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1.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 135, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are increasing expectations for researchers and knowledge users in the health system to use a research partnership approach, such as integrated knowledge translation, to increase the relevance and use of research findings in health practice, programmes and policies. However, little is known about how health research trainees engage in research partnership approaches such as IKT. In response, the purpose of this scoping review was to map and characterize the evidence related to using an IKT or other research partnership approach from the perspective of health research trainees in thesis and/or postdoctoral work. METHODS: We conducted this scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology and Arksey and O'Malley's framework. We searched the following databases in June 2020: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We also searched sources of unpublished studies and grey literature. We reported our findings in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews. RESULTS: We included 74 records that described trainees' experiences using an IKT or other research partnership approach to health research. The majority of studies involved collaboration with knowledge users in the research question development, recruitment and data collection stages of the research process. Intersecting barriers to IKT or other research partnerships at the individual, interpersonal and organizational levels were reported, including lack of skills in partnership research, competing priorities and trainees' "outsider" status. We also identified studies that evaluated their IKT approach and reported impacts on partnership formation, such as valuing different perspectives, and enhanced relevance of research. CONCLUSION: Our review provides insights for trainees interested in IKT or other research partnership approaches and offers guidance on how to apply an IKT approach to their research. The review findings can serve as a basis for future reviews and primary research focused on IKT principles, strategies and evaluation. The findings can also inform IKT training efforts such as guideline development and academic programme development.


Subject(s)
Research Personnel , Humans , Knowledge
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6775-6781, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal descriptive study aimed to evaluate cognitive skills acquisition in basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (bCPR) among a group of Year 5 and Year 6 primary school pupils. The study made use of online tools due to the impossibility of conventional methods during the COVID-19 lockdown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pupils received formal training in bCPR. Training was imparted uniformly by a teacher at the school (qualified in Basic Life Support -BLS- and Advanced Life Support -ALS- training by the CPR National Plan). The skills acquired (those proposed as essential for bCPR training by the European Resuscitation Council) were evaluated fifteen weeks later. Skills acquisition was evaluated by means of an online questionnaire developed specifically for the study. RESULTS: In all the cognitive skills included in bCPR training, the acquisition level achieved was over 65%. Acquisition of knowledge of the anatomical areas at which cardiac massage must be applied and the means of emergency systems activation was high, while 25.5% of pupils knew the order in which maneuvers should be performed. Pupils' self-confidence and self-perception of their capacity to act when faced with a real CPR situation increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Primary school pupils learned all the cognitive skills involved in bCPR, showing high levels of skills acquisition and positive self-perception of their capacity to apply them.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/education , Students/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Knowledge , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pilot Projects , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools , Self Concept , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258660, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511817

ABSTRACT

Due to COVID-19 precautions, the Vanderbilt University summer biomedical undergraduate research program, the Vanderbilt Summer Science Academy (VSSA), rapidly transitioned from offering an in-person training program to a virtual seminar format. Our program typically supports undergraduate development through research and/or clinical experience, meeting with individuals pursuing postgraduate training, and providing career development advice. Evidence supports the idea that summer programs transform undergraduates by clarifying their interest in research and encouraging those who haven't previously considered graduate studies. We were interested in exploring whether a virtual, synchronous program would increase participants' scientific identity and clarify postgraduate career planning. Rather than create a virtual research exposure, our 5-week "Virtual VSSA" program aimed to simulate the casual connections that would naturally be made with post-undergraduate trainees during a traditional summer program. In seminars, presenters discussed 1) their academic journey, explaining their motivations, goals, and reasons for pursuing a career in science as well as 2) a professional story that illustrated their training. Seminars included Vanderbilt University and Medical School faculty, M.D., MD/Ph.D., as well as Ph.D. students from diverse scientific and personal backgrounds. In addition, weekly informational sessions provided an overview of the nature of each degree program along with admissions advice. Through pre-and post-program surveys, we found that students who registered for this experience already strongly identified with the STEMM community (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine). However, participation in the Virtual VSSA increased their sense of belonging. We also uncovered a gap in participants' understanding of postgraduate pathways prior to participation and found that our program significantly increased their self-reported understanding of postgraduate programs. It also increased their understanding of why someone would pursue a Ph.D. or Ph.D./MD versus M.D. These changes did not uniformly impact participants' planned career paths. Overall, by providing personal, tangible stories of M.D., MD/Ph.D., and Ph.D. training, the Virtual VSSA program offered seminars that positively impacted students' sense of belonging with and connection to the STEMM disciplines.


Subject(s)
Engineering/education , Mathematics/education , Technology/education , Academies and Institutes , Biomedical Research/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Career Choice , Faculty/education , Humans , Knowledge , Mentors/education , Minority Groups/education , Schools, Medical , Students , Universities
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e25797, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443938

ABSTRACT

Early decisions relating to the implementation of virtual care relied on necessity and clinical judgement, but there is a growing need for the generation of evidence to inform policy and practice designs. The need for stronger partnerships between researchers and decision-makers is well recognized, but how these partnerships can be structured and how research can be embedded alongside existing virtual care initiatives remain unclear. We present a series of case studies that illustrate how embedded research can inform policy decisions related to the implementation of virtual care, where decisions are either to (1) discontinue (red light), (2) redesign (yellow light), or (3) scale up existing initiatives (green light). Data were collected through document review and informal interviews with key study personnel. Case 1 involved an evaluation of a mobile diabetes platform that demonstrated a mismatch between the setting and the technology (decision outcome: discontinue). Case 2 involved an evaluation of a mental health support platform that suggested evidence-based modifications to the delivery model (decision outcome: redesign). Case 3 involved an evaluation of video visits that generated evidence to inform the ideal model of implementation at scale (decision outcome: scale up). In this paper, we highlight the characteristics of the partnership and the process that enabled success and use the cases to illustrate how these characteristics were operationalized. Structured communication included monthly check-ins and iterative report development. We also outline key characteristics of the partnership (ie, trust and shared purpose) and the process (ie, timeliness, tailored reporting, and adaptability) that drove the uptake of evidence in decision-making. Across each case, the evaluation was designed to address policy questions articulated by our partners. Furthermore, structured communication provided opportunities for knowledge mobilization. Structured communication was operationalized through monthly meetings as well as the delivery of interim and final reports. These case studies demonstrate the importance of partnering with health system decision-makers to generate and mobilize scientific evidence. Embedded research partnerships founded on a shared purpose of system service provided an effective strategy to bridge the oft-cited gap between science and policy. Structured communication provided a mechanism for collaborative problem-solving and real-time feedback, and it helped contextualize emerging insights.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Research Personnel , Communication , Humans , Knowledge
5.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 27(5): 1168-1171, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434760
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051447, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the global general population regarding COVID-19. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were used to identify articles published between 1 January and 30 June 2021 assessing KAP regarding COVID-19 in the global general population. The quality of eligible studies was assessed. Random effects model was used to obtain the pooled proportion of each component of KAP of COVID-19. Heterogeneity (I2) was tested, and subgroup and correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Out of 3099 records, 84 studies from 45 countries across all continents assessing 215 731 participants' COVID-19 KAP were included in this study. The estimated overall correct answers for knowledge, good attitude and good practice in this review were 75% (95% CI 72% to 77%), 74% (95% CI 71% to 77%) and 70% (95% CI 66% to 74%), respectively. Low-income countries, men, people aged below 30 years and people with 12 years of education or less had the lowest practice scores. Practice scores were below 60% in Africa and Europe/Oceania. Overall heterogeneity was high (I2 ≥98%), and publication bias was present (Egger's regression test, p<0.01). A positive significant correlation between knowledge and practice (r=0.314, p=0.006), and attitude and practice (r=0.348, p=0.004) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings call for community-based awareness programmes to provide a simple, clear and understandable message to reinforce knowledge especially regarding efficacy of the preventive measures in low and lower middle-income countries, and in Africa and Europe/Oceania, which will translate into good practice. Targeted intervention for men, people with low education, unemployed people and people aged below 30 years should be recommended. As most of the included studies were online surveys, underprivileged and remote rural people may have been missed out. Additional studies are needed to cover heterogeneous populations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020203476.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Knowledge , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Korean J Med Educ ; 33(3): 163-170, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395055

ABSTRACT

It is necessary to reflect on the question, "How to prepare for medical education after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?" Although we are preparing for the era of Education 4.0 in line with the 4th industrial revolution of artificial intelligence and big data, most measures are focused on the methodologies of transferring knowledge; essential innovation is not being addressed. What is fundamentally needed in medicine is insightful intelligence that can see the invisible. We should not create doctors who only prescribe antispasmodics for abdominal pain, or antiemetic drugs for vomiting. Good clinical reasoning is not based on knowledge alone. Insightology in medicine is based on experience through Bayesian reasoning and imagination through the theory of mind. This refers to diagnosis of the whole, greater than the sum of its parts, by looking at the invisible using the Gestalt strategy. Identifying the missing process that links symptoms is essential. This missing process can be described in one word: context. An accurate diagnosis is possible only by understanding context, which can be done by standing in someone else's shoes. From the viewpoint of medicine, Education 4.0 is worrisome because people are still clinging to methodology. The subject we should focus on is "human", not "artificial" intelligence. We should first advance the "insightology in medicine" as a new paradigm, which is the "essence" that will never change even when rare "phenomena" such as the COVID-19 outbreak occur. For this reason, we should focus on teaching insightology in medicine, rather than teaching medical knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical/trends , Artificial Intelligence , Diffusion of Innovation , Humans , Knowledge , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(2)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389436

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty analysis is the process of identifying limitations in knowledge and evaluating their implications for scientific conclusions. Uncertainty analysis is a stable component of risk assessment and is increasingly used in decision making on complex health issues. Uncertainties should be identified in a structured way and prioritized according to their likely impact on the outcome of scientific conclusions. Uncertainty is inherent to the rare diseases (RD) area, where research and healthcare have to cope with knowledge gaps due to the rarity of the conditions; yet a systematic approach toward uncertainties is not usually undertaken. The uncertainty issue is particularly relevant to multifactorial RD, whose etiopathogenesis involves environmental factors and genetic predisposition. Three case studies are presented: the newly recognized acute multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection; the assessment of risk factors for neural tube defects; and the genotype-phenotype correlation in familial Mediterranean fever. Each case study proposes the initial identification of the main epistemic and sampling uncertainties and their impacts. Uncertainty analysis in RD may present aspects similar to those encountered when conducting risk assessment in data-poor scenarios; therefore, approaches such as expert knowledge elicitation may be considered. The RD community has a main strength in managing uncertainty, as it proactively develops stakeholder involvement, data sharing and open science. The open science approaches can be profitably integrated by structured uncertainty analysis, especially when dealing with multifactorial RD involving environmental and genetic risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Familial Mediterranean Fever/epidemiology , Neural Tube Defects/epidemiology , Rare Diseases/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Uncertainty , Causality , Familial Mediterranean Fever/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Knowledge , Phenotype , Rare Diseases/etiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378310

ABSTRACT

OVERVIEW: There has been an increase in the frequency and severity of stress experienced by Canadian post-secondary students, which has adverse implications on their academic success. This work applied the socio-ecological model for health promotion to explore the contextual factors that influence this relationship at the individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and public policy levels. METHODS: Using a qualitative, phenomenological approach, we conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with undergraduate students and on-campus staff who provide services to this population at a post-secondary institution in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Thematic analysis inductively identified overarching themes among participants' perspectives. RESULTS: Several positive and negative factors were identified at each socio-ecological model level, demonstrating the complex interplay of demographic, psychological, emotional, social, physical, and academic factors impacting students' academic stress. CONCLUSIONS: A lack of communication and knowledge seems to underlie many factors, highlighting the need to strengthen communication strategies to promote awareness, accessibility, and availability of services and programs on campus. Results also pointed to focusing on proactive, resilience-focused, upstream mental health promotion efforts at post-secondary institutions to reduce stress and improve academic success. This knowledge can help Canadian campuses better address students' needs.


Subject(s)
Academic Success , Health Promotion , Humans , Knowledge , Ontario , Students
12.
Acad Med ; 96(7): 947-950, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364847

ABSTRACT

While advances in science and technology continue to be at the forefront of the evolution of medical practice, the 21st century is also undergoing a unique and profound cultural shift that is changing the very nature of what it means to be a medical professional, namely humankind's transition to an information-based internet society. Medical care will increasingly depend on computer-generated probabilities guided and supported by a growing variety of individuals in health care-related professions, including statisticians, technologists, and information managers. Perhaps the biggest challenge to the profession will come from the erosion of professional autonomy, driven by smart machines, social networks, and internet search engines. As a result of these and other changes, physicians are facing a systematic loss of control, often without the direct input and leadership of the profession itself. In this commentary, the author urges the profession to adopt several strategies, including shifting its focus from reimbursement to the care patients value most, meaningfully addressing critical issues in health policy, becoming the definitive source for publicly available medical information, reimagining medical education, and overhauling the existing accreditation and licensing systems. Medical education must go beyond a focus on physicians whose professional identity revolves around being the exclusive source of medical knowledge. In the digitized 21st century, medical education should emphasize the centrality of the humanistic interface with patients such that the doctor-patient relationship is paramount in the complex medical world of machines and social media. Removing the roadblocks to successful professional reform is no small task, but the process can begin with a grassroots movement that empowers physicians and facilitates organizational and behavioral change. Failure to take action may well hasten the diminishment of patient care and the profession's trusted role in society.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical/history , Medical Informatics/instrumentation , Medicine/instrumentation , Physician-Patient Relations/ethics , Physicians/organization & administration , Access to Information , Accreditation/methods , Accreditation/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical/methods , Empowerment , Health Policy , History, 21st Century , Humans , Knowledge , Leadership , Medical Informatics/legislation & jurisprudence , Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Professional Autonomy , Social Networking
16.
Soins ; 66(857): 48-51, 2021 Jul.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347866

ABSTRACT

Since February 2020, hundreds of thousands of patients have been left with persistant symptoms after their infection. Along with their clinicians, these patients are exposed to a high degree of uncertainty and the urgent need to produce conceptual frameworks aimed at recognising, treating and validating their experience as patients suffering from new and protracted symptoms and witnessing debates as to how these symptoms should be qualified. In this respect, long covid illustrates the need to combine the collective experiential knowledge of patients and scientific knowledge for the benefit of the patients, clinicians and research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Knowledge , Patient Outcome Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Antiviral Res ; 194: 105158, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340541

ABSTRACT

It is more than 20 years since the neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir were approved for the treatment and prevention of influenza. Guidelines for global surveillance and methods for evaluating resistance were established initially by the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network (NISN), which merged 10 years ago with the International Society for influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) to become the isirv-Antiviral Group (isirv-AVG). With the ongoing development of new influenza polymerase inhibitors and recent approval of baloxavir marboxil, the isirv-AVG held a closed meeting in August 2019 to discuss the impact of resistance to these inhibitors. Following this meeting and review of the current literature, this article is intended to summarize current knowledge regarding the clinical impact of resistance to polymerase inhibitors and approaches for surveillance and methods for laboratory evaluation of resistance, both in vitro and in animal models. We highlight limitations and gaps in current knowledge and suggest some strategies for addressing these gaps, including the need for additional clinical studies of influenza antiviral drug combinations. Lessons learned from influenza resistance monitoring may also be helpful for establishing future drug susceptibility surveillance and testing for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Dibenzothiepins/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Knowledge , Morpholines/pharmacology , Neuraminidase/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazines/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Zanamivir/pharmacology
18.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(3): 92, 2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333146

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, scientific experts advised governments for measures to be promptly taken; they also helped people to understand the situation. They carried out this role in the face of a worldwide emergency, when scientific understanding was still underway. Public scientific disputes also arose, creating confusion among people. This article highlights the importance of experts' epistemic stance under these circumstances. It suggests they should embrace the intellectual virtue of epistemic humility, regulating their epistemic behavior and communication accordingly. In so doing, they would also favour the functioning of the broad network of knowledge-based experts, which is required to properly address all the aspects of the global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication/standards , Knowledge , Medicine/standards , Science/standards , Dissent and Disputes , Humans , Mass Media , Uncertainty
19.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(8): 967, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307328
20.
Nurs Sci Q ; 34(3): 234, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295349

ABSTRACT

Consideration of the idea of diversity of knowledge is the subject of this column since it is meant as an introduction to the article about recruitment strategies in minority populations during Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Cultural Diversity , Knowledge , Humans , Nursing Research
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