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1.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(9): e13827, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 global pandemic started in late 2019 with the first wave. In this cross-sectional and observational study, we evaluated the associations between the biomarkers, COVID-19 pneumonia severity and 1-year mortality. METHODS: A sample of 276 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive patients for SARS-CoV-2 was included. Computerized tomography severity score (CT-SS) was used to assess the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in 222 cases. Multivariate analyses were performed to find the predictors of CT-SS, severe CT-SS (≥20) and 1-year mortality. Biomarkers of ferritin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cardiac troponin (cTn), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), uric acid (UA) and d-dimer were routinely measured. RESULTS: Severe CT-SS (>20) was observed in 86 (31.2%) cases. Mortality was observed in 75 (27.2%) patients at 1 year. LDH displayed the highest predictive accuracy for severe CT-SS (AUC 0.741, sensitivity = 81% and specificity = 68%, cut-off value: 360 mg/dl). Linear regression analysis displayed that LDH predicted CT-SS [B = 11 (95% CI for B = 5-17, p < .001)]. Age was the most significant parameter that was associated with severe CT-SS (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p = .015). d-dimer was the only biomarker that predicted with 1-year mortality (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.08-2.42, p = .020). CONCLUSION: LDH is a sensitive and specific biomarker to determine patients with severe lung injury in COVID-19. d-dimer is the only biomarker that predicts 1-year mortality. Neither LDH nor CT-SS is associated with 1-year mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung Injury/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
2.
J Perinat Med ; 50(7): 887-895, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy carries a significant risk for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) due to natural immunosuppression. A previous study from our center has shown that the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)/lymphocyte ratio (LLR) can be used in the early diagnosis of COVID-19 and predicting mortality. Based on this, we aimed to determine the effect of LLR on early detection of critical pregnant women and mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: The data of 145 patients who were admitted to our hospital between March and December 2020; diagnosed with COVID-19 and hospitalized, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The median gestation period was 31 weeks (range: 5-41), 30.3% (n: 44) gave birth and 68.3% (n: 99) were pregnant. Median LLR was 0.13 (range: 0.04-0.70). The rate of cough (47% vs. 22.8%; p=0.003) was found to be high in patients with LLR>0.13. The patients were divided into subgroups. The proportion of patients without active complaints was higher in the Q1, followed by the Q4. The proportion of patients with an initial complaint of cough increased as LLR from Q1 to Q4, the distribution of other complaints did not differ between the quartiles. CONCLUSIONS: The higher rate of cough in the group with high LLR indicates that it may be an important indicator of lung involvement during pregnancy. The highest rate of non-treatment follow-up in the lowest LLR group proved that the LLR value at the time of diagnosis can be used as an important clinical marker in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lymphocytes , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , X-Rays
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(2): 722-732, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The need for efficient drugs and early treatment of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection developing COVID-19 symptoms is of primary importance in daily clinical practice and it is certainly among the most difficult medical challenges in the current century. Recognizing those patients who will need stronger clinical efforts could effectively help doctors anticipate the eventual need for intensification of care (IoC) and choose the best treatment in order to avoid worse outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 501 patients, consecutively admitted to our two COVID hospitals, and collected their clinical, anamnestic and laboratory data on admission. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify those data that are strictly associated with COVID-19 outcomes (IoC and in-hospital death) and that could somehow be intended as predictors of these outcomes. This allowed us to provide a "sketch" of the patient who undergoes, more often than others, an intensification of care and/or in-hospital death. RESULTS: Males were found to have a double risk of needing an IoC (OR=2.11) and a significant role was played by both the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission (OR=0.99) and serum LDH (OR=1.01). The main predictors of in-hospital death were age (OR=1.08) and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission (OR=0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Male patients with high serum LDH on admission are those who undergo more often an intensification of care among COVID-19 inpatients. Both age and respiratory performances on admission modify the prognosis within the hospitalization period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Oxygen Consumption , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitative evaluation of radiographic images has been developed and suggested for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are limited opportunities to use these image-based diagnostic indices in clinical practice. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the utility of a novel visually-based classification of pulmonary findings from computed tomography (CT) images of COVID-19 patients with the following three patterns defined: peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse findings of pneumonia. We also evaluated the prognostic value of this classification to predict the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between January 1st and September 30th, 2020, who presented with suspicious findings on CT lung images at admission (n = 69). We compared the association between the three predefined patterns (peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse), admission to the intensive care unit, tracheal intubation, and death. We tested quantitative CT analysis as an outcome predictor for COVID-19. Quantitative CT analysis was performed using a semi-automated method (Thoracic Volume Computer-Assisted Reading software, GE Health care, United States). Lungs were divided by Hounsfield unit intervals. Compromised lung (%CL) volume was the sum of poorly and non-aerated volumes (- 500, 100 HU). We collected patient clinical data, including demographic and clinical variables at the time of admission. RESULTS: Patients with a diffuse pattern were intubated more frequently and for a longer duration than patients with a peripheral or multifocal pattern. The following clinical variables were significantly different between the diffuse pattern and peripheral and multifocal groups: body temperature (p = 0.04), lymphocyte count (p = 0.01), neutrophil count (p = 0.02), c-reactive protein (p < 0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.01), Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen (p < 0.01), D-dimer (p < 0.01), and steroid (p = 0.01) and favipiravir (p = 0.03) administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our simple visual assessment of CT images can predict the severity of illness, a resulting decrease in respiratory function, and the need for supplemental respiratory ventilation among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Mucin-1/blood , Neutrophils , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261529, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for the development of severe COVID-19 disease and death have been widely reported across several studies. Knowledge about the determinants of severe disease and mortality in the Indian context can guide early clinical management. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based case control study across nine sites in India to identify the determinants of severe and critical COVID-19 disease. FINDINGS: We identified age above 60 years, duration before admission >5 days, chronic kidney disease, leucocytosis, prothrombin time > 14 sec, serum ferritin >250 ng/mL, d-dimer >0.5 ng/mL, pro-calcitonin >0.15 µg/L, fibrin degradation products >5 µg/mL, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase >150 U/L, interleukin-6 >25 pg/mL, NLR ≥3, and deranged liver function, renal function and serum electrolytes as significant factors associated with severe COVID-19 disease. INTERPRETATION: We have identified a set of parameters that can help in characterising severe COVID-19 cases in India. These parameters are part of routinely available investigations within Indian hospital settings, both public and private. Study findings have the potential to inform clinical management protocols and identify patients at high risk of severe outcomes at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Risk Factors , Young Adult
6.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 37-41, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599461

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and cut-off values of C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum ferritin, and D-dimer for predicting mortality of COVID-19 infection. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from January to May 2021. METHODOLOGY: Serum CRP, LDH, ferritin, and D-dimer were measured in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection at admission. Patients were followed for in-hospital disease outcome. ROC curve was used to determine area under curve (AUC) and cut-off values of biomarkers, followed by multi-variate analysis by logistic regression. RESULTS: In 386 patients, male to female ratio was 1.47/1 (230/156); and mean age was 54.03 ± 16.2 years. Disease was fatal in 135 (35%) patients. AUC for mortality was 0.730 for LDH, 0.737 for CRP, 0.747 for ferritin and 0.758 for D-dimer. Mortality was higher with LDH ≥400 U/ml, Odds Ratio (OR) 5.37 (95% CI 3.01-9.57: p = 0.001), CRP ≥30 ng/L, OR 4.30 (95% CI 2.11-8.74: p = <0.001), serum ferritin ≥200 ng/ml, OR 4.13 (95% CI 1.05-16.2: p = 0.02), and D-dimer ≥400 ng/ml, OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.06-7.01: p = 0.03) with 2 log likelihood of 131.54 for predicting disease outcome with 71.7% accuracy in multi-variate analysis. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum CRP, LDH, ferritin and D-dimer are associated with higher mortality in patients of COVID-19 infection. Serum CRP ≥30ng/ml, LDH ≥400 U/L, ferritin ≥200 ng/ml and D-dimer ≥400 ng/ml can predict fatal outcome in COVID-19 patients. Key Words: C-reactive protein (CRP), COVID-19 infection, D-dimer, Ferritin, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Mortality.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(2): 274-286, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566302

ABSTRACT

Based on the recent reports, cardiovascular events encompass a large portion of the mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which drawn cardiologists into the management of the admitted ill patients. Given that common laboratory values may provide key insights into the illness caused by the life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 virus, it would be more helpful for screening, clinical management and on-time therapeutic strategies. Commensurate with these issues, this review article aimed to discuss the dynamic changes of the common laboratory parameters during COVID-19 and their association with cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the values that changed in the early stage of the disease were considered and monitored during the recovery process. The time required for returning biomarkers to basal levels was also discussed. Finally, of particular interest, we tended to abridge the latest updates regarding the cardiovascular biomarkers as prognostic and diagnostic criteria to determine the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 745515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551502

ABSTRACT

Objective: A critical role in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis is played by immune dysregulation that leads to a generalized uncontrolled multisystem inflammatory response, caused by overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "a cytokine storm" (CS), strongly associated with a severe course of disease. The aim of this study is to identify prognostic biomarkers for CS development in COVID-19 patients and integrate them into a prognostic score for CS-associated risk applicable to routine clinical practice. Materials and Methods: The authors performed a review of 458 medical records from COVID-19 patients (241 men and 217 women aged 60.0 ± 10.0) who received treatment in the St. Petersburg State Budgetary Institution of Healthcare City Hospital 40 (City Hospital 40, St. Petersburg), from Apr. 18, 2020 to Nov. 21, 2020. The patients were split in two groups: one group included 100 patients with moderate disease symptoms; the other group included 358 patients with progressive moderately severe, severe, and extremely severe disease. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) score was used alongside with clinical assessment, chest computed tomographic (CT) scans, electrocardiography (ECG), and lab tests, like ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer. Results: The basic risk factors for cytokine storms in COVID-19 patients are male gender, age over 40 years, positive test result for replicative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, absolute lymphocyte count, dynamics in the NEWS score, as well as LDH, D-dimer, ferritin, and IL-6 levels. These clinical and instrumental findings can be also used as laboratory biomarkers for diagnosis and dynamic monitoring of cytokine storms. The suggested prognostic scale (including the NEWS score dynamics; serum IL-6 greater than 23 pg/ml; serum CRP 50 mg/L or greater; absolute lymphocyte count less than 0.72 × 109/L; positive test result for replicative coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) RNA; age 40 years and over) is a useful tool to identify patients at a high risk for cytokine storm, requiring an early onset of anti-inflammatory therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260537, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546957

ABSTRACT

Several reports highlighted the central role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) disease. Also, the hyper-inflammatory response that is triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrom-Covid-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was believed to play an essential role in disease severity and adverse clinical course. For that reason, the classical inflammatory markers were proposed as a possible indicator for COVID-19 severity. However, an extensive analysis of the predictive value of inflammatory biomarkers in large patients' cohorts is still limited and critically needed. In this study we investigated the predictive value of the classical inflammatory biomarkers in a patient cohort consists of 541 COVID-19 patients admitted to Al Kuwait Hospital, Dubai, UAE. A detailed analysis of the association between the essential inflammatory markers and clinical characteristics as well as clinical outcome of the patients were made. In addition, the correlation between those markers and a wide range of laboratory biomarkers and incidence of acute organs injury were investigated. Our results showed a significant elevation of many inflammatory markers including white cell count (WBC) count, neutrophils count, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-Dimer, ferritin, procalcitonin (PCT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with more severe illness. Also, our results highlighted that higher levels of those markers can predict worse patient outcome including the need of ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, multiple organs dysfunction as well as death. In addition, Our results showed that the presence of lymphopenia and lower absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at the time of admission were associated with severe to critical COVID-19 illness (P<0.0001), presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (P<0.0001) and the need for ventilation and ICU admission., Moreover, our results showed a strong association between lower ALC count and multiple organs dysfunction and patient's death (P<0.0001). In conclusion, our results highlighted the possible use of classical inflammatory biomarkers at time of admission as a potential predictive marker for more severe clinical course in COVID-19 patients that might need more aggressive therapeutic approach including the need of ventilators and ICU admission. The presence of such predictive markers might improve patient's stratification and help in the direction of the available resources to patients in need, which in turn help in improving our response to the disease pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Calcitonin/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Patient Acuity , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
10.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(8): 544-549, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526211

ABSTRACT

Standard biomarkers have been widely used for COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis. We hypothesize that thrombogenicity metrics measured by thromboelastography will provide better diagnostic and prognostic utility versus standard biomarkers in COVID-19 positive patients. In this observational prospective study, we included 119 hospitalized COVID-19 positive patients and 15 COVID-19 negative patients. On admission, we measured standard biomarkers and thrombogenicity using a novel thromboelastography assay (TEG-6s). In-hospital all-cause death and thrombotic occurrences (thromboembolism, myocardial infarction and stroke) were recorded. Most COVID-19 patients were African--Americans (68%). COVID-19 patients versus COVID-19 negative patients had higher platelet-fibrin clot strength (P-FCS), fibrin clot strength (FCS) and functional fibrinogen level (FLEV) (P ≤ 0.003 for all). The presence of high TEG-6 s metrics better discriminated COVID-19 positive from negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients with sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at least 3 had higher P-FCS, FCS and FLEV than patients with scores less than 3 (P ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons). By multivariate analysis, the in-hospital composite endpoint occurrence of death and thrombotic events was independently associated with SOFA score more than 3 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, P = 0.03], diabetes (OR = 3.3, P = 0.02) and FCS > 40 mm (OR = 3.4, P = 0.02). This largest observational study suggested the early diagnostic and prognostic utility of thromboelastography to identify COVID-19 and should be considered hypothesis generating. Our results also support the recent FDA guidance regarding the importance of measurement of whole blood viscoelastic properties in COVID-19 patients. Our findings are consistent with the observation of higher hospitalization rates and poorer outcomes for African--Americans with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin/analysis , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Treatment Outcome , /statistics & numerical data
11.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(8): 679-686, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510707

ABSTRACT

Understanding factors associated with disease severity and mortality from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was critical for effective risk stratification. We aimed to investigate the association between biomarkers of clinical laboratory tests, including serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid protein (SAA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer (DD) and poor prognosis of COVID-19. We have searched many studies on COVID-19 on PubMed (Medline), Web of Science and Cochrane until 1 March 2021. The interest of this study was original articles reporting on laboratory testing projects and outcome of patients with COVID-19 that comprises mortality, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), need for care in an intensive care unit (ICU), and severe COVID-19. After synthesizing all data, we performed meta-analysis of random effects, and determined mean difference (MD) and standard mean difference at the biomarker level for different disease severity. A total of 7,739 patients with COVID-19 were pooled from 32 studies. CRP was significantly associated with poor prognosis of COVID-19 (SMD = 0.98, 95% CI = (0.85, 1.11), p < .001). Elevated SAA was associated with an increased composite poor outcome in COVID-19 (SMD = 1.06, 95% CI = (0.39, 1.72), p = .002). An elevated LDH was associated with a composite poor outcome (SMD = 1.18, 95% CI = (1.00, 1.36), p < .001). Patients with a composite poor outcome had a higher DD level (SMD = 0.91, 95% CI = (0.79, 1.02), p < .001). This meta-analysis showed that elevated serum CRP, SAA, LDH, and DD were associated with a poor outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
12.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(12): e24088, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the world rapidly spread. It is a serious global public health emergency. METHODS: In this study, we described the clinical characteristics of 11 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the Meizhou People's Hospital, and viral genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from these patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 11 patients, six cases developed fever, 9 cases developed a cough, and two cases developed headache and chills. Four patients (36.4%) had underlying diseases. Pneumonia is the most common complication. The laboratory test results showed that there were no adult patients with increased lymphocyte/lymphocyte percentage (LYM/LYM%). Most patients had normal total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), but only two patients had decreased. Most patients had increased or normal levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB), creatine kinase isoenzymes (CK-MB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Neutrophil (NEU) (r = 0.664, p = 0.026), CK-MB (r = 0.655, p = 0.029) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (r = 0.682, p = 0.021) were significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 virus cycle threshold (Ct) value. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) shows that two different SNPs were identified at positions 8781 and 28144, and have a complete linkage genetic form of 8781C-28144T and 8781T-28144C. CONCLUSIONS: The reports of the 11 COVID-19 patients in our hospital will provide useful information for the diagnosis, treatment, and drug development of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , China , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Genome, Viral , Hospitalization , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load , Viral Proteins/genetics
13.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(12): e24057, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487478

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Colchicine has the potential in reducing patient morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 infection owing to its anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to determine the efficacy of colchicine in optimizing inflammatory hematological biomarker levels among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In accordance to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 statement guidelines, a systematic search was conducted using the following keywords: Colchicine, covid*, SARS-CoV-2, anti-inflammatory, trials, clinical, hematological, laboratory. Databases were searched from December 2019 until August 26, 2021: MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, and EMBASE. Other sources were located through ClinicalTrials.Gov, manually searching SAGE, Science Direct, Elsevier, and Google Scholar. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.4. RESULTS: In total, six studies were included, of which four reported c-reactive protein (CRP) standardized mean reductions in the colchicine group (N = 165) as opposed to the control (N = 252; SMD = -0.49, p < 0.001). On noting lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) values post treatment, the colchicine group (N = 204) showed significant reductions at the end of treatment compared to control (N = 290; SMD = -0.85, p < 0.001). Finally, the D-dimer values in colchicine groups (N = 129) compared to control (N = 216) also documented a negative effect size (SMD = -0.9, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Colchicine has efficacy in reducing inflammatory biomarkers observed in moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients. It may be worthwhile to consider monitoring the clinical and laboratory parameters of patients in further trials to consider colchicine as a strong candidate for an adjunct to COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood
14.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 3440714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been observed that COVID-19 may cause myocardial damage, but there are few detailed reports on myocardial enzyme abnormalities. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed data from 157 consecutive laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 patients from Wuhan. We collected information on demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. The association between myocardial enzyme abnormalities and the mortality was also investigated. RESULTS: The mortality in abnormal myocardial enzyme group was obviously higher than the normal group (P < 0.001). The majority of patients (n = 72, 97.3%) with normal cardiac enzyme group were of the common novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) type, whereas half of the patients with cardiac enzyme abnormalities (n = 40, 48.2%) developed critical and severe NCP type. The multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that COVID-19 patients with increasing age (P = 0.035), higher levels of CRP (P = 0.038), and TNI (P = 0.036) were associated with increased death than other patients. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial enzyme abnormality and myocardial injury were associated with the severity and fatal outcomes of COVID-19. Clinicians should pay attention to the markers of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients, especially those with older age, comorbidities, and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Enzymes/blood , Myocardium/enzymology , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , COVID-19/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Troponin I/blood
15.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 129, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host inflammation contributes to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection causes mild or life-threatening disease. Tools are needed for early risk assessment. METHODS: We studied in 111 COVID-19 patients prospectively followed at a single reference Hospital fifty-three potential biomarkers including alarmins, cytokines, adipocytokines and growth factors, humoral innate immune and neuroendocrine molecules and regulators of iron metabolism. Biomarkers at hospital admission together with age, degree of hypoxia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine were analysed within a data-driven approach to classify patients with respect to survival and ICU outcomes. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the fifty-three potential biomarkers, the classification tree analysis selected CXCL10 at hospital admission, in combination with NLR and time from onset, as the best predictor of ICU transfer (AUC [95% CI] = 0.8374 [0.6233-0.8435]), while it was selected alone to predict death (AUC [95% CI] = 0.7334 [0.7547-0.9201]). CXCL10 concentration abated in COVID-19 survivors after healing and discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL10 results from a data-driven analysis, that accounts for presence of confounding factors, as the most robust predictive biomarker of patient outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1236-1243, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478144

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The study aims to identify potential risk factors for the poor outcome of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Albania. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective observational study on 133 consecutive hospitalized patients at "COVID 1" Hospital, University Hospital Center of Tirana. The study analyzed the correlation between potential risk factors and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The study included 133 patients, 65.4% of the patients were male, age 60.46 ± 13.53 years. The mortality rate resulted in 22.6%. Univariate analysis revealed that early risk factors for mortality included: laboratory alterations on admission, such as lymphocytes count < 1.000/mm3 (OR = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.17-9.33), lactate dehydrogenase > 250 U/L (OR = 12.48, 95% CI = 1.62-95.78) and D dimer > 2 mg/L (OR = 4.72, 95% CI = 1.96-11.36); lung parenchymal involvement > 75% on chest computed tomography on admission (OR = 54.00, 95% CI = 11.89 - 245.11). Cox proportional hazard regression showed that independent risk factors for mortality were lung parenchymal involvement > 75% on chest computed tomography (HR = 8.31, 95%CI: 1.62-42.45) and occurrence of complications during hospital stay (OR = 10.28, 95% CI = 2.02-52.33). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of poor outcome can be predicted from the early stage of COVID 19 disease, using laboratory data and chest computed tomography. Among patients with COVID 19, lung parenchymal involvement and alterations > 75% on chest computed tomography on admission and laboratory findings, such as lymphocytopenia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase and D dimer levels, turned out to be early risk factors for in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Albania/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26719, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has been described. However, it is not clear if the presence of abnormal liver function tests at presentation was related to underlying undiagnosed liver disease, or a result of the viral infection.We retrospectively examined the first 554 consecutive polymerase chain reaction positive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 to our academic medical centre. We reviewed their clinical data, chest radiography and laboratory studies obtained within 24 hour of admission.Despite similar hemodynamic parameters, we found significant aspartate transaminase elevation (64 ±â€Š141 vs 35 ±â€Š23 U/L, P < .001) in those with pneumonia compared to those without. Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 102 patients (18.4%). They presented with higher temperatures (38.5 ±â€Š0.9 vs 37.5 ±â€Š0.8 degC, P = .011), higher total white cell counts (6.95 ±â€Š2.29 vs 6.39 ±â€Š2.19 x109/L, P = .021), serum ferritin (240 ±â€Š274 vs 165 ±â€Š198 ng/ml, P = .002) and lactate dehydrogenase (632 ±â€Š912 vs 389 ±â€Š107 U/L, P < .001). These patients were more likely to require intensive care (6.9% vs 2.7% P = .036) and mechanical ventilation (5.9% vs 2.2%, P = .046). Migrant workers from dormitories had a higher rate of baseline liver function test abnormalities (88/425 vs 14/129, P = .01), which were more likely to persist at the time of discharge.Despite relatively mild COVID-19 disease, there was a significant prevalence of liver dysfunction, particularly amongst migrant workers. Elevated liver enzymes were associated with more severe disease, despite similar haemodynamic characteristics. Future studies should explore whether pre-existing liver disease may predispose to more severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore
18.
Magnes Res ; 34(3): 103-113, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468228

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of hypomagnesemia in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and clarify its possible pathogenesis. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by reviewing 83 patients hospitalized in Guanggu district, Wuhan Third Hospital, China. Clinical histories, laboratory findings and outcome data were collected. Eighteen patients had hypomagnesemia during hospitalization. Fourteen patients were in the critical group and six died. In the critical group, serum magnesium (0.72 ± 0.15 mmol/L) was much lower than that in the moderate and severe groups. At the same time, we also found that several indicators are correlated with the level of magnesium. The level of magnesium was positively associated with the lymphocyte count (r = 0.203, P = 0.004) and platelet count (r = 0.217, P = 0.002) but negatively related to the levels of CRP (r = -0.277, P = 0.000), LDH (r = -0.185, P = 0.011) and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (r = -0.198, P = 0.008) in the critical group. Hypomagnesemia might increase symptoms and may be associated with mortality in COVID-19 by affecting enzyme activity and activating the inflammatory response. Thus, magnesium might play a key role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Magnesium Deficiency/blood , Magnesium Deficiency/complications , Magnesium/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/biosynthesis , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase/blood , Inflammation , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature , Treatment Outcome
19.
Scand J Immunol ; 95(1): e13108, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462877

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global health emergency, and understanding the interactions between the virus and host immune responses is crucial to preventing its lethal effects. The expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in COVID-19, thereby suppressing immune responses, has been described as responsible for the severity of the disease, but the correlation between MDSC subsets and COVID-19 severity remains elusive. Therefore, we classified patients according to clinical and laboratory findings-aiming to investigate the relationship between MDSC subsets and laboratory findings such as high C-reactive protein, ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase levels, which indicate the severity of the disease. Forty-one patients with COVID-19 (26 mild and 15 severe; mean age of 49.7 ± 15 years) and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. MDSCs were grouped into two major subsets-polymorphonuclear MDSCs (PMN-MDSCs) and monocytic MDSCs-by flow cytometric immunophenotyping, and PMN-MDSCs were defined as mature and immature, according to CD16 expressions, for the first time in COVID-19. Total MDSCs, PMN-MDSCs, mature PMN-MDSCs and monocytic MDSCs were significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 compared with the healthy controls (P < .05). Only PMN-MDSCs and their immature PMN-MDSC subsets were higher in the severe subgroup than in the mild subgroup. In addition, a significant correlation was found between C-reactive protein, ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase levels and MDSCs in patients with COVID-19. These findings suggest that MDSCs play a role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, while PMN-MDSCs, especially immature PMN-MDSCs, are associated with the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
Acute-Phase Proteins/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Ferritins/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 715072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430697

ABSTRACT

Background: Prediction of the severity of COVID-19 at its onset is important for providing adequate and timely management to reduce mortality. Objective: To study the prognostic value of damage parameters and cytokines as predictors of severity of COVID-19 using an extensive immunologic profiling and unbiased artificial intelligence methods. Methods: Sixty hospitalized COVID-19 patients (30 moderate and 30 severe) and 17 healthy controls were included in the study. The damage indicators high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), extensive biochemical analyses, a panel of 47 cytokines and chemokines were analyzed at weeks 1, 2 and 7 along with clinical complaints and CT scans of the lungs. Unbiased artificial intelligence (AI) methods (logistic regression and Support Vector Machine and Random Forest algorithms) were applied to investigate the contribution of each parameter to prediction of the severity of the disease. Results: On admission, the severely ill patients had significantly higher levels of LDH, IL-6, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), D-dimer, fibrinogen, glucose than the patients with moderate disease. The levels of macrophage derived cytokine (MDC) were lower in severely ill patients. Based on artificial intelligence analysis, eight parameters (creatinine, glucose, monocyte number, fibrinogen, MDC, MIG, C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 have been identified that could predict with an accuracy of 83-87% whether the patient will develop severe disease. Conclusion: This study identifies the prognostic factors and provides a methodology for making prediction for COVID-19 patients based on widely accepted biomarkers that can be measured in most conventional clinical laboratories worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Support Vector Machine , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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