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1.
mBio ; 14(3): e0065923, 2023 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306496

ABSTRACT

The continued challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic combined with the growing problem of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections has severely impacted global health. Specifically, the Gram-negative pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most prevalent causes of secondary bacterial infection in COVID-19 patients, with approximately an 83% mortality rate observed among COVID-19 patients with these bacterial coinfections. K. pneumoniae belongs to the ESKAPE group of pathogens, a group that commonly gives rise to severe infections that are often life-threatening. Recently, K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae has drawn wide public attention, as the mortality rate for this infection can be as high as 71%. The most predominant and clinically important multidrug efflux system in K. pneumoniae is the acriflavine resistance B (AcrB) multidrug efflux pump. This pump mediates resistance to different classes of structurally diverse antimicrobial agents, including quinolones, ß-lactams, tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, and chloramphenicol. We here report single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of K. pneumoniae AcrB, in both the absence and the presence of the antibiotic erythromycin. These structures allow us to elucidate specific pump-drug interactions and pinpoint exactly how this pump recognizes antibiotics. IMPORTANCE Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as one of the most problematic and highly antibiotic-resistant pathogens worldwide. It is the second most common causative agent involved in secondary bacterial infection in COVID-19 patients. K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae is a major concern in global public health because of the high mortality rate of this infection. Its drug resistance is due, in a significant part, to active efflux of these bactericides, a major mechanism that K. pneumoniae uses to resist to the action of multiple classes of antibiotics. Here, we report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the prevalent and clinically important K. pneumoniae AcrB multidrug efflux pump, in both the absence and the presence of the erythromycin antibiotic. These structures allow us to understand the action mechanism for drug recognition in this pump. Our studies will ultimately inform an era in structure-guided drug design to combat multidrug resistance in these Gram-negative pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Klebsiella Infections , Humans , Acriflavine/pharmacology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Pandemics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Erythromycin , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
2.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 22(1): 18, 2023 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is a significant clinical problem, given the lack of therapeutic options. The CRKP strains have emerged as an essential worldwide healthcare issue during the last 10 years. Global expansion of the CRKP has made it a significant public health hazard. We must consider to novel therapeutic techniques. Bacteriophages are potent restorative cases against infections with multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The Phages offer promising prospects for the treatment of CRKP infections. OBJECTIVE: In this study, a novel K. pneumoniae phage vB_KshKPC-M was isolated, characterized, and sequenced, which was able to infect and lyse Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae host specifically. METHODS: One hundred clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from patients with COVID-19 associated with ventilator-associated acute pneumonia hospitalized at Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran, from 2020 to 2021. Initially, all samples were cultured, and bacterial isolates identified by conventional biochemical tests, and then the ureD gene was used by PCR to confirm the isolates. The Antibiotic susceptibility test in the disc diffusion method and Minimum inhibitory concentrations for Colistin was done and interpreted according to guidelines. Phenotypic and molecular methods determined the Carbapenem resistance of isolates. The blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaOXA-23 genes were amplified for this detection. Biofilm determination of CRKP isolates was performed using a quantitative microtiter plate (MTP) method. The phage was isolated from wastewater during the summer season at a specific position from Beheshti Hospital (Kashan, Iran). The sample was processed and purified against the bacterial host, a CRKP strain isolated from a patient suffering from COVID-19 pneumoniae and resistance to Colistin with high potency for biofilm production. This isolate is called Kp100. The separated phages were diluted and titration by the double overlay agar plaque assay. The separate Phage is concentrated with 10% PEG and stored at -80 °C until use. The phage host range was identified by the spot test method. The purified phage morphology was determined using a transmission electron microscope. The phage stability tests (pH and temperature) were analyzed. The effect of cationic ions on phage adsorption was evaluated. The optimal titer of bacteriophage was determined to reduce the concentration of the CRKP strain. One-step growth assays were performed to identify the purified phage burst's latent cycle and size. The SDS-PAGE was used for phage proteins analysis. Phage DNA was extracted by chloroform technique, and the whole genome of lytic phage was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq technology (Illumina, San Diego, CA). For quality assurance and preprocessing, such as trimming, Geneious Prime 2021.2.2 and Spades 3.9.0. The whole genome sequence of the lytic phage is linked to the GenBank database accession number. RASTtk-v1.073 was used to predict and annotate the ORFs. Prediction of ORF was performed using PHASTER software. ResFinder is used to assess the presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in the genome. The tRNAs can-SE v2.0.6 is used to determine the presence of tRNA in the genome. Linear genome comparisons of phages and visualization of coding regions were performed using Easyfig 2.2.3 and Mauve 2.4.0. Phage lifestyles were predicted using the program PHACTS. Phylogenetic analysis and amino acid sequences of phage core proteins, such as the major capsid protein. Phylogenies were reconstructed using the Neighbor-Joining method with 1000 bootstrap repeat. HHpred software was used to predict depolymerase. In this study, GraphPad Prism version 9.1 was used for the statistical analysis. Student's t-test was used to compare the sets and the control sets, and the significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Phage vB_KshKPC-M is assigned to the Siphoviridae, order Caudovirales. It was identified as a linear double-stranded DNA phage of 54,378 bp with 50.08% G + C content, had a relatively broad host range (97.7%), a short latency of 20 min, and a high burst size of 260 PFU/cell, and was maintained stable at different pH (3-11) and temperature (45-65 °C). The vB_KshKPC-M genome contains 91 open-reading frames. No tRNA, antibiotic resistance, toxin, virulence-related genes, or lysogen-forming gene clusters were detected in the phage genome. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that phage vB_KshKPC-M has sequence similarity to the Klebsiella phages, phage 13 (NC_049844.1), phage Sushi (NC_028774.1), phage vB_KpnD_PeteCarol (OL539448.1) and phage PWKp14 (MZ634345.1). CONCLUSION: The broad host range and antibacterial activity make it a promising candidate for future phage therapy applications. The isolated phage was able to lyse most of the antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates. Therefore, this phage can be used alone or as a phage mixture in future studies to control and inhibit respiratory infections caused by these bacteria, especially in treating respiratory infections caused by resistant strains in sick patients.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Klebsiella Infections , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Colistin/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Genomics , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/virology , Phylogeny , Ventilators, Mechanical
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 184, 2023 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in Klebsiella variicola as a causative pathogen in humans, though its clinical features and the impact of co-infection or secondary infection with COVID-19 remain unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old man presented with fever, altered mental status and generalized weakness and was admitted to ICU due to severe COVID-19 pneumonia. He was newly diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus upon admission. On hospital day 3, his respiratory status deteriorated, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. On hospital day 10, superimposed bacterial pneumonia was suspected and subsequently, broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered for the associated bloodstream infection. On hospital day 13, despite administration of active antibiotics and appropriate source control, he decompensated and died. The causative organism isolated from blood cultures was initially reported as K. pneumoniae, but it was identified as K. variicola by a genetic analysis. A representative isolate (FUJ01370) had a novel multilocus sequence typing allelic profile (gapA-infB-mdh-pgi-phoE-rpoB-tonB: 16-24-21-27-52-17-152), to which sequence type 5794 was assigned (GenBank assembly accession: GCA_019042755.1). CONCLUSIONS: We report a fatal case of respiratory and bloodstream infection due to K. variicola complicating severe COVID-19. Co-infection or secondary infection of K. variicola in COVID-19 is likely under-recognized and can be fulminant as in this case.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Klebsiella Infections , Sepsis , Male , Humans , Aged , Coinfection/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Klebsiella/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 173, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) bloodstream infection with high mortality has attached physicians' attention. High visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and high subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were confirmed by previous studies that were closely related to increased pneumonia severity, more complications, and higher mortality in COVID-19. Thus, we speculate that CT-quantified body composition may also be connected to all-cause mortality and bacterial clearance in patients with CRKP bloodstream infection (BSI). METHODS: We investigated the associations of CT-quantified body composition with the mortality of CRKP bloodstream infectious patients. All CT images were obtained at the level of the L3/4 spinal level. The prognostic value of the body composition was analyzed using the Cox regression model, and precise clinical nomograms were established. RESULTS: 72 eligible patients both suffered from CRKP bloodstream infection and performed abdominopelvic CT were included. Factors associated with 30-day all-in hospital mortality included total adipose tissue (TAT) [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.028, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.003-1.053; P = 0.025], age [HR = 1.030, 95% CI, 1.000-1.061; P = 0.047] and SOFA scores [HR = 1.138, 95% CI 1.049-1.263; P = 0.002]. Compared with low-VAT, patients with high-VAT show a strikingly poor prognosis in both 30-day all-cause mortality (P = 0.0108, Fig. 2A) and 30-day CRKP BSI mortality (P = 0.0049, Fig. 2C). The results of TAT were similar to VAT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that CT-derived body composition could be a credible and effective alternative to assess the prognosis of patients with BSI owing to CRKP. CT-quantified TAT, age, and SOFA scores were independently associated with 30-day all-cause mortality in these severe infectious patients, while skeletal muscle did not have obvious statistical significance.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Klebsiella Infections , Sepsis , Adipose Tissue , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Carbapenems , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/drug therapy
6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(4): 1140-1145, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report an outbreak of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Prospective, observational study including consecutive COVID-19 patients with hvKp infections admitted to the University Hospital of Pisa (Italy). Clinical data and outcome of patients were collected. All patients were followed-up to 30 days from the diagnosis of infection. Mortality within 30 days of the diagnosis of hvKp infection was reported. The hypermucoviscous phenotype was determined by the 'string test'. Molecular typing was performed on three strains collected during different periods of the outbreak. The strains underwent whole genome sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq instrument. The complete circular assemblies were also obtained for the chromosome and a large plasmid using the Unicycler tool. RESULTS: From November 2020 to March 2021, hvKp has been isolated from 36 COVID-19 patients: 29/36 (80.6%) had infections (15 bloodstream infections, 8 ventilator-associated pneumonias and 6 complicated urinary tract infections), while 7/36 (19.4%) had colonization (3 urine, 2 rectal and 2 skin). The isolates belonged to ST147 and their plasmid carried three replicons of the IncFIB (Mar), IncR and IncHI1B types and several resistance genes, including the rmpADC genes encoding enhancers of capsular synthesis. The hvKp isolates displayed an ESBL phenotype, with resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam and susceptibility only to meropenem and ceftazidime/avibactam. The majority of patients were treated with meropenem alone or in combination with fosfomycin. Thirty-day mortality was 48.3% (14/29). CONCLUSIONS: ST147 ESBL-producing hvKp is associated with high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Strict microbiological surveillance and infection control measures are needed in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Klebsiella Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Prospective Studies
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2347872, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582891

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk for superadded infections, especially infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of MDR infections, including infections caused by MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), was very high in Iran. This study is aimed at assessing the genetic diversity, antimicrobial resistance pattern, and biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from patients with COVID-19 and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, seventy K. pneumoniae isolates were obtained from seventy patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in the ICU of Shahid Beheshti hospital, Kashan, Iran, from May to September, 2020. K. pneumoniae was detected through the ureD gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, and biofilm was detected using the microtiter plate assay method. Genetic diversity was also analyzed through polymerase chain reaction based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR). The BioNumerics software (v. 8.0, Applied Maths, Belgium) was used for analyzing the data and drawing dendrogram and minimum spanning tree. Findings. K. pneumoniae isolates had varying levels of resistance to antibiotics meropenem (80.4%), cefepime-aztreonam-piperacillin/tazobactam (70%), tobramycin (61.4%), ciprofloxacin (57.7%), gentamicin (55.7%), and imipenem (50%). Around 77.14% of isolates were MDR, and 42.8% of them formed biofilm. Genetic diversity analysis revealed 28 genotypes (E1-E28) and 74.28% of isolates were grouped into ten clusters (i.e., clusters A-J). Clusters were further categorized into three major clusters, i.e., clusters E, H, and J. Antimicrobial resistance to meropenem, tobramycin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin in cluster J was significantly higher than cluster H, denoting significant relationship between ERIC clusters and antimicrobial resistance. However, there was no significant difference among major clusters E, H, and J respecting biofilm formation. CONCLUSION: K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from patients with COVID-19 have high antimicrobial resistance, and 44.2% of them have genetic similarity and can be clustered in three major clusters. There is a significant difference among clusters respecting antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
Biofilms/growth & development , COVID-19/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Iran , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/virology
8.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503647

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
9.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13687, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether behavioral precautions adopted during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic also influenced the spreading and multidrug resistance (MDR) of ESKAPEEc (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii [AB], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp and Escherichia Coli, [EC]) among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study in adult patients admitted to our COVID-19-free surgical ICU. Only patients staying in ICU for more than 48 hours were included. The ESKAPEEc infections recorded during the COVID-19 period (June 1, 2020 - February 28, 2021) and in the corresponding pre-pandemic period (June 1, 2019 - February 28, 2020) were compared. An interrupted time series analysis was performed to rule out possible confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 173 patients in the COVID-19 period and 132 in the pre-COVID-19 period were investigated. The ESKAPEEc infections were documented in 23 (13.3%) and 35 (26.5%) patients in the pandemic and the pre-pandemic periods, respectively (p = 0.005). Demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, type of surgery, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, length of mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU length of stay, ICU death rate, and 28-day hospital mortality were similar in the two groups. In comparison with the pre-pandemic period, no AB was recorded during COVID-19 period, (p = 0.017), while extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing EC infections significantly decreased (p = 0.017). Overall, the ESKAPEEc isolates during pandemic less frequently exhibited multidrug-resistant (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a robust adherence to hygiene measures together with human contact restrictions in a COVID-19 free ICU might also restrain the transmission of ESKAPEEc pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter baumannii , Aged , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/transmission , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/transmission , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/transmission , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/transmission , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/transmission , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Staphylococcus aureus , Visitors to Patients
10.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 556-559, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977732

ABSTRACT

A patient in Japan with coronavirus disease and hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae K2 sequence type 86 infection died of respiratory failure. Bacterial and fungal co-infections caused by region-endemic pathogens, including hypervirulent K. pneumoniae in eastern Asia, should be included in the differential diagnosis of coronavirus disease patients with acutely deteriorating condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/microbiology , Aged, 80 and over , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Japan , Virulence
13.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 23: 398-400, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939061

ABSTRACT

Here we report on seven intensive care unit (ICU) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who developed positive rectal swabs and invasive infections due to carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp). Notwithstanding the infection prevention measures introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in the hospitalised population, attention to CP-Kp infections must remain high, especially in the critically ill setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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