Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 223
Filter
1.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 46, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that mediate antitumour and antiviral responses. However, very little is known about how ageing influences human NK cells, especially at the single-cell level. METHODS: We applied single-cell sequencing (scRNA-seq) to human lymphocytes and NK cells from 4 young and 4 elderly individuals and then analysed the transcriptome data using Seurat. We detected the proportion and phenotype of NK cell subsets in peripheral blood samples from a total of 62 young and 52 elderly healthy donors by flow cytometry. We also used flow cytometry to examine the effector functions of NK cell subsets upon IFN-α/IL-12+IL-15/K562/IL-2 stimulation in vitro in peripheral blood samples from a total of 64 young and 63 elderly healthy donors. We finally studied and integrated single-cell transcriptomes of NK cells from 15 young and 41 elderly COVID-19 patients with those from 12 young and 6 elderly healthy control individuals to investigate the impacts of ageing on NK cell subsets in COVID-19 disease. RESULTS: We discovered a memory-like NK subpopulation (NK2) exhibiting the largest distribution change between elderly and young individuals among lymphocytes. Notably, we discovered a unique NK subset that was predominantly CD52+ NK2 cells (NK2.1). These memory-like NK2.1 cells accumulated with age, exhibited proinflammatory characteristics, and displayed a type I interferon response state. Integrative analyses of a large-cohort COVID-19 dataset and our datasets revealed that NK2.1 cells from elderly COVID-19 patients are enriched for type I interferon signalling, which is positively correlated with disease severity in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a unique memory-like NK cell subset that accumulates with ageing and correlates with disease severity in COVID-19. Our results identify memory-like NK2.1 cells as a potential target for developing immunotherapies for infectious diseases and for addressing age-related dysfunctions of the immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transcriptome , Aged , Aging/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
2.
PLoS Biol ; 20(5): e3001643, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869144

ABSTRACT

Ensuring high vaccination and even booster vaccination coverage is critical in preventing severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Among the various COVID-19 vaccines currently in use, the mRNA vaccines have shown remarkable effectiveness. However, systemic adverse events (AEs), such as postvaccination fatigue, are prevalent following mRNA vaccination, and the underpinnings of which are not understood. Herein, we found that higher baseline expression of genes related to T and NK cell exhaustion and suppression were positively correlated with the development of moderately severe fatigue after Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccination; increased expression of genes associated with T and NK cell exhaustion and suppression reacted to vaccination were associated with greater levels of innate immune activation at 1 day postvaccination. We further found, in a mouse model, that altering the route of vaccination from intramuscular (i.m.) to subcutaneous (s.c.) could lessen the pro-inflammatory response and correspondingly the extent of systemic AEs; the humoral immune response to BNT162b2 vaccination was not compromised. Instead, it is possible that the s.c. route could improve cytotoxic CD8 T-cell responses to BNT162b2 vaccination. Our findings thus provide a glimpse of the molecular basis of postvaccination fatigue from mRNA vaccination and suggest a readily translatable solution to minimize systemic AEs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Mice , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 887230, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862611

ABSTRACT

The kinetics of NKG2C+ adaptive natural killer (ANK) cells and NKG2A+inhibitory NK (iNK) cells with respect to the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection were studied for 6 months in a cohort of healthcare workers following the administration of the heat-killed Mycobacterium w (Mw group) in comparison to a control group. In both groups, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) correlated with lower NKG2C+ANK cells at baseline. There was a significant upregulation of NKG2C expression and IFN-γ release in the Mw group (p=0.0009), particularly in those with a lower baseline NKG2C expression, along with the downregulation of iNK cells (p<0.0001). This translated to a significant reduction in the incidence and severity of COVID-19 in the Mw group (incidence risk ratio-0.15, p=0.0004). RNA-seq analysis at 6 months showed an upregulation of the ANK pathway genes and an enhanced ANK-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) signature. Thus, Mw was observed to have a salutary impact on the ANK cell profile and a long-term upregulation of ANK-ADCC pathways, which could have provided protection against COVID-19 in a non-immune high-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 856883, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862605

ABSTRACT

The immune system is severely compromised in patients with COVID-19. The representative group of 43 patients were selected from the cohort of 342 patients with COVID-19 and pneumonia. This group of 43 patients was examined for the levels of C-reactive protein, biomarker of systemic inflammation, and for the subsets of adaptive immune cells. The immunological parameters were correlated with the metabolic parameters and cardiovascular pathology history. We identified that a decrease in the absolute number of T-lymphocytes, T-cytotoxic, T-activated and B-lymphocytes correlated with the higher levels of CRP. The absolute number of T-helpers and the absolute number of double positive T-lymphocytes positively correlated with the levels of iron in serum (Z= 0,310 and Z=0,394). The absolute numbers of T-activated lymphocytes positively correlated with serum levels of LDH (Z = 0,422), ferritin (Z = 0,407) and iron (Z = 0,418). When studying subpopulations of lymphocytes, depending on the combined pathology, we found that the absolute numbers of B-lymphocytes and double positive T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were significantly reduced in patients with arterial hypertension (p=0,0074 and p=0,0227, correspondingly). The increased levels of NK cell were found in patients with a history of coronary heart disease (p=0,0108). In addition, we found that deficiencies in the adaptive immune system correlated with the deficiencies in iron metabolism. The cardiovascular pathology upsets the balance in the adaptive and innate immune system in the circulation of patient with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , C-Reactive Protein , Humans , Iron , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Subsets
5.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 57, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862145

ABSTRACT

A recent study highlights the presence of a unique memory-like natural killer (NK) cell subset, which accumulates with aging and appears to associate withdisease severity in COVID-19 patients. While the clinical relevance of memory in NK cells is being debated, the molecular identity of this subset in the form of a single-cell transcriptome is essential to define their origin, longevity, functions, and disease relevance.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19 , Killer Cells, Natural , Transcriptome , Aging/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology
6.
J Infect Dis ; 225(10): 1688-1693, 2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853095

ABSTRACT

We compared the ability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike-specific antibodies to induce natural killer cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients with natural infection and vaccinated persons. Analyzing plasma samples from 39 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 11 vaccinated individuals, significant induction of ADCC could be observed over a period of more than 3 months in both vaccinated and recovered individuals. Although plasma antibody concentrations were lower in recovered patients, we found antibodies elicited by natural infection induced a significantly stronger ADCC response compared to those induced by vaccination, which may affect protection conferred by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
7.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(4): 507-519, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791951

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening disorder of immune regulation that can eventually result in end-organ damage and death. HLH is characterized by uncontrolled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and macrophages that can lead to a cytokine storm. The diagnosis of HLH is often challenging due to the diverse clinical manifestations and the presence of several diagnostic mimics. The prognosis is generally poor, warranting rapid diagnosis and aggressive management. OBJECTIVE.­: To provide a comprehensive review of the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of HLH. DATA SOURCES.­: Peer-reviewed literature. CONCLUSIONS.­: HLH is a condition where a complete understanding of the pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and proper management has an important role in determining patient outcome. Genetic mutations causing impairment in the function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells have been identified as the root cause of familial HLH; however, the specific pathogenesis of acquired HLH is unclear. The HLH-2004 protocol used in the diagnosis of HLH was originally developed for the pediatric population. The HLH-2004 protocol still forms the basis of the diagnosis of HLH in adults, although its use in adults has not been formally validated yet. Treatment of HLH is primarily based on the HLH-94 protocol, which involves suppressing the inflammatory response, but the treatment needs to be modified in adults depending on the underlying cause and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Child , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/genetics , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Macrophages
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 834862, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775666

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viral infections with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses commonly induce a strong infiltration of immune cells into the human lung, with potential detrimental effects on the integrity of the lung tissue. Despite comprising the largest fractions of circulating lymphocytes in the lung, rather little is known about how peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cell and T cell subsets are equipped for lung-homing in COVID-19 and influenza. Here, we provide a detailed comparative analysis of NK cells and T cells in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 or influenza virus, focusing on the protein and gene expression of chemokine receptors known to be involved in recruitment to the lung. For this, we used 28-colour flow cytometry as well as re-analysis of a publicly available single-cell RNA-seq dataset from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Frequencies of NK cells and T cells expressing CXCR3, CXCR6, and CCR5 were altered in peripheral blood of COVID-19 and influenza patients, in line with increased transcript expression of CXCR3, CXCR6, and CCR5 and their respective ligands in BAL fluid. NK cells and T cells expressing lung-homing receptors displayed stronger phenotypic signs of activation compared to cells lacking lung-homing receptors, and activation was overall stronger in influenza compared to COVID-19. Together, our results indicate a role for CXCR3+, CXCR6+, and/or CCR5+ NK cells and T cells that potentially migrate to the lungs in moderate COVID-19 and influenza patients, identifying common targets for future therapeutic interventions in respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Gene Expression , Humans , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural , Lung , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
9.
JCI Insight ; 7(6)2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770087

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a globally ubiquitous pathogen with a seroprevalence of approximately 50% in the United Kingdom. CMV infection induces expansion of immunosenescent T cell and NK cell populations, with these cells demonstrating lower responsiveness to activation and reduced functionality upon infection and vaccination. In this study, we found that CMV+ participants had normal T cell responses after a single-dose or homologous vaccination with the viral vector chimpanzee adenovirus developed by the University of Oxford (ChAdOx1). CMV seropositivity was associated with reduced induction of IFN-γ-secreting T cells in a ChAd-Modified Vaccinia Ankara (ChAd-MVA) viral vector vaccination trial. Analysis of participants receiving a single dose of ChAdOx1 demonstrated that T cells from CMV+ donors had a more terminally differentiated profile of CD57+PD1+CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells expressing less IL-2Rα (CD25) and fewer polyfunctional CD4+ T cells 14 days after vaccination. NK cells from CMV-seropositive individuals also had a reduced activation profile. Overall, our data suggest that although CMV infection enhances immunosenescence of T and NK populations, it does not affect antigen-specific T cell IFN-γ secretion or antibody IgG production after vaccination with the current ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination regimen, which has important implications given the widespread use of this vaccine, particularly in low- and middle-income countries with high CMV seroprevalence.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections , Cytomegalovirus , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 796481, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765667

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) pandemic has left researchers scrambling to identify the humoral immune correlates of protection from COVID-19. To date, the antibody mediated correlates of virus neutralization have been extensively studied. However, the extent that non-neutralizing functions contribute to anti-viral responses are ill defined. In this study, we profiled the anti-spike antibody subtype/subclass responses, along with neutralization and antibody-dependent natural killer cell functions in 83 blood samples collected between 4 and 201 days post-symptoms onset from a cohort of COVID-19 outpatients. We observed heterogeneous humoral responses against the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Overall, anti-spike profiles were characterized by a rapid rise of IgA and sustained IgG titers. In addition, strong antibody-mediated natural killer effector responses correlated with milder disease and being female. While higher neutralization profiles were observed in males along with increased severity. These results give an insight into the underlying function of antibodies beyond neutralization and suggest that antibody-mediated natural killer cell activity is a key function of the humoral response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
11.
Virol J ; 19(1): 57, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profiles have been observed in most patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we explore the role of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines on hospital admission in predicting the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This study included 214 patients with COVID-19 who were treated at Chongqing University Three Gorges Hospital from January 19, 2020 to April 30, 2020. Any mutants were not detected in the studied patients. Patients were divided into non-intensive care unit (ICU) (mild/moderate) group and ICU (severe/critical) group, according to the severity of the disease. Clinical and laboratory data, including peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cytokines, were analyzed and compared. Logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive factors for ICU admission. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to evaluate the predictive value of selected indicators for the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 214 patients enrolled, 161 were non-ICU patients and 53 were ICU patients. Lymphopenia was observed in nearly all of ICU patients (96.2%) and 84.5% of non-ICU patients on hospital admission. The absolute number of lymphocytes, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells were lower in ICU group (659.00 × 106/L, 417.00 × 106/L, 261.00 × 106/L, 140.00 × 106/L, 109.00 × 106/L, 102.00 × 106/L, respectively) than in non-ICU group (1063.00 × 109/L, 717.00 × 106/L, 432.00 × 106/L, 271.00 × 106/L, 133.00 × 106/L, 143.00 × 106/L, respectively). Interleukin (IL)-6 was significantly higher in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients (18.08 pg/mL vs. 3.13 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio: 1.067 [1.034-1.101]), diabetes mellitus (odds ratio: 9.154 [2.710-30.926]), CD3+ T cells (odds ratio: 0.996 [0.994-0.997]), and IL-6 (odds ratio: 1.006 [1.000-1.013]) were independent predictors for the development of severe disease. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of CD3+ T cells and IL-6 was 0.806 (0.737-0.874) and 0.785 (0.705-0.864), respectively, and the cutoff values were 510.50 × 106/L (sensitivity, 71.7%; specificity, 79.5%) and 6.58 pg/mL (77.4%, 74.5%), respectively. There were no statistical differences among all tested indicators of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines between severe group (n = 38) and critical group (n = 15) on hospital admission or ICU admission, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of lymphocyte subsets decreased and the level of IL-6 increased significantly in ICU COVID-19 patients compared with non-ICU COVID-19 patients. Therefore, the number of CD3+ T cells and the level of IL-6 on hospital admission may serve as predictive factors for identifying patients with wild-type virus infection who will have severe disease.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Subsets , Prognosis
12.
J Infect Dis ; 225(10): 1685-1687, 2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758752
13.
Cell ; 185(8): 1414-1430.e19, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757193

ABSTRACT

Cytokines are powerful immune modulators that initiate signaling through receptor dimerization, but natural cytokines have structural limitations as therapeutics. We present a strategy to discover cytokine surrogate agonists by using modular ligands that exploit induced proximity and receptor dimer geometry as pharmacological metrics amenable to high-throughput screening. Using VHH and scFv to human interleukin-2/15, type-I interferon, and interleukin-10 receptors, we generated combinatorial matrices of single-chain bispecific ligands that exhibited diverse spectrums of functional activities, including potent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by surrogate interferons. Crystal structures of IL-2R:VHH complexes revealed that variation in receptor dimer geometries resulted in functionally diverse signaling outputs. This modular platform enabled engineering of surrogate ligands that compelled assembly of an IL-2R/IL-10R heterodimer, which does not naturally exist, that signaled through pSTAT5 on T and natural killer (NK) cells. This "cytokine med-chem" approach, rooted in principles of induced proximity, is generalizable for discovery of diversified agonists for many ligand-receptor systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-2/pharmacology , Killer Cells, Natural , Ligands , Receptors, Interleukin-10 , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Vaccine ; 40(18): 2619-2625, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the antibody response, natural killer cell response and B cell phenotypes in healthcare workers (HCW) who are vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac with or without documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and unvaccinated HCWs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: HCWs were divided into four groups: vaccine only (VO), vaccine after SARS-CoV-2 infection (VAI), SARS-CoV-2 infection only (IO), and SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccine (IAV). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Anti-S) antibodies were measured by Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S ELISA kit. Memory B cells (CD19+CD27+), plasmablast B cells (CD19+CD138+) and long-lived plasma cells (LLPC; CD138+CD19-) were measured by flow cytometry in 74 patients. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release by natural killer (NK) cells were measured by NKVue Test (NKMAX, Republic of Korea) in 76 patients. RT-PCR was performed with Bio-speedy® COVID-19 qPCR detection kit, Version 2 (Bioexen LTD, Istanbul, Turkey). RESULTS: The Anti-S antibodies were detectable in all HCWs (n: 224). The median Anti-S titers (BAU/mL) was significantly higher in VAI (620 25-75% 373-1341) compared to VO (136, 25-75% 85-283) and IO (111, 25-75% 54-413, p < 0.01). VAI group had significantly lower percentage of plasmablasts (2.9; 0-8.7) compared to VO (6.8; 3.5-12.0) and IO (9.9; 4.7-47.5, p < 0.01) (n:74). Percentage of LLPCs in groups VO, VAI and IO was similar. There was no difference of IFN-γ levels between the study groups (n: 76). CONCLUSION: The antibody response was similar between uninfected vaccinated HCWs and unvaccinated HCWs who had natural infection. HCWs who had two doses of CoronaVac either before or after the natural SARS-CoV-2 infection elicited significantly higher antibody responses compared to uninfected vaccinated HCWs. The lower percentages of plasmablasts in the VAI group may indicate their migration to lymph nodes and initiation of the germinal center reaction phase. IFN-γ response did not differ among the groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Killer Cells, Natural , Plasma Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 851620, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731787

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis and myopericarditis may occur after COVID-19 vaccination with an incidence of two to twenty cases per 100,000 individuals, but underlying mechanisms related to disease onset and progression remain unclear. Here, we report a case of myopericarditis following the first dose of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine in a young man who had a history of mild COVID-19 three months before vaccination. The patient presented with chest pain, elevated troponin I level, and electrocardiogram abnormality. His endomyocardial biopsy revealed diffuse CD68+ cell infiltration. We characterized the immune profile of the patient using multiplex cytokine assay and flow cytometry analysis. Sex-matched vaccinated individuals and healthy individuals were used as controls. IL-18 and IL-27, Th1-type cytokines, were highly increased in the patient with COVID-19 vaccine-related myopericarditis compared with vaccinated controls who experienced no cardiac complications. In the patient, circulating NK cells and T cells showed an activated phenotype and mRNA profile, and monocytes expressed increased levels of IL-18 and its upstream NLRP3 inflammasome. We found that recombinant IL-18 administration into mice caused mild cardiac dysfunction and activation of NK cells and T cells in the hearts, similar to the findings in the patient with myopericarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Collectively, myopericarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination may be associated with increased IL-18-mediated immune responses and cardiotoxicity.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Interleukin-18/immunology , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Animals , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 837524, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731784

ABSTRACT

Effectively treating infectious diseases often requires a multi-step approach to target different components involved in disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the COVID-19 pandemic has become a global health crisis that requires a comprehensive understanding of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection to develop effective therapeutics. One potential strategy to instill greater immune protection against COVID-19 is boosting the innate immune system. This boosting, termed trained immunity, employs immune system modulators to train innate immune cells to produce an enhanced, non-specific immune response upon reactivation following exposure to pathogens, a process that has been studied in the context of in vitro and in vivo clinical studies prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Evaluation of the underlying pathways that are essential to inducing protective trained immunity will provide insight into identifying potential therapeutic targets that may alleviate the COVID-19 crisis. Here we review multiple immune training agents, including Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), ß-glucan, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the two most popular cell types involved in trained immunity, monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, and compare the signaling pathways involved in innate immunity. Additionally, we discuss COVID-19 trained immunity clinical trials, emphasizing the potential of trained immunity to fight SARS-CoV-2 infection. Understanding the mechanisms by which training agents activate innate immune cells to reprogram immune responses may prove beneficial in developing preventive and therapeutic targets against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 798813, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725390

ABSTRACT

A successful vaccination would represent the most efficient means to control the pandemic of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) that led to millions of deaths worldwide. Novel mRNA-based vaccines confer protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, but whether immunity is immediately effective and how long it will remain in recipients are uncertain. We sought to assess the effectiveness of a two-dose regimen since the boosts are often delayed concerning the recommended intervals. Methods: A longitudinal cohort of healthcare workers (HCW, N = 46; 30.4% men; 69.6% women; mean age 36.05 ± 2.2 years) with no SARS-CoV-2 infection as documented by negative polymerase chain reaction was immunophenotyped in PBMC once a week for 4 weeks from the prime immunization (Pfizer mRNA BNT162b2) and had received 2 doses, to study the kinetic response. Results: We identified three risk groups to develop SARS-CoV-2 infection IgG+-based (late responders, R-; early responders, R+; pauci responders, PR). In all receipts, amplification of B cells and NK cells, including IL4-producing B cells and IL4-producing CD8+ T cells, is early stimulated by the vaccine. After the boost, we observed a growing increase of NK cells but a resistance of T cells, IFNγ-producing CD4+T cells, and IFNγ-producing NK cells. Also, hematologic parameters decline until the boost. The positive association of IFNγ-producing NK with IFNγ-producing CD4+T cells by the multiple mixed-effect model, adjusted for confounders (p = 0.036) as well as the correlation matrix (r = 0.6, p < 0.01), suggests a relationship between these two subsets of lymphocytes. Conclusions: These findings introduce several concerns about policy delay in vaccination: based on immunological protection, B cells and the persistent increase of NK cells during 2 doses of the mRNA-based vaccine could provide further immune protection against the virus, while CD8+ T cells increased slightly only in the R+ and PR groups.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Interleukin-4/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Th1-Th2 Balance
18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 59-73, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719339

ABSTRACT

As of April 15, 2020, the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic has swept through 213 countries and infected more than 1,870,000 individuals, posing an unprecedented threat to international health and the economy. There is currently no specific treatment available for patients with COVID-19 infection. The lessons learned from past management of respiratory viral infections have provided insights into treating COVID-19. Numerous potential therapies, including supportive intervention, immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapy, and convalescent plasma transfusion, have been tentatively applied in clinical settings. A number of these therapies have provided substantially curative benefits in treating patients with COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, intensive research and clinical trials are underway to assess the efficacy of existing drugs and identify potential therapeutic targets to develop new drugs for treating COVID-19. Herein, we summarize the current potential therapeutic approaches for diseases related to COVID-19 infection and introduce their mechanisms of action, safety, and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Killer Cells, Natural , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use
19.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715736

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection induces elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, which are mainly produced by the innate response to the virus. The role of NK cells, which are potent producers of IFN-γ and cytotoxicity, has not been sufficiently studied in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We confirmed a different distribution of NK cell subsets in hospitalized COVID-19 patients despite their NK cell deficiency. The impairment of this innate defense is mainly focused on the cytotoxic capacity of the CD56dim NK cells. On the one hand, we found an expansion of the CD56dimCD16neg NK subset, lower cytotoxic capacities, and high frequencies of inhibitory 2DL1 and 2DL1/S1 KIR receptors in COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, the depletion of CD56dimCD16dim/bright NK cell subsets, high cytotoxic capacities, and high frequencies of inhibitory 2DL1 KIR receptors were found in COVID-19 patients. In contrast, no differences in the distribution of CD56bright NK cell subsets were found in this study. These alterations in the distribution and phenotype of NK cells might enhance the impairment of this crucial innate line of defense during COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Receptors, KIR/metabolism , Aged , CD56 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 20, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707603

ABSTRACT

Adaptive immune responses have been studied extensively in the course of mRNA vaccination against COVID-19. Considerably fewer studies have assessed the effects on innate immune cells. Here, we characterized NK cells in healthy individuals and immunocompromised patients in the course of an anti-SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA prospective, open-label clinical vaccine trial. See trial registration description in notes. Results revealed preserved NK cell numbers, frequencies, subsets, phenotypes, and function as assessed through consecutive peripheral blood samplings at 0, 10, 21, and 35 days following vaccination. A positive correlation was observed between the frequency of NKG2C+ NK cells at baseline (Day 0) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab titers following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination at Day 35. The present results provide basic insights in regards to NK cells in the context of mRNA vaccination, and have relevance for future mRNA-based vaccinations against COVID-19, other viral infections, and cancer.Trial registration: The current study is based on clinical material from the COVAXID open-label, non-randomized prospective clinical trial registered at EudraCT and clinicaltrials.gov (no. 2021-000175-37). Description: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04780659?term=2021-000175-37&draw=2&rank=1 .


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/metabolism , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL