antihypertensives, might be beneficial for COVID-19 treatment, with relevance to drug repositioning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Glomerular Filtration Rate/genetics , Kidney/physiopathology , Patient Acuity , Albuminuria/urine , Case-Control Studies , Creatinine/urine , Genetic Variation , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hospitalization , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , /genetics
6.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(10): 1601-1609, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502239

ABSTRACT

AKI is a common complication in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Its incidence has steadily increased over the past decade. Whether transient or prolonged, AKI is an independent risk factor associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes, even if patients do not require KRT. Most patients with early AKI improve with conservative management; however, some will require dialysis for a few days, a few weeks, or even months. Approximately 10%-30% of AKI survivors may still need dialysis after hospital discharge. These patients have a higher associated risk of death, rehospitalization, recurrent AKI, and CKD, and a lower quality of life. Survivors of critical illness may also suffer from cognitive dysfunction, muscle weakness, prolonged ventilator dependence, malnutrition, infections, chronic pain, and poor wound healing. Collaboration and communication among nephrologists, primary care physicians, rehabilitation providers, physical therapists, nutritionists, nurses, pharmacists, and other members of the health care team are essential to create a holistic and patient-centric care plan for overall recovery. Integration of the patient and family members in health care decisions, and ongoing education throughout the process, are vital to improve patient well-being. From the nephrologist standpoint, assessing and promoting recovery of kidney function, and providing appropriate short- and long-term follow-up, are crucial to prevent rehospitalizations and to reduce complications. Return to baseline functional status is the ultimate goal for most patients, and dialysis independence is an important part of that goal. In this review, we seek to highlight the varying aspects and stages of recovery from AKI complicating critical illness, and propose viable strategies to promote recovery of kidney function and dialysis independence. We also emphasize the need for ongoing research and multidisciplinary collaboration to improve outcomes in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Kidney/physiopathology , Renal Dialysis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Humans , Recovery of Function , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 69-85, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, the acute pyelonephritis that can result from urinary tract infections (UTIs), which commonly ascend from the bladder to the kidney, is a growing concern because it poses a risk of renal scarring and irreversible loss of kidney function. To date, the cellular mechanisms underlying acute pyelonephritis-driven renal scarring remain unknown. METHODS: We used a preclinical model of uropathogenic Escherichia coli-induced acute pyelonephritis to determine the contribution of neutrophils and monocytes to resolution of the condition and the subsequent development of kidney fibrosis. We used cell-specific monoclonal antibodies to eliminate neutrophils, monocytes, or both. Bacterial ascent and the cell dynamics of phagocytic cells were assessed by biophotonic imaging and flow cytometry, respectively. We used quantitative RT-PCR and histopathologic analyses to evaluate inflammation and renal scarring. RESULTS: We found that neutrophils are critical to control bacterial ascent, which is in line with previous studies suggesting a protective role for neutrophils during a UTI, whereas monocyte-derived macrophages orchestrate a strong, but ineffective, inflammatory response against uropathogenic, E. coli-induced, acute pyelonephritis. Experimental neutropenia during acute pyelonephritis resulted in a compensatory increase in the number of monocytes and heightened macrophage-dependent inflammation in the kidney. Exacerbated macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses promoted renal scarring and compromised renal function, as indicated by elevated serum creatinine, BUN, and potassium. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal a previously unappreciated outcome for neutrophil-macrophage imbalance in promoting host susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis and the development of permanent renal damage. This suggests targeting dysregulated macrophage responses might be a therapeutic tool to prevent renal scarring during acute pyelonephritis.


Subject(s)
Cicatrix/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Macrophages/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Pyelonephritis/metabolism , Animals , Escherichia coli , Female , Fibrosis/microbiology , Fibrosis/physiopathology , Inflammation , Kidney/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/metabolism , Phagocytosis , Pyelonephritis/microbiology , Pyelonephritis/physiopathology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/physiopathology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252979, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients are a unique cohort in regard to SARS-CoV 2 susceptibility and clinical course, owing to their immunosuppressed state and propensity for kidney injury. The primary purpose of this study is to ascertain if, in kidney transplant recipients, SARS-CoV 2 infection impacts long term renal allograft function. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study reviewed 53 kidney transplant recipients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR at NMH from January 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020. RESULTS: Change in eGFR from baseline kidney function prior to infection to 90 days after the first positive SARS-CoV 2 test was +1.76%, -17.5% and -23.16% the mild, moderate and severe disease groups respectively. There was a significant decline in kidney function in the moderate and severe disease cohorts as compared to the mild disease cohort, with respective p values of p = 0.0002 and p = 0.021. Relative to the mild disease cohort, the moderate and severe disease cohorts also demonstrated significantly increased risk of developing AKI (66%, 85%), both with p values of P = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically severe SARS-CoV 2 infection is associated with greater risk of acute kidney injury and greater decline in renal allograft function at 90 days post infection, compared to mild disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Allografts/virology , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Allografts/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients
9.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 297, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney disease and renal failure are associated with hospital deaths in patients with COVID - 19. We aimed to test if contrast enhancement affects short-term renal function in hospitalized COVID - 19 patients. METHODS: Plasma creatinine (P-creatinine) was measured on the day of computed tomography (CT) and 24 h, 48 h, and 4-10 days after CT. Contrast-enhanced (n = 142) and unenhanced (n = 24) groups were subdivided, based on estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), > 60 and ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Contrast-induced acute renal failure (CI-AKI) was defined as ≥27 µmol/L increase or a > 50% rise in P-creatinine from CT or initiation of renal replacement therapy during follow-up. Patients with renal replacement therapy were studied separately. We evaluated factors associated with a > 50% rise in P-creatinine at 48 h and at 4-10 days after contrast-enhanced CT. RESULTS: Median P-creatinine at 24-48 h and days 4-10 post-CT in patients with eGFR> 60 and eGFR≥30-60 in contrast-enhanced and unenhanced groups did not differ from basal values. CI-AKI was observed at 48 h and at 4-10 days post contrast administration in 24 and 36% (n = 5/14) of patients with eGFR≥30-60. Corresponding figures in the eGFR> 60 contrast-enhanced CT group were 5 and 5% respectively, (p < 0.037 and p < 0.001, Pearson χ2 test). In the former group, four of the five patients died within 30 days. Odds ratio analysis showed that an eGFR≥30-60 and 30-day mortality were associated with CK-AKI both at 48 h and 4-10 days after contrast-enhanced CT. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID - 19 and eGFR≥30-60 had a high frequency of CK-AKI at 48 h and at 4-10 days after contrast administration, which was associated with increased 30-day mortality. For patients with eGFR≥30-60, we recommend strict indications are practiced for contrast-enhanced CT. Contrast-enhanced CT had a modest effect in patients with eGFR> 60.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Iodine/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Regression Analysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.2): 373-381, 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1319541

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19 is a pandemic associated with systemic clinical manifestations. In this study, we aimed to present a narrative review on kidney involvement in COVID-19. Kidney involvement could be derived from direct cytopathic effects, immunological mechanisms, indirect effects on renal tissue through other mediators, and dysfunction or injury of other organs. The evolution of COVID-19 may be complicated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in a significant percentage of patients, and renal dysfunction seems to be associated with worse prognosis. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) seem to be more susceptible to the severe forms of COVID-19. Patients with renal replacement therapy (RRT) are also a vulnerable population as consequence of their advanced age, underlying comorbidities, impaired immune response, and clustering in hemodialysis centers, with requirements for frequent contact with healthcare services. Kidney transplant patients may be at high-risk due to long-term immunosuppression and comorbidities, hence, managing immunosuppression is imperative. Lastly, renal replacement therapy may be required during COVID-19, and different modalities are discussed based on clinical findings and laboratorial aspects. Therefore, COVID-19 seems to affect kidney by different mechanisms, which contributes for AKI development and increases the severity of the disease. Also, patients with CKD and kidney transplant recipients are at higher risk for COVID-19 and mortality.


Resumo COVID-19 é uma pandemia associada a manifestações clínicas sistêmicas. Neste estudo, apresenta-se revisão narrativa acerca do envolvimento renal na COVID-19. Envolvimento renal parece ser relacionado a efeitos citopáticos diretos, mecanismos imunológicos, efeitos indiretos de outros mediadores no tecido renal, além de disfunção e lesão de outros órgãos. A evolução da COVID-19 pode ser complicada por lesão renal aguda (LRA) em percentual significativo dos pacientes, e a disfunção renal parece ser associada a pior prognóstico. Pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC) parecem ser mais suscetíveis a formas severas da COVID-19. Pacientes em terapia de substituição renal (TSR) contínua também constituem população vulnerável em razão de idade avançada, comorbidades subjacentes, resposta imune disfuncional e aglomeração em unidades de diálise, com necessidade de visitas frequentes aos serviços de saúde. Pacientes transplantados renais podem estar em alto risco dadas imunossupressão a longo prazo e comorbidades; assim, o manejo da imunossupressão é mandatório. Finalmente, TSR pode ser necessária durante a COVID-19, e diferentes modalidades são discutidas conforme manifestações clínicas e aspectos laboratoriais. Assim, COVID-19 parece acometer os rins por diferentes mecanismos, os quais contribuem para o desenvolvimento de LRA e aumento da severidade da doença. Ainda, pacientes com DRC e transplantados renais apresentam elevado risco para desenvolvimento de COVID-19 e de mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Replacement Therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Acute Kidney Injury , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Groups , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney/physiopathology
11.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(2, Mar-Abr): 253-261, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310303

ABSTRACT

 Objetivo. Resumir la evidencia científica sobre las altera-ciones renales asociadas con la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Material y métodos. Se realizó una revisión rápida con la metodología Cochrane. Resultados. La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) preexistente en pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 varió de 1 a 38% y la lesión renal aguda (LRA), de 2.9 a 86.4%. El pronóstico de la infección fue peor en pacientes con ERC y en aquellos con reserva renal remanente (RRR) intacta que desarrollaron LRA. El riesgo de muerte fue mayor (riesgo relativo combinado = 1.49; IC95%: 1.09-2.04) en pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 con ERC preexistente. Los mar-cadores de RRR mostraron alteraciones en pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 graves y fatales; el marcador más utilizado fue la creatinina sérica. Conclusiones. La evidencia científica muestra la relevancia de la evaluación y monitoreo perma-nente de la RRR en pacientes hospitalizados por SARS-CoV-2 para mejorar el pronóstico de aquellos con ERC preexistente, así como de aquellos sin ERC que desarrollan LRA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Humans
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 663, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high mortality rate, especially in patients with severe illness. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the potential predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and three electronic Chinese databases were searched from December 1, 2019 to April 29, 2020. Eligible studies reporting potential predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19 were identified. Unadjusted prognostic effect estimates were pooled using the random-effects model if data from at least two studies were available. Adjusted prognostic effect estimates were presented by qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-six observational studies were identified, of which 27 were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 106 potential risk factors were tested, and the following important predictors were associated with mortality: advanced age, male sex, current smoking status, preexisting comorbidities (especially chronic kidney, respiratory, and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases), symptoms of dyspnea, complications during hospitalization, corticosteroid therapy and a severe condition. Additionally, a series of abnormal laboratory biomarkers of hematologic parameters, hepatorenal function, inflammation, coagulation, and cardiovascular injury were also associated with fatal outcome. CONCLUSION: We identified predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19. These findings could help healthcare providers take appropriate measures and improve clinical outcomes in such patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Age Distribution , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Smokers/statistics & numerical data
13.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 30(4): 387-396, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297432

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging studies analyzing the association between vitamin D and risk of COVID-19 infection and severity, as well as the early interventional studies investigating the protective effect of vitamin D supplementation against COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies investigating the association between vitamin D levels and risk of COVID-19 infection and risk of severe disease and mortality among those infected have yielded mixed results. Thus far, the majority of studies investigating the association between vitamin D and COVID-19 have been observational and rely on vitamin D levels obtained at the time of admission, limiting causal inference. Currently, clinical trials assessing the effects of vitamin D supplementation in individuals with COVID-19 infection are extremely limited. Randomized, interventional trials may offer more clarity on the protective effects of vitamin D against COVID-19 infection and outcomes. SUMMARY: Decreased levels of vitamin D may amplify the inflammatory effects of COVID-19 infection, yet, data regarding the mortality benefits of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19-infected individuals are still limited. Current observational data provides the impetus for future studies to including randomized controlled trials to determine whether vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19-infected individuals with kidney disease can improve mortality outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
14.
Magnes Res ; 34(1): 20-31, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282349

ABSTRACT

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Latin American subjects in particular are at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 and mortality. Altered renal function and lower magnesium levels have been reported to play important roles in the pathophysiology of T2D. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between renal function, serum magnesium levels and mortality in T2D patients with COVID-19. In this retrospective study, we characterized 118 T2D and non-diabetic subjects hospitalized with COVID-19. Patients were clinically characterized and electrolyte, renal function and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2). T2D patients had lower eGFR and serum magnesium levels when compared to non-diabetics (59.7 ± 32.8 vs. 78.4 ± 33.8 mL/min per 1.73 m2, P = 0.008 and 1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 2.1 ± 0.3 mEq/L, P = 0.012). Survival was worse in T2D patients with eGFR levels less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 as estimated by Kaplan-Meier analyses (log-rank test <0.0001). The Cox model for T2D patients showed that eGFR (HR 0.970, 95% CI 0.949 to 0.991, P = 0.005) and magnesium (HR 8.025, 95% CI 1.226 to 52.512, P = 0.030) were associated with significantly increased risk of death. Reduced eGFR and magnesium levels were associated with increased mortality in our population. These results suggest that early assessment of kidney function, including magnesium levels, may assist in developing effective treatment strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality among Latin American COVID-19 patients with T2D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Kidney/physiopathology , Magnesium/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/diagnosis , Diabetic Nephropathies/mortality , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
15.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 202, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms driving acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill COVID-19 patients are unclear. We collected kidney biopsies from COVID-19 AKI patients within 30 min after death in order to examine the histopathology and perform mRNA expression analysis of genes associated with renal injury. METHODS: This study involved histopathology and mRNA analyses of postmortem kidney biopsies collected from patients with COVID-19 (n = 6) and bacterial sepsis (n = 27). Normal control renal tissue was obtained from patients undergoing total nephrectomy (n = 12). The mean length of ICU admission-to-biopsy was 30 days for COVID-19 and 3-4 days for bacterial sepsis patients. RESULTS: We did not detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in kidney biopsies from COVID-19-AKI patients yet lung tissue from the same patients was PCR positive. Extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and peritubular thrombi were distinct histopathology features of COVID-19-AKI compared to bacterial sepsis-AKI. ACE2 mRNA levels in both COVID-19 (fold change 0.42, p = 0.0002) and bacterial sepsis patients (fold change 0.24, p < 0.0001) were low compared to control. The mRNA levels of injury markers NGAL and KIM-1 were unaltered compared to control tissue but increased in sepsis-AKI patients. Markers for inflammation and endothelial activation were unaltered in COVID-19 suggesting a lack of renal inflammation. Renal mRNA levels of endothelial integrity markers CD31, PV-1 and VE-Cadherin did not differ from control individuals yet were increased in bacterial sepsis patients (CD31 fold change 2.3, p = 0.0006, PV-1 fold change 1.5, p = 0.008). Angiopoietin-1 mRNA levels were downregulated in renal tissue from both COVID-19 (fold change 0.27, p < 0.0001) and bacterial sepsis patients (fold change 0.67, p < 0.0001) compared to controls. Moreover, low Tie2 mRNA expression (fold change 0.33, p = 0.037) and a disturbed VEGFR2/VEGFR3 ratio (fold change 0.09, p < 0.0001) suggest decreased microvascular flow in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In a small cohort of postmortem kidney biopsies from COVID-19 patients, we observed distinct histopathological and gene expression profiles between COVID-19-AKI and bacterial sepsis-AKI. COVID-19 was associated with more severe ATN and microvascular thrombosis coupled with decreased microvascular flow, yet minimal inflammation. Further studies are required to determine whether these observations are a result of true pathophysiological differences or related to the timing of biopsy after disease onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Gene Expression/genetics , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Sepsis/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/physiopathology , Simplified Acute Physiology Score
16.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 168, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, outcomes markedly differ between locations, regions and countries. One possible cause for these variations in outcomes could be differences in patient treatment limitations (PTL) in different locations. We thus studied their role as predictor for mortality in a population of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In a region with high incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, adult hospitalized patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were prospectively registered and characterized regarding sex, age, vital signs, symptoms, comorbidities (including Charlson comorbidity index (CCI)), transcutaneous pulse oximetry (SpO2) and laboratory values upon admission, as well as ICU-stay including respiratory support, discharge, transfer to another hospital and death. PTL assessed by routine clinical procedures comprised the acceptance of ICU-therapy, orotracheal intubation and/or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. RESULTS: Among 526 patients included (median [quartiles] age 73 [57; 82] years, 47% female), 226 (43%) had at least one treatment limitation. Each limitation was associated with age, dementia and eGFR (p < 0.05 each), that regarding resuscitation additionally with Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and cardiac disease. Overall mortality was 27% and lower (p < 0.001) in patients without treatment limitation (12%) compared to those with any limitation (47%). In univariate analyses, age and comorbidities (diabetes, cardiac, cerebrovascular, renal, hepatic, malignant disease, dementia), SpO2, hemoglobin, leucocyte numbers, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 and LDH were predictive for death (p < 0.05 each). In multivariate analyses, the presence of any treatment limitation was an independent predictor of death (OR 4.34, 95%-CI 2.10-12.30; p = 0.001), in addition to CCI, eGFR < 55 ml/min, neutrophil number > 5 G/l, CRP > 7 mg/l and SpO2 < 93% (p < 0.05 each). CONCLUSION: In hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2, the percentage of patients with treatment limitations was high. PTL were linked to age, comorbidities and eGFR assessed upon admission and strong, independent risk factors for mortality. These findings might be useful for further understanding of COVID-19 mortality and its regional variations. Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04344171.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Hotspot , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities , Hospitalization , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Health Status , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Kidney/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(4): 292-296, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207215

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a high-risk factor for exacerbation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes a high rate of mortality. Therefore, it is important to strengthen the warning and monitoring of severe patients, and early identify the severe and critically severe types in time in the clinical treatment of COVID-19. Moreover, it is necessary to pay attention to the adverse reactions and damage to vital target organs caused by treatment drugs. This study reports the successful experience of diagnosis and treatment of an older patient with COVID-19 accompanied by progressive renal impairment, and pertinent literature was reviewed to help clinicians raise awareness of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1387-1395, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196515

ABSTRACT

The lungs are the most commonly affected organ by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the kidneys are also frequently affected. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 can not only cause new kidney damage but also increase the difficulty of treatment and care as well as mortality for people with underlying kidney diseases. Kidney involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly manifests as kidney tubular injury. Proteinuria is the main clinical sign. To reduce patient mortality, kidney complications should be given increased attention in the diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study reviews the existing literature and discusses COVID-19 infection in combination with kidney diseases in terms of kidney damage, pathogenesis, and treatment to guide clinical anti-epidemic responses.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/virology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6667047, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186382

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of an acute respiratory illness which has spread around the world. The virus infects the host by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Due to the presence of ACE2 receptors in the kidneys and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, kidneys and GI tract damage arising from the virus can be seen in patients and can cause acute conditions such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and digestive problems for the patient. One of the complications of kidneys and GI involvement in COVID-19 is fluid and electrolyte disturbances. The most common ones of these disorders are hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, hypervolemia, and hypovolemia, which if left untreated, cause many problems for patients and even increase mortality. Fluid and electrolyte disturbances are more common in hospitalized and intensive care patients. Children are also at greater risk for fluid and electrolyte disturbances complications. Therefore, clinicians should pay special attention to the fluid and electrolyte status of patients. Changes in fluid and electrolyte levels can be a good indicator of disease progression.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids/metabolism , COVID-19/etiology , Electrolytes/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Hypokalemia/etiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/virology
20.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 128, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) may exert beneficial effects on the immune system of patients with viral infections. This paper aimed to examine the effect of n3-PUFA supplementation on inflammatory and biochemical markers in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 128 critically ill patients infected with COVID-19 who were randomly assigned to the intervention (fortified formula with n3-PUFA) (n = 42) and control (n = 86) groups. Data on 1 month survival rate, blood glucose, sodium (Na), potassium (K), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), albumin, hematocrit (HCT), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), mean arterial pressure (MAP), O2 saturation (O2sat), arterial pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), bicarbonate (HCO3), base excess (Be), white blood cells (WBCs), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (Plt), and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were collected at baseline and after 14 days of the intervention. RESULTS: The intervention group had significantly higher 1-month survival rate and higher levels of arterial pH, HCO3, and Be and lower levels of BUN, Cr, and K compared with the control group after intervention (all P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between blood glucose, Na, HCT, Ca, P, MAP, O2sat, PO2, PCO2, WBCs, GCS, Hb, Plt, PTT, and albumin between two groups. CONCLUSION: Omega-3 supplementation improved the levels of several parameters of respiratory and renal function in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Further clinical studies are warranted. Trial registry Name of the registry: This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT); Trial registration number: IRCT20151226025699N3; Date of registration: 2020.5.20; URL of trial registry record: https://en.irct.ir/trial/48213.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness/therapy , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Female , Hematocrit , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Iran/epidemiology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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