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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(2): 722-732, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The need for efficient drugs and early treatment of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection developing COVID-19 symptoms is of primary importance in daily clinical practice and it is certainly among the most difficult medical challenges in the current century. Recognizing those patients who will need stronger clinical efforts could effectively help doctors anticipate the eventual need for intensification of care (IoC) and choose the best treatment in order to avoid worse outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 501 patients, consecutively admitted to our two COVID hospitals, and collected their clinical, anamnestic and laboratory data on admission. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify those data that are strictly associated with COVID-19 outcomes (IoC and in-hospital death) and that could somehow be intended as predictors of these outcomes. This allowed us to provide a "sketch" of the patient who undergoes, more often than others, an intensification of care and/or in-hospital death. RESULTS: Males were found to have a double risk of needing an IoC (OR=2.11) and a significant role was played by both the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission (OR=0.99) and serum LDH (OR=1.01). The main predictors of in-hospital death were age (OR=1.08) and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission (OR=0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Male patients with high serum LDH on admission are those who undergo more often an intensification of care among COVID-19 inpatients. Both age and respiratory performances on admission modify the prognosis within the hospitalization period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Oxygen Consumption , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors
2.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103821, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although acute cardiac injury (ACI) is a known COVID-19 complication, whether ACI acquired during COVID-19 recovers is unknown. This study investigated the incidence of persistent ACI and identified clinical predictors of ACI recovery in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 2.5 months post-discharge. METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 10,696 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from March 11, 2020 to June 3, 2021. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory tests were collected at ACI onset, hospital discharge, and 2.5 months post-discharge. ACI was defined as serum troponin-T (TNT) level >99th-percentile upper reference limit (0.014ng/mL) during hospitalization, and recovery was defined as TNT below this threshold 2.5 months post-discharge. Four models were used to predict ACI recovery status. RESULTS: There were 4,248 (39.7%) COVID-19 patients with ACI, with most (93%) developed ACI on or within a day after admission. In-hospital mortality odds ratio of ACI patients was 4.45 [95%CI: 3.92, 5.05, p<0.001] compared to non-ACI patients. Of the 2,880 ACI survivors, 1,114 (38.7%) returned to our hospitals 2.5 months on average post-discharge, of which only 302 (44.9%) out of 673 patients recovered from ACI. There were no significant differences in demographics, race, ethnicity, major commodities, and length of hospital stay between groups. Prediction of ACI recovery post-discharge using the top predictors (troponin, creatinine, lymphocyte, sodium, lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocytes and hematocrit) at discharge yielded 63.73%-75.73% accuracy. INTERPRETATION: Persistent cardiac injury is common among COVID-19 survivors. Readily available patient data accurately predict ACI recovery post-discharge. Early identification of at-risk patients could help prevent long-term cardiovascular complications. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Heart Injuries/diagnosis , Troponin I/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Heart Injuries/etiology , Heart Injuries/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitative evaluation of radiographic images has been developed and suggested for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are limited opportunities to use these image-based diagnostic indices in clinical practice. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the utility of a novel visually-based classification of pulmonary findings from computed tomography (CT) images of COVID-19 patients with the following three patterns defined: peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse findings of pneumonia. We also evaluated the prognostic value of this classification to predict the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between January 1st and September 30th, 2020, who presented with suspicious findings on CT lung images at admission (n = 69). We compared the association between the three predefined patterns (peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse), admission to the intensive care unit, tracheal intubation, and death. We tested quantitative CT analysis as an outcome predictor for COVID-19. Quantitative CT analysis was performed using a semi-automated method (Thoracic Volume Computer-Assisted Reading software, GE Health care, United States). Lungs were divided by Hounsfield unit intervals. Compromised lung (%CL) volume was the sum of poorly and non-aerated volumes (- 500, 100 HU). We collected patient clinical data, including demographic and clinical variables at the time of admission. RESULTS: Patients with a diffuse pattern were intubated more frequently and for a longer duration than patients with a peripheral or multifocal pattern. The following clinical variables were significantly different between the diffuse pattern and peripheral and multifocal groups: body temperature (p = 0.04), lymphocyte count (p = 0.01), neutrophil count (p = 0.02), c-reactive protein (p < 0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.01), Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen (p < 0.01), D-dimer (p < 0.01), and steroid (p = 0.01) and favipiravir (p = 0.03) administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our simple visual assessment of CT images can predict the severity of illness, a resulting decrease in respiratory function, and the need for supplemental respiratory ventilation among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Mucin-1/blood , Neutrophils , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261529, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for the development of severe COVID-19 disease and death have been widely reported across several studies. Knowledge about the determinants of severe disease and mortality in the Indian context can guide early clinical management. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based case control study across nine sites in India to identify the determinants of severe and critical COVID-19 disease. FINDINGS: We identified age above 60 years, duration before admission >5 days, chronic kidney disease, leucocytosis, prothrombin time > 14 sec, serum ferritin >250 ng/mL, d-dimer >0.5 ng/mL, pro-calcitonin >0.15 µg/L, fibrin degradation products >5 µg/mL, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase >150 U/L, interleukin-6 >25 pg/mL, NLR ≥3, and deranged liver function, renal function and serum electrolytes as significant factors associated with severe COVID-19 disease. INTERPRETATION: We have identified a set of parameters that can help in characterising severe COVID-19 cases in India. These parameters are part of routinely available investigations within Indian hospital settings, both public and private. Study findings have the potential to inform clinical management protocols and identify patients at high risk of severe outcomes at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 37-41, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599461

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and cut-off values of C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum ferritin, and D-dimer for predicting mortality of COVID-19 infection. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from January to May 2021. METHODOLOGY: Serum CRP, LDH, ferritin, and D-dimer were measured in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection at admission. Patients were followed for in-hospital disease outcome. ROC curve was used to determine area under curve (AUC) and cut-off values of biomarkers, followed by multi-variate analysis by logistic regression. RESULTS: In 386 patients, male to female ratio was 1.47/1 (230/156); and mean age was 54.03 ± 16.2 years. Disease was fatal in 135 (35%) patients. AUC for mortality was 0.730 for LDH, 0.737 for CRP, 0.747 for ferritin and 0.758 for D-dimer. Mortality was higher with LDH ≥400 U/ml, Odds Ratio (OR) 5.37 (95% CI 3.01-9.57: p = 0.001), CRP ≥30 ng/L, OR 4.30 (95% CI 2.11-8.74: p = <0.001), serum ferritin ≥200 ng/ml, OR 4.13 (95% CI 1.05-16.2: p = 0.02), and D-dimer ≥400 ng/ml, OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.06-7.01: p = 0.03) with 2 log likelihood of 131.54 for predicting disease outcome with 71.7% accuracy in multi-variate analysis. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum CRP, LDH, ferritin and D-dimer are associated with higher mortality in patients of COVID-19 infection. Serum CRP ≥30ng/ml, LDH ≥400 U/L, ferritin ≥200 ng/ml and D-dimer ≥400 ng/ml can predict fatal outcome in COVID-19 patients. Key Words: C-reactive protein (CRP), COVID-19 infection, D-dimer, Ferritin, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Mortality.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Cardiol ; 79(4): 501-508, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and underlying cardiovascular comorbidities have poor prognoses. Our aim was to identify the impact of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is associated with mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome, on the prognoses of patients with COVID-19 and underlying cardiovascular comorbidities. METHODS: Among 1518 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 enrolled in the CLAVIS-COVID (Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Infection in Hospitalized Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and/or Risk Factors study), 515 patients with cardiovascular comorbidities were analyzed. Patients were divided into tertiles based on LDH levels at admission [tertile 1 (T1), <235 U/L; tertile 2 (T2), 235-355 U/L; and tertile 3 (T3); ≥356 U/L]. We investigated the impact of LDH levels on the in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The mean age was 70.4 ± 30.0 years, and 65.3% were male. There were significantly more in-hospital deaths in T3 than in T1 and T2 [n = 50 (29.2%) vs. n = 15 (8.7%), and n = 24 (14.0%), respectively; p < 0.001]. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, comorbidities, vital signs, and laboratory data including D-dimer and high-sensitivity troponin showed T3 was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-6.13; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: High serum LDH levels at the time of admission are associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19 and known cardiovascular disease and may aid in triage of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 257-266, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To appraise effective predictors for COVID-19 mortality in a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 1270 COVID-19 patients, including 984 admitted in Sino French New City Branch (training and internal validation sets randomly split at 7:3 ratio) and 286 admitted in Optical Valley Branch (external validation set) of Wuhan Tongji hospital, were included in this study. Forty-eight clinical and laboratory features were screened with LASSO method. Further multi-tree extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) machine learning-based model was used to rank importance of features selected from LASSO and subsequently constructed death risk prediction model with simple-tree XGBoost model. Performances of models were evaluated by AUC, prediction accuracy, precision, and F1 scores. RESULTS: Six features, including disease severity, age, levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were selected as predictors for COVID-19 mortality. Simple-tree XGBoost model conducted by these features can predict death risk accurately with >90% precision and >85% sensitivity, as well as F1 scores >0.90 in training and validation sets. CONCLUSION: We proposed the disease severity, age, serum levels of hs-CRP, LDH, ferritin, and IL-10 as significant predictors for death risk of COVID-19, which may help to identify the high-risk COVID-19 cases. KEY MESSAGES A machine learning method is used to build death risk model for COVID-19 patients. Disease severity, age, hs-CRP, LDH, ferritin, and IL-10 are death risk factors. These findings may help to identify the high-risk COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Decision Rules , Hospitalization , Machine Learning , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27435, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570139

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This retrospective study was to investigate the association between clinical characteristics and computerized tomography (CT) findings in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The clinical data of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Spearman correlation analysis was used to identify the correlation. Totally 209 consecutive COVID-19 patients were eligible for the study, with the mean age of 47.53 ±â€Š13.52 years. At onset of the disease, the most common symptoms were fever (85.65%) and cough (61.24%). The CT features of COVID-19 included pulmonary, bronchial, and pleural changes, with the significant pulmonary presentation of ground-glass opacification (93.30%), consolidation (48.80%), ground-glass opacification plus a reticular pattern (54.07%), telangiectasia (84.21%), and pulmonary fibrotic streaks (49.76%). Spearman analysis showed that the CT findings had significantly inverse associations with the platelets, lymphocyte counts, and sodium levels, but were positively related to the age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-dimer, lactic dehydrogenase, α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels (P < .05). In conclusion, the severity of lung abnormalities on CT in COVID-19 patients is inversely associated with the platelets, lymphocyte count, and sodium levels, whereas positively with the age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-dimer, lactic dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Age Factors , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lung , Lymphocyte Count , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Sodium/blood
9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(2): 274-286, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566302

ABSTRACT

Based on the recent reports, cardiovascular events encompass a large portion of the mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which drawn cardiologists into the management of the admitted ill patients. Given that common laboratory values may provide key insights into the illness caused by the life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 virus, it would be more helpful for screening, clinical management and on-time therapeutic strategies. Commensurate with these issues, this review article aimed to discuss the dynamic changes of the common laboratory parameters during COVID-19 and their association with cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the values that changed in the early stage of the disease were considered and monitored during the recovery process. The time required for returning biomarkers to basal levels was also discussed. Finally, of particular interest, we tended to abridge the latest updates regarding the cardiovascular biomarkers as prognostic and diagnostic criteria to determine the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 745515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551502

ABSTRACT

Objective: A critical role in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis is played by immune dysregulation that leads to a generalized uncontrolled multisystem inflammatory response, caused by overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "a cytokine storm" (CS), strongly associated with a severe course of disease. The aim of this study is to identify prognostic biomarkers for CS development in COVID-19 patients and integrate them into a prognostic score for CS-associated risk applicable to routine clinical practice. Materials and Methods: The authors performed a review of 458 medical records from COVID-19 patients (241 men and 217 women aged 60.0 ± 10.0) who received treatment in the St. Petersburg State Budgetary Institution of Healthcare City Hospital 40 (City Hospital 40, St. Petersburg), from Apr. 18, 2020 to Nov. 21, 2020. The patients were split in two groups: one group included 100 patients with moderate disease symptoms; the other group included 358 patients with progressive moderately severe, severe, and extremely severe disease. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) score was used alongside with clinical assessment, chest computed tomographic (CT) scans, electrocardiography (ECG), and lab tests, like ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer. Results: The basic risk factors for cytokine storms in COVID-19 patients are male gender, age over 40 years, positive test result for replicative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, absolute lymphocyte count, dynamics in the NEWS score, as well as LDH, D-dimer, ferritin, and IL-6 levels. These clinical and instrumental findings can be also used as laboratory biomarkers for diagnosis and dynamic monitoring of cytokine storms. The suggested prognostic scale (including the NEWS score dynamics; serum IL-6 greater than 23 pg/ml; serum CRP 50 mg/L or greater; absolute lymphocyte count less than 0.72 × 109/L; positive test result for replicative coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) RNA; age 40 years and over) is a useful tool to identify patients at a high risk for cytokine storm, requiring an early onset of anti-inflammatory therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260537, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546957

ABSTRACT

Several reports highlighted the central role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) disease. Also, the hyper-inflammatory response that is triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrom-Covid-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was believed to play an essential role in disease severity and adverse clinical course. For that reason, the classical inflammatory markers were proposed as a possible indicator for COVID-19 severity. However, an extensive analysis of the predictive value of inflammatory biomarkers in large patients' cohorts is still limited and critically needed. In this study we investigated the predictive value of the classical inflammatory biomarkers in a patient cohort consists of 541 COVID-19 patients admitted to Al Kuwait Hospital, Dubai, UAE. A detailed analysis of the association between the essential inflammatory markers and clinical characteristics as well as clinical outcome of the patients were made. In addition, the correlation between those markers and a wide range of laboratory biomarkers and incidence of acute organs injury were investigated. Our results showed a significant elevation of many inflammatory markers including white cell count (WBC) count, neutrophils count, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-Dimer, ferritin, procalcitonin (PCT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with more severe illness. Also, our results highlighted that higher levels of those markers can predict worse patient outcome including the need of ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, multiple organs dysfunction as well as death. In addition, Our results showed that the presence of lymphopenia and lower absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at the time of admission were associated with severe to critical COVID-19 illness (P<0.0001), presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (P<0.0001) and the need for ventilation and ICU admission., Moreover, our results showed a strong association between lower ALC count and multiple organs dysfunction and patient's death (P<0.0001). In conclusion, our results highlighted the possible use of classical inflammatory biomarkers at time of admission as a potential predictive marker for more severe clinical course in COVID-19 patients that might need more aggressive therapeutic approach including the need of ventilators and ICU admission. The presence of such predictive markers might improve patient's stratification and help in the direction of the available resources to patients in need, which in turn help in improving our response to the disease pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Calcitonin/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Patient Acuity , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
12.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 297: 103813, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521498

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to explore the precise dose of corticosteroid therapy in critical COVID-19. A total of forty-five critical COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The process of critical COVID-19 was divided into alveolitis and fibrosis stages. Most nonsurvivors died in fibrosis phase. Nonsurvivors had more dyspnea symptoms, fewer days of hospitalization, shorter duration of alveolitis and fibrosis. High-dose daily corticosteroid therapy (≥150 mg/d) was associated with shorter survival time and lower lymphocyte count in fibrosis phase. Moreover, a high cumulative dose (≥604 mg) was tied to longer duration of virus shedding, lower oxygenation index (OI), higher incidence of tracheal intubation, fewer lymphocytes and higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In alveolitis phase, the low-to-moderate-dose daily corticosteroid therapy and a small cumulative dose reduced lymphocytes. In conclusion, low-to-moderate dose corticosteroids may be beneficial in the fibrosis phase. High-dose corticosteroid therapy in the fibrosis phase aggravates the severity of critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrosis , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Virus Shedding
13.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(8): 544-549, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526211

ABSTRACT

Standard biomarkers have been widely used for COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis. We hypothesize that thrombogenicity metrics measured by thromboelastography will provide better diagnostic and prognostic utility versus standard biomarkers in COVID-19 positive patients. In this observational prospective study, we included 119 hospitalized COVID-19 positive patients and 15 COVID-19 negative patients. On admission, we measured standard biomarkers and thrombogenicity using a novel thromboelastography assay (TEG-6s). In-hospital all-cause death and thrombotic occurrences (thromboembolism, myocardial infarction and stroke) were recorded. Most COVID-19 patients were African--Americans (68%). COVID-19 patients versus COVID-19 negative patients had higher platelet-fibrin clot strength (P-FCS), fibrin clot strength (FCS) and functional fibrinogen level (FLEV) (P ≤ 0.003 for all). The presence of high TEG-6 s metrics better discriminated COVID-19 positive from negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients with sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at least 3 had higher P-FCS, FCS and FLEV than patients with scores less than 3 (P ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons). By multivariate analysis, the in-hospital composite endpoint occurrence of death and thrombotic events was independently associated with SOFA score more than 3 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, P = 0.03], diabetes (OR = 3.3, P = 0.02) and FCS > 40 mm (OR = 3.4, P = 0.02). This largest observational study suggested the early diagnostic and prognostic utility of thromboelastography to identify COVID-19 and should be considered hypothesis generating. Our results also support the recent FDA guidance regarding the importance of measurement of whole blood viscoelastic properties in COVID-19 patients. Our findings are consistent with the observation of higher hospitalization rates and poorer outcomes for African--Americans with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin/analysis , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Treatment Outcome , /statistics & numerical data
14.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(8): 679-686, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510707

ABSTRACT

Understanding factors associated with disease severity and mortality from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was critical for effective risk stratification. We aimed to investigate the association between biomarkers of clinical laboratory tests, including serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid protein (SAA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer (DD) and poor prognosis of COVID-19. We have searched many studies on COVID-19 on PubMed (Medline), Web of Science and Cochrane until 1 March 2021. The interest of this study was original articles reporting on laboratory testing projects and outcome of patients with COVID-19 that comprises mortality, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), need for care in an intensive care unit (ICU), and severe COVID-19. After synthesizing all data, we performed meta-analysis of random effects, and determined mean difference (MD) and standard mean difference at the biomarker level for different disease severity. A total of 7,739 patients with COVID-19 were pooled from 32 studies. CRP was significantly associated with poor prognosis of COVID-19 (SMD = 0.98, 95% CI = (0.85, 1.11), p < .001). Elevated SAA was associated with an increased composite poor outcome in COVID-19 (SMD = 1.06, 95% CI = (0.39, 1.72), p = .002). An elevated LDH was associated with a composite poor outcome (SMD = 1.18, 95% CI = (1.00, 1.36), p < .001). Patients with a composite poor outcome had a higher DD level (SMD = 0.91, 95% CI = (0.79, 1.02), p < .001). This meta-analysis showed that elevated serum CRP, SAA, LDH, and DD were associated with a poor outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(12): e24088, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the world rapidly spread. It is a serious global public health emergency. METHODS: In this study, we described the clinical characteristics of 11 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the Meizhou People's Hospital, and viral genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from these patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 11 patients, six cases developed fever, 9 cases developed a cough, and two cases developed headache and chills. Four patients (36.4%) had underlying diseases. Pneumonia is the most common complication. The laboratory test results showed that there were no adult patients with increased lymphocyte/lymphocyte percentage (LYM/LYM%). Most patients had normal total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), but only two patients had decreased. Most patients had increased or normal levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB), creatine kinase isoenzymes (CK-MB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Neutrophil (NEU) (r = 0.664, p = 0.026), CK-MB (r = 0.655, p = 0.029) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (r = 0.682, p = 0.021) were significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 virus cycle threshold (Ct) value. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) shows that two different SNPs were identified at positions 8781 and 28144, and have a complete linkage genetic form of 8781C-28144T and 8781T-28144C. CONCLUSIONS: The reports of the 11 COVID-19 patients in our hospital will provide useful information for the diagnosis, treatment, and drug development of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , China , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Genome, Viral , Hospitalization , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load , Viral Proteins/genetics
16.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(12): e24057, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487478

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Colchicine has the potential in reducing patient morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 infection owing to its anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to determine the efficacy of colchicine in optimizing inflammatory hematological biomarker levels among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In accordance to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 statement guidelines, a systematic search was conducted using the following keywords: Colchicine, covid*, SARS-CoV-2, anti-inflammatory, trials, clinical, hematological, laboratory. Databases were searched from December 2019 until August 26, 2021: MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, and EMBASE. Other sources were located through ClinicalTrials.Gov, manually searching SAGE, Science Direct, Elsevier, and Google Scholar. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.4. RESULTS: In total, six studies were included, of which four reported c-reactive protein (CRP) standardized mean reductions in the colchicine group (N = 165) as opposed to the control (N = 252; SMD = -0.49, p < 0.001). On noting lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) values post treatment, the colchicine group (N = 204) showed significant reductions at the end of treatment compared to control (N = 290; SMD = -0.85, p < 0.001). Finally, the D-dimer values in colchicine groups (N = 129) compared to control (N = 216) also documented a negative effect size (SMD = -0.9, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Colchicine has efficacy in reducing inflammatory biomarkers observed in moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients. It may be worthwhile to consider monitoring the clinical and laboratory parameters of patients in further trials to consider colchicine as a strong candidate for an adjunct to COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood
17.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 3440714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been observed that COVID-19 may cause myocardial damage, but there are few detailed reports on myocardial enzyme abnormalities. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed data from 157 consecutive laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 patients from Wuhan. We collected information on demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. The association between myocardial enzyme abnormalities and the mortality was also investigated. RESULTS: The mortality in abnormal myocardial enzyme group was obviously higher than the normal group (P < 0.001). The majority of patients (n = 72, 97.3%) with normal cardiac enzyme group were of the common novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) type, whereas half of the patients with cardiac enzyme abnormalities (n = 40, 48.2%) developed critical and severe NCP type. The multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that COVID-19 patients with increasing age (P = 0.035), higher levels of CRP (P = 0.038), and TNI (P = 0.036) were associated with increased death than other patients. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial enzyme abnormality and myocardial injury were associated with the severity and fatal outcomes of COVID-19. Clinicians should pay attention to the markers of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients, especially those with older age, comorbidities, and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Enzymes/blood , Myocardium/enzymology , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , COVID-19/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Troponin I/blood
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26719, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has been described. However, it is not clear if the presence of abnormal liver function tests at presentation was related to underlying undiagnosed liver disease, or a result of the viral infection.We retrospectively examined the first 554 consecutive polymerase chain reaction positive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 to our academic medical centre. We reviewed their clinical data, chest radiography and laboratory studies obtained within 24 hour of admission.Despite similar hemodynamic parameters, we found significant aspartate transaminase elevation (64 ±â€Š141 vs 35 ±â€Š23 U/L, P < .001) in those with pneumonia compared to those without. Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 102 patients (18.4%). They presented with higher temperatures (38.5 ±â€Š0.9 vs 37.5 ±â€Š0.8 degC, P = .011), higher total white cell counts (6.95 ±â€Š2.29 vs 6.39 ±â€Š2.19 x109/L, P = .021), serum ferritin (240 ±â€Š274 vs 165 ±â€Š198 ng/ml, P = .002) and lactate dehydrogenase (632 ±â€Š912 vs 389 ±â€Š107 U/L, P < .001). These patients were more likely to require intensive care (6.9% vs 2.7% P = .036) and mechanical ventilation (5.9% vs 2.2%, P = .046). Migrant workers from dormitories had a higher rate of baseline liver function test abnormalities (88/425 vs 14/129, P = .01), which were more likely to persist at the time of discharge.Despite relatively mild COVID-19 disease, there was a significant prevalence of liver dysfunction, particularly amongst migrant workers. Elevated liver enzymes were associated with more severe disease, despite similar haemodynamic characteristics. Future studies should explore whether pre-existing liver disease may predispose to more severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore
19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1236-1243, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478144

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The study aims to identify potential risk factors for the poor outcome of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Albania. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective observational study on 133 consecutive hospitalized patients at "COVID 1" Hospital, University Hospital Center of Tirana. The study analyzed the correlation between potential risk factors and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The study included 133 patients, 65.4% of the patients were male, age 60.46 ± 13.53 years. The mortality rate resulted in 22.6%. Univariate analysis revealed that early risk factors for mortality included: laboratory alterations on admission, such as lymphocytes count < 1.000/mm3 (OR = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.17-9.33), lactate dehydrogenase > 250 U/L (OR = 12.48, 95% CI = 1.62-95.78) and D dimer > 2 mg/L (OR = 4.72, 95% CI = 1.96-11.36); lung parenchymal involvement > 75% on chest computed tomography on admission (OR = 54.00, 95% CI = 11.89 - 245.11). Cox proportional hazard regression showed that independent risk factors for mortality were lung parenchymal involvement > 75% on chest computed tomography (HR = 8.31, 95%CI: 1.62-42.45) and occurrence of complications during hospital stay (OR = 10.28, 95% CI = 2.02-52.33). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of poor outcome can be predicted from the early stage of COVID 19 disease, using laboratory data and chest computed tomography. Among patients with COVID 19, lung parenchymal involvement and alterations > 75% on chest computed tomography on admission and laboratory findings, such as lymphocytopenia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase and D dimer levels, turned out to be early risk factors for in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Albania/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 129, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host inflammation contributes to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection causes mild or life-threatening disease. Tools are needed for early risk assessment. METHODS: We studied in 111 COVID-19 patients prospectively followed at a single reference Hospital fifty-three potential biomarkers including alarmins, cytokines, adipocytokines and growth factors, humoral innate immune and neuroendocrine molecules and regulators of iron metabolism. Biomarkers at hospital admission together with age, degree of hypoxia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine were analysed within a data-driven approach to classify patients with respect to survival and ICU outcomes. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the fifty-three potential biomarkers, the classification tree analysis selected CXCL10 at hospital admission, in combination with NLR and time from onset, as the best predictor of ICU transfer (AUC [95% CI] = 0.8374 [0.6233-0.8435]), while it was selected alone to predict death (AUC [95% CI] = 0.7334 [0.7547-0.9201]). CXCL10 concentration abated in COVID-19 survivors after healing and discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL10 results from a data-driven analysis, that accounts for presence of confounding factors, as the most robust predictive biomarker of patient outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
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