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1.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526737

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
2.
J Virol ; 95(20): e0101021, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440800

ABSTRACT

The host response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is poorly understood due to a lack of an animal model that recapitulates severe human disease. Here, we report a Syrian hamster model that develops progressive lethal pulmonary disease that closely mimics severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated host responses using a multi-omic, multiorgan approach to define proteome, phosphoproteome, and transcriptome changes. These data revealed both type I and type II interferon-stimulated gene and protein expression along with a progressive increase in chemokines, monocytes, and neutrophil-associated molecules throughout the course of infection that peaked in the later time points correlating with a rapidly developing diffuse alveolar destruction and pneumonia that persisted in the absence of active viral infection. Extrapulmonary proteome and phosphoproteome remodeling was detected in the heart and kidneys following viral infection. Together, our results provide a kinetic overview of multiorgan host responses to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. IMPORTANCE The current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has created an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis of this infection. These efforts have been impaired by the lack of animal models that recapitulate severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we report a hamster model that develops severe COVID-19-like disease following infection with human isolates of SARS-CoV-2. To better understand pathogenesis, we evaluated changes in gene transcription and protein expression over the course of infection to provide an integrated multiorgan kinetic analysis of the host response to infection. These data reveal a dynamic innate immune response to infection and corresponding immune pathologies consistent with severe human disease. Altogether, this model will be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and for testing interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Proteome , Transcriptome , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Ontology , Heart/virology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/virology , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Myocardium/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
3.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(6): 2347-2349, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391863

ABSTRACT

Due to the development of novel functionalities, distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants such as B.1.1.7 fuel the current pandemic. B.1.1.7 is not only more transmissible, but may also cause an increased mortality compared to previous SARS-CoV-2 variants. Human tissue analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 is urgently needed, and we here present autopsy data from 7 consecutive SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 cases. The initial RT-qPCR analyses from nasopharyngeal swabs taken post mortem included typing assays for B.1.1.7. We quantitated SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 viral load in autopsy tissue of multiple organs. Highest levels of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 copies normalized to ß-globin were detected in the respiratory system (lung and pharynx), followed by the liver and heart. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 was found in 100% of cases in the lungs and in 85.7% in pharynx tissue. Detection also in the kidney and brain highlighting a pronounced organ tropism. Comparison of the given results to a former cohort of SARS-CoV-2 deaths during the first wave in spring 2020 showed resembling organ tropism. Our results indicate that also SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 has a relevant organ tropism beyond the respiratory tract. We speculate that B.1.1.7 spike protein's affinity to human ACE2 facilitates transmission, organ tropism, and ultimately morbidity and mortality. Further studies and larger cohorts are obligatory to proof this link.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Viral Tropism , Aged , Autopsy , Female , Heart/virology , Humans , Kidney/virology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pharynx/virology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252979, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients are a unique cohort in regard to SARS-CoV 2 susceptibility and clinical course, owing to their immunosuppressed state and propensity for kidney injury. The primary purpose of this study is to ascertain if, in kidney transplant recipients, SARS-CoV 2 infection impacts long term renal allograft function. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study reviewed 53 kidney transplant recipients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR at NMH from January 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020. RESULTS: Change in eGFR from baseline kidney function prior to infection to 90 days after the first positive SARS-CoV 2 test was +1.76%, -17.5% and -23.16% the mild, moderate and severe disease groups respectively. There was a significant decline in kidney function in the moderate and severe disease cohorts as compared to the mild disease cohort, with respective p values of p = 0.0002 and p = 0.021. Relative to the mild disease cohort, the moderate and severe disease cohorts also demonstrated significantly increased risk of developing AKI (66%, 85%), both with p values of P = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically severe SARS-CoV 2 infection is associated with greater risk of acute kidney injury and greater decline in renal allograft function at 90 days post infection, compared to mild disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Allografts/virology , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Allografts/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients
6.
Nature ; 583(7818): 834-838, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387423

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and to SARS-related coronaviruses that have been detected in horseshoe bats, has spread across the world and had a global effect on healthcare systems and economies1,2. A suitable small animal model is needed to support the development of vaccines and therapies. Here we report the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in golden (Syrian) hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in nasal mucosa, bronchial epithelial cells and areas of lung consolidation on days 2 and 5 after inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, followed by rapid viral clearance and pneumocyte hyperplasia at 7 days after inoculation. We also found viral antigens in epithelial cells of the duodenum, and detected viral RNA in faeces. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted efficiently from inoculated hamsters to naive hamsters by direct contact and via aerosols. Transmission via fomites in soiled cages was not as efficient. Although viral RNA was continuously detected in the nasal washes of inoculated hamsters for 14 days, the communicable period was short and correlated with the detection of infectious virus but not viral RNA. Inoculated and naturally infected hamsters showed apparent weight loss on days 6-7 post-inoculation or post-contact; all hamsters returned to their original weight within 14 days and developed neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden hamsters resemble those found in humans with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Aerosols , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Duodenum/virology , Fomites/virology , Housing, Animal , Kidney/virology , Male , Mesocricetus/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Weight Loss
7.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(11): 3789-3793, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Histological findings of kidney involvement have been rarely reported in pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we describe clinical, laboratory, and histological findings of two pediatric cases with almost exclusive kidney involvement by SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A 10-year-old girl with IgA vasculitis nephritis underwent kidney biopsy, showing diffuse and segmental mesangial-proliferative glomerulonephritis, and steroid therapy was initiated. After the worsening of the clinical picture, including an atypical skin rash, she was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. The re-evaluation of initial biopsy showed cytoplasmatic blebs and virus-like particles in tubular cells at electron microscopy. Despite SARS-CoV-2 clearance and the intensification of immunosuppression, no improvement was observed. A second kidney biopsy showed a crescentic glomerulonephritis with sclerosis, while virus-like particles were no longer evident. The second patient was a 12-year-old girl with a 3-week history of weakness and weight loss. Rhinitis was reported the month before. No medications were being taken. Blood and urine analysis revealed elevated serum creatinine, hypouricemia, low molecular weight proteinuria, and glycosuria. A high SARS-CoV-2-IgG titre was detected. Kidney biopsy showed acute tubular-interstitial nephritis. Steroid therapy was started with a complete resolution of kidney involvement. CONCLUSION: We can speculate that in both cases SARS-CoV-2 played a major role as inflammatory trigger of the kidney damage. Therefore, we suggest investigating the potential kidney damage by SARS-CoV-2 in children. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 can be included among infectious agents responsible for pediatric acute tubular interstitial nephritis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/immunology , Kidney/pathology , Nephritis, Interstitial/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Biopsy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/pathology , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/virology , Humans , Kidney/immunology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Kidney/virology , Microscopy, Electron , Nephritis, Interstitial/diagnosis , Nephritis, Interstitial/pathology , Nephritis, Interstitial/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 278, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about patient diagnosis and follow-up of chronically ill patients. Patients suffering from chronic illnesses, concomitantly infected by SARS-CoV-2, globally tend to have a worse prognosis and poor outcomes. Renal tropism and acute kidney injury following SARS-CoV-2 infection has recently been described in the literature, with elevated mortality rates. Furthermore, patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease, infected by SARS-CoV-2, should be monitored carefully. Here, we report the case of a 69-year-old patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, suffering from longstanding chronic kidney disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old male patient previously diagnosed with pulmonary embolism and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (Splenomegaly, Matutes 2/5, CD5 negative and CD23 positive), was admitted to the hospital with shortness of breath, fever and asthenia. A nasopharyngeal swab test was performed in addition to a CT-scan, which confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Blood creatinine increased following SARS-CoV-2 infection at 130 µmol/l, with usual values at 95 µmol/l. The patient was discharged at home with rest and symptomatic medical treatment (paracetamol and hydration), then readmitted to the hospital in August 2020. A kidney biopsy was therefore conducted as blood creatinine levels were abnormally elevated. Immunodetection performed in a renal biopsy specimen confirmed co-localization of SARS-CoV2 nucleocapsid and protease 3C proteins with ACE2, Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens in proximal convoluted tubules and podocytes. Co-localization of structural and non-structural viral proteins clearly demonstrated viral replication in proximal convoluted tubules in this chronically ill patient. Additionally, we observed the co-localization of sialyl-Lewis x and ACE2 receptors in the same proximal convoluted tubules. Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction test performed on the kidney biopsy was negative, with very low Ct levels (above 40). The patient was finally readmitted to the haematology department for initiation of chemotherapy, including CHOP protocol and Rituximab. CONCLUSIONS: Our case emphasizes on the importance of monitoring kidney function in immunosuppressed patients and patients suffering from cancer following SARS-CoV-2 infection, through histological screening. Further studies will be required to decipher the mechanisms underlying chronic kidney disease and the putative role of sialyl-Lewis x and HBGA during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Tubules/virology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Biopsy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Creatinine/blood , Humans , Kidney/chemistry , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Kidney Tubules/chemistry , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Lewis X Antigen/analysis , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/complications , Male , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Sialyl Lewis X Antigen/analysis , Splenic Neoplasms/complications
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009705, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311291

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection is a disease affecting several organ systems. A model that captures all clinical symptoms of COVID-19 as well as long-haulers disease is needed. We investigated the host responses associated with infection in several major organ systems including the respiratory tract, the heart, and the kidneys after SARS-CoV-2 infection in Syrian hamsters. We found significant increases in inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta, and TNF) and type II interferons whereas type I interferons were inhibited. Examination of extrapulmonary tissue indicated inflammation in the kidney, liver, and heart which also lacked type I interferon upregulation. Histologically, the heart had evidence of myocarditis and microthrombi while the kidney had tubular inflammation. These results give insight into the multiorgan disease experienced by people with COVID-19 and possibly the prolonged disease in people with post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Kidney/immunology , Myocardium/immunology , Respiratory System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Myocardium/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology
10.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 17(11): 751-764, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297305

ABSTRACT

Although respiratory failure and hypoxaemia are the main manifestations of COVID-19, kidney involvement is also common. Available evidence supports a number of potential pathophysiological pathways through which acute kidney injury (AKI) can develop in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Histopathological findings have highlighted both similarities and differences between AKI in patients with COVID-19 and in those with AKI in non-COVID-related sepsis. Acute tubular injury is common, although it is often mild, despite markedly reduced kidney function. Systemic haemodynamic instability very likely contributes to tubular injury. Despite descriptions of COVID-19 as a cytokine storm syndrome, levels of circulating cytokines are often lower in patients with COVID-19 than in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with causes other than COVID-19. Tissue inflammation and local immune cell infiltration have been repeatedly observed and might have a critical role in kidney injury, as might endothelial injury and microvascular thrombi. Findings of high viral load in patients who have died with AKI suggest a contribution of viral invasion in the kidneys, although the issue of renal tropism remains controversial. An impaired type I interferon response has also been reported in patients with severe COVID-19. In light of these observations, the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19-associated AKI may provide insights into therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adaptive Immunity/physiology , Biopsy , Complement System Proteins , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hematuria/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Immunosenescence , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/virology , Interferon Type I/physiology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Proteinuria/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
11.
IUBMB Life ; 73(8): 1005-1015, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291220

ABSTRACT

The kidney is one of the main targets attacked by viruses in patients with a coronavirus infection. Until now, SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the seventh member of the coronavirus family capable of infecting humans. In the past two decades, humankind has experienced outbreaks triggered by two other extremely infective members of the coronavirus family; the MERS-CoV and the SARS-CoV. According to several investigations, SARS-CoV causes proteinuria and renal impairment or failure. The SARS-CoV was identified in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney of infected patients. Also, renal dysfunction was observed in numerous cases of MERS-CoV infection. And recently, during the 2019-nCoV pandemic, it was found that the novel coronavirus not only induces acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but also can induce damages in various organs including the liver, heart, and kidney. The kidney tissue and its cells are targeted massively by the coronaviruses due to the abundant presence of ACE2 and Dpp4 receptors on kidney cells. These receptors are characterized as the main route of coronavirus entry to the victim cells. Renal failure due to massive viral invasion can lead to undesirable complications and enhanced mortality rate, thus more attention should be paid to the pathology of coronaviruses in the kidney. Here, we have provided the most recent knowledge on the coronaviruses (SARS, MERS, and COVID19) pathology and the mechanisms of their impact on the kidney tissue and functions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Viral Tropism/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Analysis
12.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 836-846, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275907

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is frequently accompanied by dysfunction of the lungs and extrapulmonary organs. However, the organotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and the port of virus entry for systemic dissemination remain largely unknown. We profiled 26 COVID-19 autopsy cases from four cohorts in Wuhan, China, and determined the systemic distribution of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the lungs and multiple extrapulmonary organs of critically ill COVID-19 patients up to 67 days after symptom onset. Based on organotropism and pathological features of the patients, COVID-19 was divided into viral intrapulmonary and systemic subtypes. In patients with systemic viral distribution, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at blood-air barrier, blood-testis barrier, and filtration barrier. Critically ill patients with long disease duration showed decreased pulmonary cell proliferation, reduced viral RNA, and marked fibrosis in the lungs. Permanent SARS-CoV-2 presence and tissue injuries in the lungs and extrapulmonary organs suggest direct viral invasion as a mechanism of pathogenicity in critically ill patients. SARS-CoV-2 may hijack monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at physiological barriers as the ports of entry for systemic dissemination. Our study thus delineates systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which sheds light on the development of novel COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/virology , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/virology
13.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269953

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2242-2254, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes significan t morbidity, mainly from pulmonary involvement, extrapulmonary symptoms are also major componen ts of the disease. Kidney disease, usually presenting as AKI, is particularly severe among patients with COVID-19. It is unknown, however, whether such injury results from direct kidney infection with COVID-19's causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or from indirect mechanisms. METHODS: Using ex vivo cell models, we sought to analyze SARS-CoV-2 interactions with kidney tubular cells and assess direct tubular injury. These models comprised primary human kidney epithelial cells (derived from nephrectomies) and grown as either proliferating monolayers or quiescent three-dimensional kidney spheroids. RESULTS: We demonstrated that viral entry molecules and high baseline levels of type 1 IFN-related molecules were present in monolayers and kidney spheroids. Although both models support viral infection and replication, they did not exhibit a cytopathic effect and cell death, outcomes that were strongly present in SARS-CoV-2-infected controls (African green monkey kidney clone E6 [Vero E6] cultures). A comparison of monolayer and spheroid cultures demonstrated higher infectivity and replication of SARS-CoV-2 in actively proliferating monolayers, although the spheroid cultures exhibited high er levels of ACE2. Monolayers exhibited elevation of some tubular injury molecules-including molecules related to fibrosis (COL1A1 and STAT6) and dedifferentiation (SNAI2)-and a loss of cell identity, evident by reduction in megalin (LRP2). The three-dimensional spheroids were less prone to such injury. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 can infect kidney cells without a cytopathic effect. AKI-induced cellular proliferation may potentially intensify infectivity and tubular damage by SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that early intervention in AKI is warranted to help minimize kidney infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spheroids, Cellular/virology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Kidney/immunology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, SCID , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spheroids, Cellular/pathology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244035

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that COVID-19 leads to thrombotic complications, which have been associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Neutrophils are the largest population of white blood cells and play a pivotal role in innate immunity. During an infection, neutrophils migrate from circulation to the infection site, contributing to killing pathogens. This mechanism is regulated by chemokines such as IL-8. Moreover, it was shown that neutrophils play an important role in thromboinflammation. Through a diverse repertoire of mechanisms, neutrophils, apart from directly killing pathogens, are able to activate the formation of thrombi. In COVID-19 patients, neutrophil activation promotes neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, platelet aggregation, and cell damage. Furthermore, neutrophils participate in the pathogenesis of endothelitis. Overall, this review summarizes recent progress in research on the pathogenesis of COVID-19, highlighting the role of the prothrombotic action of neutrophils in NET formation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Extracellular Traps/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Kidney/cytology , Kidney/immunology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
16.
Ann Pathol ; 41(1): 9-22, 2021 Feb.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226268

ABSTRACT

The infection due to the SARS-CoV-2 leads lesions mainly observed at the respiratory tract level, but not exclusively. The analyses of these lesions benefited from different autopsy studies. Thus, these lesions were observed in different organs, tissues and cells. These observations allowed us to rapidly improve the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with this emergent infectious disease. The virus can be detected in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, molecular biology and/or electron microscopy approaches. However, many uncertainties are still present concerning the direct role of the SARS-CoV-2 on the different lesions observed in different organs, outside the lung, such as the heart, the brain, the liver, the gastrointestinal tract, the kidney and the skin. In this context, it is pivotal to keep going to increase the different tissue and cellular studies in the COVID-19 positive patients aiming to better understanding the consequences of this new infectious disease, notably considering different epidemiological and co-morbidities associated factors. This could participate to the development of new therapeutic strategies too. The purpose of this review is to describe the main histological and cellular lesions associated with the infection due to the SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/virology , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin/pathology , Skin/virology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224028

ABSTRACT

Numbers of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have increased rapidly worldwide. Plasma levels of full-length galectin-9 (FL-Gal9) and osteopontin (FL-OPN) as well as their truncated forms (Tr-Gal9, Ud-OPN, respectively), are representative inflammatory biomarkers. Here, we measured FL-Gal9, FL-OPN, Tr-Gal9, and Ud-OPN in 94 plasma samples obtained from 23 COVID-19-infected patients with mild clinical symptoms (CV), 25 COVID-19 patients associated with pneumonia (CP), and 14 patients with bacterial infection (ID). The four proteins were significantly elevated in the CP group when compared with healthy individuals. ROC analysis between the CV and CP groups showed that C-reactive protein had the highest ability to differentiate, followed by Tr-Gal9 and ferritin. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that Tr-Gal9 and Ud-OPN but not FL-Gal9 and FL-OPN, had a significant association with laboratory markers for lung function, inflammation, coagulopathy, and kidney function in CP patients. CP patients treated with tocilizumab had reduced levels of FL-Gal9, Tr-Gal9, and Ud-OPN. It was suggested that OPN is cleaved by interleukin-6-dependent proteases. These findings suggest that the cleaved forms of OPN and galectin-9 can be used to monitor the severity of pathological inflammation and the therapeutic effects of tocilizumab in CP patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Galectins/blood , Osteopontin/blood , Pneumonia/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/virology , ROC Curve , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
18.
Nature ; 595(7865): 107-113, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207148

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, can result in acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure1-4, but little is known about its pathophysiology. Here we generated single-cell atlases of 24 lung, 16 kidney, 16 liver and 19 heart autopsy tissue samples and spatial atlases of 14 lung samples from donors who died of COVID-19. Integrated computational analysis uncovered substantial remodelling in the lung epithelial, immune and stromal compartments, with evidence of multiple paths of failed tissue regeneration, including defective alveolar type 2 differentiation and expansion of fibroblasts and putative TP63+ intrapulmonary basal-like progenitor cells. Viral RNAs were enriched in mononuclear phagocytic and endothelial lung cells, which induced specific host programs. Spatial analysis in lung distinguished inflammatory host responses in lung regions with and without viral RNA. Analysis of the other tissue atlases showed transcriptional alterations in multiple cell types in heart tissue from donors with COVID-19, and mapped cell types and genes implicated with disease severity based on COVID-19 genome-wide association studies. Our foundational dataset elucidates the biological effect of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection across the body, a key step towards new treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atlases as Topic , Autopsy , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Endothelial Cells , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Fibroblasts , Genome-Wide Association Study , Heart/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Kidney/virology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Specificity , Phagocytes , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Viral Load
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250708, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 that has caused more than 2.2 million deaths worldwide. We summarize the reported pathologic findings on biopsy and autopsy in patients with severe/fatal COVID-19 and documented the presence and/or effect of SARS-CoV-2 in all organs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic search of the PubMed, Embase, MedRxiv, Lilacs and Epistemonikos databases from January to August 2020 for all case reports and case series that reported histopathologic findings of COVID-19 infection at autopsy or tissue biopsy was performed. 603 COVID-19 cases from 75 of 451 screened studies met inclusion criteria. The most common pathologic findings were lungs: diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (92%) and superimposed acute bronchopneumonia (27%); liver: hepatitis (21%), heart: myocarditis (11.4%). Vasculitis was common only in skin biopsies (25%). Microthrombi were described in the placenta (57.9%), lung (38%), kidney (20%), Central Nervous System (CNS) (18%), and gastrointestinal (GI) tract (2%). Injury of endothelial cells was common in the lung (18%) and heart (4%). Hemodynamic changes such as necrosis due to hypoxia/hypoperfusion, edema and congestion were common in kidney (53%), liver (48%), CNS (31%) and GI tract (18%). SARS-CoV-2 viral particles were demonstrated within organ-specific cells in the trachea, lung, liver, large intestine, kidney, CNS either by electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, or immunohistochemistry. Additional tissues were positive by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests only. The included studies were from numerous countries, some were not peer reviewed, and some studies were performed by subspecialists, resulting in variable and inconsistent reporting or over statement of the reported findings. CONCLUSIONS: The main pathologic findings of severe/fatal COVID-19 infection are DAD, changes related to coagulopathy and/or hemodynamic compromise. In addition, according to the observed organ damage myocarditis may be associated with sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Autopsy/methods , Biopsy/methods , Central Nervous System/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Heart/virology , Humans , Kidney/virology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Staining and Labeling/methods , Trachea/virology
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1387-1395, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196515

ABSTRACT

The lungs are the most commonly affected organ by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the kidneys are also frequently affected. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 can not only cause new kidney damage but also increase the difficulty of treatment and care as well as mortality for people with underlying kidney diseases. Kidney involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly manifests as kidney tubular injury. Proteinuria is the main clinical sign. To reduce patient mortality, kidney complications should be given increased attention in the diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study reviews the existing literature and discusses COVID-19 infection in combination with kidney diseases in terms of kidney damage, pathogenesis, and treatment to guide clinical anti-epidemic responses.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/virology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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