Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(4): 1140-1145, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report an outbreak of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Prospective, observational study including consecutive COVID-19 patients with hvKp infections admitted to the University Hospital of Pisa (Italy). Clinical data and outcome of patients were collected. All patients were followed-up to 30 days from the diagnosis of infection. Mortality within 30 days of the diagnosis of hvKp infection was reported. The hypermucoviscous phenotype was determined by the 'string test'. Molecular typing was performed on three strains collected during different periods of the outbreak. The strains underwent whole genome sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq instrument. The complete circular assemblies were also obtained for the chromosome and a large plasmid using the Unicycler tool. RESULTS: From November 2020 to March 2021, hvKp has been isolated from 36 COVID-19 patients: 29/36 (80.6%) had infections (15 bloodstream infections, 8 ventilator-associated pneumonias and 6 complicated urinary tract infections), while 7/36 (19.4%) had colonization (3 urine, 2 rectal and 2 skin). The isolates belonged to ST147 and their plasmid carried three replicons of the IncFIB (Mar), IncR and IncHI1B types and several resistance genes, including the rmpADC genes encoding enhancers of capsular synthesis. The hvKp isolates displayed an ESBL phenotype, with resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam and susceptibility only to meropenem and ceftazidime/avibactam. The majority of patients were treated with meropenem alone or in combination with fosfomycin. Thirty-day mortality was 48.3% (14/29). CONCLUSIONS: ST147 ESBL-producing hvKp is associated with high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Strict microbiological surveillance and infection control measures are needed in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Klebsiella Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Prospective Studies
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(10): 2538-2545, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447597

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the spread of New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147 organisms in Poland since an introduction from Tunisia in March 2015, including their phylogenetic position in the global population of the high-risk clone. METHODS: Out of 8925 unique NDM-positive K. pneumoniae isolates identified in Poland from April 2015 till December 2019, 126 isolates, including the Tunisian imports, were related by PFGE and blaNDM gene-carrying Tn125 transposon derivatives. Forty-seven representative isolates were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. The phylogeny, resistome, virulome and plasmid replicons were analysed and compared with the international ST147 strains. Plasmids of six isolates were studied by the MinION sequencing. RESULTS: A high homogeneity of the 47 isolates was observed, with minor variations in their resistomes and plasmid replicon profiles. However, the detailed SNP comparison discerned a strict outbreak cluster of 40 isolates. All of the organisms were grouped within the ST147 phylogenetic international lineage, and four NDM-1 producers from Tunisia, Egypt and France were the closest relatives of the Polish isolates. Yersiniabactin genes (YbST280 type) were located within the ICEKpn12-like element in most of the outbreak isolates, characterized by O2v1 and KL64 antigen loci. The blaNDM-1 genes were located in double-replicon IncFIIK2+IncFIBK plasmids. CONCLUSIONS: The continuous spread of K. pneumoniae ST147 NDM-1 in Poland since 2015, largely in the Warsaw area, is demonstrated by this genomic analysis. The isolates showed a high degree of homogeneity, and close relatedness to organisms spreading in the Mediterranean region.


Subject(s)
Klebsiella Infections , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phylogeny , Plasmids/genetics , Poland/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases/genetics
4.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13687, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether behavioral precautions adopted during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic also influenced the spreading and multidrug resistance (MDR) of ESKAPEEc (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii [AB], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp and Escherichia Coli, [EC]) among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study in adult patients admitted to our COVID-19-free surgical ICU. Only patients staying in ICU for more than 48 hours were included. The ESKAPEEc infections recorded during the COVID-19 period (June 1, 2020 - February 28, 2021) and in the corresponding pre-pandemic period (June 1, 2019 - February 28, 2020) were compared. An interrupted time series analysis was performed to rule out possible confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 173 patients in the COVID-19 period and 132 in the pre-COVID-19 period were investigated. The ESKAPEEc infections were documented in 23 (13.3%) and 35 (26.5%) patients in the pandemic and the pre-pandemic periods, respectively (p = 0.005). Demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, type of surgery, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, length of mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU length of stay, ICU death rate, and 28-day hospital mortality were similar in the two groups. In comparison with the pre-pandemic period, no AB was recorded during COVID-19 period, (p = 0.017), while extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing EC infections significantly decreased (p = 0.017). Overall, the ESKAPEEc isolates during pandemic less frequently exhibited multidrug-resistant (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a robust adherence to hygiene measures together with human contact restrictions in a COVID-19 free ICU might also restrain the transmission of ESKAPEEc pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter baumannii , Aged , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/transmission , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/transmission , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/transmission , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/transmission , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/transmission , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Staphylococcus aureus , Visitors to Patients
5.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(10): 1324-1326, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309130

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing the carbapenemase NDM-1 occurred in our ICU during the last COVID-19 wave. Twelve patients were tested positive, seven remained asymptomatic whereas 5 developed an infection. Resistome and in silico multilocus sequence typing confirmed the clonal origin of the strains. The identification of a possible environmental reservoir suggested that difficulties in observing optimal bio-cleaning procedures due to workload and exhaustion contributed to the outbreak besides the inappropriate excessive glove use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Klebsiella Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Dreams , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , beta-Lactamases/genetics
6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254671, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308185

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 represents high morbidity and mortality, its complications and lethality have increased due to bacterial superinfections. We aimed to determine the prevalence of bacterial superinfection in adults with COVID-19, hospitalized in two clinics in Medellín-Colombia during 2020, and its distribution according to sociodemographic and clinical conditions. A cross sectional study was made with 399 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 by RT-PCR. We determined the prevalence of bacterial superinfection and its factors associated with crude and adjusted prevalence ratios by a generalized linear model. The prevalence of superinfection was 49.6%, with 16 agents identified, the most frequent were Klebsiella (pneumoniae and oxytoca) and Staphylococcus aureus. In the multivariate adjustment, the variables with the strongest association with bacterial superinfection were lung disease, encephalopathy, mechanical ventilation, hospital stay, and steroid treatment. A high prevalence of bacterial superinfections, a high number of agents, and multiple associated factors were found. Among these stood out comorbidities, complications, days of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and steroid treatment. These results are vital to identifying priority clinical groups, improving the care of simultaneous infections with COVID-19 in people with the risk factors exposed in the population studied, and identifying bacteria of public health interest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Superinfection/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Colombia , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
7.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 113, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-964565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae are a major cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections, including sepsis, liver abscess, and pneumonia, driven mainly by the emergence of successful high-risk clonal lineages. The K. pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 307 lineage has appeared in several different parts of the world after first being described in Europe in 2008. From June to October 2019, we recorded an outbreak of an extensively drug-resistant ST307 lineage in four medical facilities in north-eastern Germany. METHODS: Here, we investigated these isolates and those from subsequent cases in the same facilities. We performed whole-genome sequencing to study phylogenetics, microevolution, and plasmid transmission, as well as phenotypic experiments including growth curves, hypermucoviscosity, siderophore secretion, biofilm formation, desiccation resilience, serum survival, and heavy metal resistance for an in-depth characterization of this outbreak clone. RESULTS: Phylogenetics suggest a homogenous phylogram with several sub-clades containing either isolates from only one patient or isolates originating from different patients, suggesting inter-patient transmission. We identified three large resistance plasmids, carrying either NDM-1, CTX-M-15, or OXA-48, which K. pneumoniae ST307 likely donated to other K. pneumoniae isolates of different STs and even other bacterial species (e.g., Enterobacter cloacae) within the clinical settings. Several chromosomally and plasmid-encoded, hypervirulence-associated virulence factors (e.g., yersiniabactin, metabolite transporter, aerobactin, and heavy metal resistance genes) were identified in addition. While growth, biofilm formation, desiccation resilience, serum survival, and heavy metal resistance were comparable to several control strains, results from siderophore secretion and hypermucoviscosity experiments revealed superiority of the ST307 clone, similar to an archetypical, hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strain (hvKP1). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of extensive drug resistance and virulence, partly conferred through a "mosaic" plasmid carrying both antibiotic resistance and hypervirulence-associated features, demonstrates serious public health implications.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Iron/metabolism , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biofilms/growth & development , Disease Outbreaks , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Phylogeny , Plasmids , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Virulence/drug effects , Virulence/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(2): 63-84, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897127

ABSTRACT

Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered an opportunistic pathogen, constituting an ongoing health concern for immunocompromised patients, the elderly, and neonates. Reports on the isolation of K. pneumoniae from other sources are increasing, many of which express multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Three phylogroups were identified based on nucleotide differences. Niche environments, including plants, animals, and humans appear to be colonized by different phylogroups, among which KpI (K. pneumoniae) is commonly associated with human infection. Infections with K. pneumoniae can be transmitted through contaminated food or water and can be associated with community-acquired infections or between persons and animals involved in hospital-acquired infections. Increasing reports are describing detections along the food chain, suggesting the possibility exists that this could be a hitherto unexplored reservoir for this opportunistic bacterial pathogen. Expression of MDR phenotypes elaborated by these bacteria is due to the nature of various plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance (AMR)-encoding genes, and is a challenge to animal, environmental, and human health alike. Raman spectroscopy has the potential to provide for the rapid identification and screening of antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella isolates. Moreover, hypervirulent isolates linked with extraintestinal infections express phenotypes that may support their niche adaptation. In this review, the prevalence, reservoirs, AMR, Raman spectroscopy detection, and pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae are summarized and various extraintestinal infection pathways are further narrated to extend our understanding of its adaptation and survival ability in reservoirs, and associated disease risks.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Zoonoses/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Aged , Animals , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Male , Phylogeny , Prevalence
11.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 23: 398-400, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939061

ABSTRACT

Here we report on seven intensive care unit (ICU) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who developed positive rectal swabs and invasive infections due to carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp). Notwithstanding the infection prevention measures introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in the hospitalised population, attention to CP-Kp infections must remain high, especially in the critically ill setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(4): 859-869, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898040

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. Bacterial co-infections are associated with unfavourable outcomes in respiratory viral infections; however, microbiological and antibiotic data related to COVID-19 are sparse. Adequate use of antibiotics in line with antibiotic stewardship (ABS) principles is warranted during the pandemic. We performed a retrospective study of clinical and microbiological characteristics of 140 COVID-19 patients admitted between February and April 2020 to a German University hospital, with a focus on bacterial co-infections and antimicrobial therapy. The final date of follow-up was 6 May 2020. Clinical data of 140 COVID-19 patients were recorded: The median age was 63.5 (range 17-99) years; 64% were males. According to the implemented local ABS guidelines, the most commonly used antibiotic regimen was ampicillin/sulbactam (41.5%) with a median duration of 6 (range 1-13) days. Urinary antigen tests for Legionella pneumophila and Streptococcus peumoniae were negative in all cases. In critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (n = 50), co-infections with Enterobacterales (34.0%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.0%) were detected. Blood cultures collected at admission showed a diagnostic yield of 4.2%. Bacterial and fungal co-infections are rare in COVID-19 patients and are mainly prevalent in critically ill patients. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of antimicrobial therapy on therapeutic outcome in COVID-19 patients to prevent antimicrobial overuse. ABS guidelines could help in optimising the management of COVID-19. Investigation of microbial patterns of infectious complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients is also required.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Male , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Sulbactam/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL