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1.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(8): 544-549, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526211

ABSTRACT

Standard biomarkers have been widely used for COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis. We hypothesize that thrombogenicity metrics measured by thromboelastography will provide better diagnostic and prognostic utility versus standard biomarkers in COVID-19 positive patients. In this observational prospective study, we included 119 hospitalized COVID-19 positive patients and 15 COVID-19 negative patients. On admission, we measured standard biomarkers and thrombogenicity using a novel thromboelastography assay (TEG-6s). In-hospital all-cause death and thrombotic occurrences (thromboembolism, myocardial infarction and stroke) were recorded. Most COVID-19 patients were African--Americans (68%). COVID-19 patients versus COVID-19 negative patients had higher platelet-fibrin clot strength (P-FCS), fibrin clot strength (FCS) and functional fibrinogen level (FLEV) (P ≤ 0.003 for all). The presence of high TEG-6 s metrics better discriminated COVID-19 positive from negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients with sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at least 3 had higher P-FCS, FCS and FLEV than patients with scores less than 3 (P ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons). By multivariate analysis, the in-hospital composite endpoint occurrence of death and thrombotic events was independently associated with SOFA score more than 3 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, P = 0.03], diabetes (OR = 3.3, P = 0.02) and FCS > 40 mm (OR = 3.4, P = 0.02). This largest observational study suggested the early diagnostic and prognostic utility of thromboelastography to identify COVID-19 and should be considered hypothesis generating. Our results also support the recent FDA guidance regarding the importance of measurement of whole blood viscoelastic properties in COVID-19 patients. Our findings are consistent with the observation of higher hospitalization rates and poorer outcomes for African--Americans with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fibrin/analysis , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Treatment Outcome
2.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 3440714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484098

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been observed that COVID-19 may cause myocardial damage, but there are few detailed reports on myocardial enzyme abnormalities. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed data from 157 consecutive laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 patients from Wuhan. We collected information on demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. The association between myocardial enzyme abnormalities and the mortality was also investigated. Results: The mortality in abnormal myocardial enzyme group was obviously higher than the normal group (P < 0.001). The majority of patients (n = 72, 97.3%) with normal cardiac enzyme group were of the common novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) type, whereas half of the patients with cardiac enzyme abnormalities (n = 40, 48.2%) developed critical and severe NCP type. The multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that COVID-19 patients with increasing age (P = 0.035), higher levels of CRP (P = 0.038), and TNI (P = 0.036) were associated with increased death than other patients. Conclusions: Myocardial enzyme abnormality and myocardial injury were associated with the severity and fatal outcomes of COVID-19. Clinicians should pay attention to the markers of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients, especially those with older age, comorbidities, and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Enzymes/blood , Myocardium/enzymology , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , COVID-19/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Troponin I/blood
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1236-1243, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478144

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The study aims to identify potential risk factors for the poor outcome of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Albania. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective observational study on 133 consecutive hospitalized patients at "COVID 1" Hospital, University Hospital Center of Tirana. The study analyzed the correlation between potential risk factors and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The study included 133 patients, 65.4% of the patients were male, age 60.46 ± 13.53 years. The mortality rate resulted in 22.6%. Univariate analysis revealed that early risk factors for mortality included: laboratory alterations on admission, such as lymphocytes count < 1.000/mm3 (OR = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.17-9.33), lactate dehydrogenase > 250 U/L (OR = 12.48, 95% CI = 1.62-95.78) and D dimer > 2 mg/L (OR = 4.72, 95% CI = 1.96-11.36); lung parenchymal involvement > 75% on chest computed tomography on admission (OR = 54.00, 95% CI = 11.89 - 245.11). Cox proportional hazard regression showed that independent risk factors for mortality were lung parenchymal involvement > 75% on chest computed tomography (HR = 8.31, 95%CI: 1.62-42.45) and occurrence of complications during hospital stay (OR = 10.28, 95% CI = 2.02-52.33). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of poor outcome can be predicted from the early stage of COVID 19 disease, using laboratory data and chest computed tomography. Among patients with COVID 19, lung parenchymal involvement and alterations > 75% on chest computed tomography on admission and laboratory findings, such as lymphocytopenia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase and D dimer levels, turned out to be early risk factors for in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Albania/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 129, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host inflammation contributes to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection causes mild or life-threatening disease. Tools are needed for early risk assessment. METHODS: We studied in 111 COVID-19 patients prospectively followed at a single reference Hospital fifty-three potential biomarkers including alarmins, cytokines, adipocytokines and growth factors, humoral innate immune and neuroendocrine molecules and regulators of iron metabolism. Biomarkers at hospital admission together with age, degree of hypoxia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine were analysed within a data-driven approach to classify patients with respect to survival and ICU outcomes. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the fifty-three potential biomarkers, the classification tree analysis selected CXCL10 at hospital admission, in combination with NLR and time from onset, as the best predictor of ICU transfer (AUC [95% CI] = 0.8374 [0.6233-0.8435]), while it was selected alone to predict death (AUC [95% CI] = 0.7334 [0.7547-0.9201]). CXCL10 concentration abated in COVID-19 survivors after healing and discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL10 results from a data-driven analysis, that accounts for presence of confounding factors, as the most robust predictive biomarker of patient outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26719, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has been described. However, it is not clear if the presence of abnormal liver function tests at presentation was related to underlying undiagnosed liver disease, or a result of the viral infection.We retrospectively examined the first 554 consecutive polymerase chain reaction positive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 to our academic medical centre. We reviewed their clinical data, chest radiography and laboratory studies obtained within 24 hour of admission.Despite similar hemodynamic parameters, we found significant aspartate transaminase elevation (64 ±â€Š141 vs 35 ±â€Š23 U/L, P < .001) in those with pneumonia compared to those without. Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 102 patients (18.4%). They presented with higher temperatures (38.5 ±â€Š0.9 vs 37.5 ±â€Š0.8 degC, P = .011), higher total white cell counts (6.95 ±â€Š2.29 vs 6.39 ±â€Š2.19 x109/L, P = .021), serum ferritin (240 ±â€Š274 vs 165 ±â€Š198 ng/ml, P = .002) and lactate dehydrogenase (632 ±â€Š912 vs 389 ±â€Š107 U/L, P < .001). These patients were more likely to require intensive care (6.9% vs 2.7% P = .036) and mechanical ventilation (5.9% vs 2.2%, P = .046). Migrant workers from dormitories had a higher rate of baseline liver function test abnormalities (88/425 vs 14/129, P = .01), which were more likely to persist at the time of discharge.Despite relatively mild COVID-19 disease, there was a significant prevalence of liver dysfunction, particularly amongst migrant workers. Elevated liver enzymes were associated with more severe disease, despite similar haemodynamic characteristics. Future studies should explore whether pre-existing liver disease may predispose to more severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 715072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430697

ABSTRACT

Background: Prediction of the severity of COVID-19 at its onset is important for providing adequate and timely management to reduce mortality. Objective: To study the prognostic value of damage parameters and cytokines as predictors of severity of COVID-19 using an extensive immunologic profiling and unbiased artificial intelligence methods. Methods: Sixty hospitalized COVID-19 patients (30 moderate and 30 severe) and 17 healthy controls were included in the study. The damage indicators high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), extensive biochemical analyses, a panel of 47 cytokines and chemokines were analyzed at weeks 1, 2 and 7 along with clinical complaints and CT scans of the lungs. Unbiased artificial intelligence (AI) methods (logistic regression and Support Vector Machine and Random Forest algorithms) were applied to investigate the contribution of each parameter to prediction of the severity of the disease. Results: On admission, the severely ill patients had significantly higher levels of LDH, IL-6, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), D-dimer, fibrinogen, glucose than the patients with moderate disease. The levels of macrophage derived cytokine (MDC) were lower in severely ill patients. Based on artificial intelligence analysis, eight parameters (creatinine, glucose, monocyte number, fibrinogen, MDC, MIG, C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 have been identified that could predict with an accuracy of 83-87% whether the patient will develop severe disease. Conclusion: This study identifies the prognostic factors and provides a methodology for making prediction for COVID-19 patients based on widely accepted biomarkers that can be measured in most conventional clinical laboratories worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Support Vector Machine , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 20896-20905, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, and CT score in evaluating the severity and prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were retrospectively enrolled. The baseline data, laboratory findings, chest computed tomography (CT) results evaluated by CT score on admission, and clinical outcomes were collected and compared. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent relationship between the baseline level of the four indicators (NLR, LDH, D-dimer, and CT score) and the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the 432 patients, 125 (28.94%) and 307 (71.06%) were placed in the severe and non-severe groups, respectively. As per the multivariate logistic regression, high levels of NLR and LDH were independent predictors of severe COVID-19 (OR=2.163; 95% CI=1.162-4.026; p=0.015 for NLR>3.82; OR=2.298; 95% CI=1.327-3.979; p=0.003 for LDH>246 U/L). Combined NLR>3.82 and LDH>246 U/L increased the sensitivity of diagnosis in patients with severe disease (NLR>3.82 [50.40%] vs. combined diagnosis [72.80%]; p=0.0007; LDH>246 [59.2%] vs. combined diagnosis [72.80%]; p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of serum NLR and LDH have potential value in the early identification of patients with severe COVID-19. Moreover, the combination of LDH and NLR can improve the sensitivity of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocytes/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , ROC Curve
8.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(5): 369-377, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first identified in Wuhan, China, has been rapidly spreading around the world. This study investigates the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Zhejiang Province who did or did not have a history of Wuhan exposure. METHODS: We collected data from medical records of confirmed COVID-19 patients in Zhejiang Province from Jan. 17 to Feb. 7, 2020 and analyzed epidemiological, clinical, and treatment data of those with and without recorded recent exposure in Wuhan. RESULTS: Patients in the control group were older than those in the exposure group ((48.19±16.13) years vs. (43.47±13.12) years, P<0.001), and more were over 65 years old (15.95% control vs. 5.60% exposure, P<0.001). The rate of clustered onset was also significantly higher in the control group than in the exposure group (31.39% vs. 18.66%, P<0.001). The symptom of a sore throat in patients in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (17.30% vs. 10.89%, P=0.01); however, headache in the exposure group was significantly lower than that in the control group (6.87% vs. 12.15%, P=0.015). More patients in the exposure group had a significantly lower level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) than those in the control group. There was no significant difference in any degree of COVID-19 including mild, severe, and critical between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: From the perspective of epidemiological and clinical characteristics, there was no significant difference between COVID-19 patients with and without Wuhan exposure history.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256023, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and the severity of AKI is linked to adverse outcomes. In this study, we investigated the factors associated with in-hospital outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and AKI. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective observational study, we evaluated the characteristics and in-hospital renal and patient outcomes of 578 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and AKI. Data were collected from 34 hospitals in Turkey from March 11 to June 30, 2020. AKI definition and staging were based on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Patients with end-stage kidney disease or with a kidney transplant were excluded. Renal outcomes were identified only in discharged patients. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 69 years, and 60.9% were males. The most frequent comorbid conditions were hypertension (70.5%), diabetes mellitus (43.8%), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (37.6%). The proportions of AKI stages 1, 2, and 3 were 54.0%, 24.7%, and 21.3%, respectively. 291 patients (50.3%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Renal improvement was complete in 81.7% and partial in 17.2% of the patients who were discharged. Renal outcomes were worse in patients with AKI stage 3 or baseline CKD. The overall in-hospital mortality in patients with AKI was 38.9%. In-hospital mortality rate was not different in patients with preexisting non-dialysis CKD compared to patients without CKD (34.4 versus 34.0%, p = 0.924). By multivariate Cox regression analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (95%CI)]: 1.01 [1.0-1.03], p = 0.035], male gender (HR [95%CI]: 1.47 [1.04-2.09], p = 0.029), diabetes mellitus (HR [95%CI]: 1.51 [1.06-2.17], p = 0.022) and cerebrovascular disease (HR [95%CI]: 1.82 [1.08-3.07], p = 0.023), serum lactate dehydrogenase (greater than two-fold increase) (HR [95%CI]: 1.55 [1.05-2.30], p = 0.027) and AKI stage 2 (HR [95%CI]: 1.98 [1.25-3.14], p = 0.003) and stage 3 (HR [95%CI]: 2.25 [1.44-3.51], p = 0.0001) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced-stage AKI is associated with extremely high mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Age, male gender, comorbidities, which are risk factors for mortality in patients with COVID-19 in the general population, are also related to in-hospital mortality in patients with AKI. However, preexisting non-dialysis CKD did not increase in-hospital mortality rate among AKI patients. Renal problems continue in a significant portion of the patients who were discharged.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Turkey
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(6): 766-772, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304762

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is the infection caused by the new coronavirus. Specific treatment for COVID-19 has not been established, yet. It is important to determine the disease severity of the patients at the first admission. Therefore, the exploration of biomarkers is deemed necessary. We aimed to assess the diagnostic and early prognostic value of CRP and LDH levels in possible COVID-19 patients presenting with a severe clinical picture. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated the correlations of relevant routine laboratory test results with disease severity in COVID-19 patients admitted to our infectious diseases clinic. Patients were divided into severe and non-severe disease groups based on clinical findings, oxygen saturation levels in the arterial blood, biochemical test results, and radiological findings. Differences in the findings between the two disease severity groups were examined to determine potential biomarkers. RESULTS: Median age and the CRP and LDH levels in the severe disease group were statistically significantly higher compared to the nonsevere group (p < 0.0001). No other parameters statistically significant differences have been observed between the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CRP and LDH levels were positively correlated with lung lesions in early-stage COVID-19, potentially reflecting disease severity. Because LDH and CRP levels can potentially reflect the pulmonary function, they can be potential predictors of COVID-19- related respiratory failure. For avoiding poor prognosis; LDH and CRP should be considered as potential predictors for identifying the need for thoracic CT scans, close monitoring of pulmonary function, and aggressive supportive therapy early in the course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/classification , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Turkey
11.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 197(11): 1010-1020, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298545

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lung low-dose radiation therapy (LD-RT) for pneumonia in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inclusion criteria comprised patients with COVID-19-related moderate-severe pneumonia warranting hospitalization with supplemental O2 and not candidates for admission to the intensive care unit because of comorbidities or general status. All patients received single lung dose of 0.5 Gy. Respiratory and systemic inflammatory parameters were evaluated before irradiation, at 24 h and 1 week after LD-RT. Primary endpoint was increased in the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) or the pulse oximetry saturation (SpO2) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio of at least 20% at 24 h with respect to the preirradiation value. RESULTS: Between June and November 2020, 36 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and a mean age of 84 years were enrolled. Seventeen were women and 19 were men and all of them had comorbidities. All patients had bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest X­ray. All patients received dexamethasone treatment. Mean SpO2 pretreatment value was 94.28% and the SpO2/FiO2 ratio varied from 255 mm Hg to 283 mm Hg at 24 h and to 381 mm Hg at 1 week, respectively. In those who survived (23/36, 64%), a significant improvement was observed in the percentage of lung involvement in the CT scan at 1 week after LD-RT. No adverse effects related to radiation treatment have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: LD-RT appears to be a feasible and safe option in a population with COVID-19 bilateral interstitial pneumonia in the presence of significant comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/radiation effects , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/radiotherapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Partial Pressure , Prospective Studies , Radiotherapy Dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
12.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(9): e13629, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286672

ABSTRACT

Background During COVID-19 outbreak, Italy was the first country in Europe to be heavily affected with an intensive care unit mortality of 26%. In order to reduce this percentage, physicians should establish clear and objective criteria to stratify COVID-19 patients at high risk of in-hospital death. Thus, the aim has been to test a large spectrum of variables ranging from clinical evaluation to laboratory biomarkers to identify which parameter would best predict all-cause in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Design observational study. Results Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that each 5 years of increase in age corresponded to a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.28 (95% CI 1.00-1.65, P = .050); each increment of 803 ng/L of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) corresponded to a HR of 1.24 (95% CI 1.11-1.39, P < .001); each increment of 58 ng/L of interleukin (IL)-6 corresponded to a HR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.09-1.40, P < .001), and each increment of 250 U/L of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) corresponded to a HR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.10-1.37, P < .001). According to the calculated cut-points for age (≥70 years), NT-proBNP (≥803 ng/L), IL-6 (≥58 ng/L) and LDH (≥371 U/L) when 2 out of these 4 were overcome, the HR was 2.96 (95% CI 1.97-4.45, P < .001). Conclusion In COVID-19 patients, besides age, the evaluation of three biochemical parameters, available in few hours after hospital admission can predict in-hospital mortality regardless of other comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Age Factors , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(8): 723-728, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the correlations between olfactory psychophysical scores and the serum levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. METHODS: Patients underwent psychophysical olfactory assessment with the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test, and determination of blood serum levels of the inflammatory markers D-dimer, C-reactive protein, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio within 10 days of the clinical onset of coronavirus disease 2019 and 60 days after. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included in this study. D-dimer, procalcitonin, ferritin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio correlated significantly with severe coronavirus disease 2019. No significant correlations were found between baseline and 60-day Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test scores and the inflammatory markers assessed. CONCLUSION: Olfactory disturbances appear to have little prognostic value in predicting the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 compared to D-dimer, ferritin, procalcitonin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. The lack of correlation between the severity and duration of olfactory disturbances and serum levels of inflammatory markers seems to further suggest that the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the loss of smell in coronavirus disease 2019 patients are related to local rather than systemic inflammatory factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/blood , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Procalcitonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Breast ; 59: 102-109, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant worldwide health crisis. Breast cancer patients with COVID-19 are fragile and require particular clinical care. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with COVID-19 and the risks associated with anti-cancer treatment. METHODS: The medical records of breast cancer patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were collected among 9559 COVID-19 patients from seven designated hospitals from 13th January to 18th March 2020 in Hubei, China. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: Of the 45 breast cancer patients with COVID-19, 33 (73.3%) developed non-severe COVID-19, while 12 (26.7%) developed severe COVID-19, of which 3 (6.7%) patients died. The median age was 62 years, and 3 (6.7%) patients had stage IV breast cancer. Univariate analysis showed that age over 75 and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score were associated with COVID-19 disease severity (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received chemotherapy within 7 days had a significantly higher risk for severe COVID-19 (logistic regression model: RR = 13.886, 95% CI 1.014-190.243, P = 0.049; Cox proportional hazards model: HR = 13.909, 95% CI 1.086-178.150, P = 0.043), with more pronounced neutropenia and higher LDH, CRP and procalcitonin levels than other patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In our breast cancer cohort, the severity of COVID-19 could be associated with baseline factors such as age over 75 and ECOG scores. Chemotherapy within 7 days before symptom onset could be a risk factor for severe COVID-19, reflected by neutropenia and elevated LDH, CRP and procalcitonin levels.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutropenia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , C-Reactive Protein , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Hemoglobin ; 45(2): 124-128, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281786

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the relationship between Hb A1c levels and the clinical course of coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) patients. Sixty-six COVID-19(+) patients with high Hb A1c and 46 with average Hb A1c and 30 COVID-19(-) patients with average Hb A1c were included. Hb A1c levels and parameters examined in COVID-19(+) patients were compared between groups, and correlation analysis was performed between these parameters and Hb A1c levels. The effect of Hb A1c levels on intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was analyzed with the χ2 test. It was observed that hemoglobin (Hb) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels of the COVID-19 (+) groups was lower than the COVID-19 (-) group, while ferritin, D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were higher. The COVID-19 (+) group with high Hb A1c had higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), PCT and D-dimer levels than the other two groups, while Hb, partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) levels were lower. The Hb A1c levels of the COVID-19 (+) groups were positively correlated with absolute neutrophil count (ANC), LDH, PCT and (K+) levels, while negatively correlated with Hb and PaO2 levels. Hb A1c was found to be associated with the inflammation process, coagulation disorders and low PaO2 in COVID-19 patients. The COVID-19 patients with high Hb A1c levels had a higher mortality rate than other COVID-19 patients. Using Hb A1c measurements with other prognostic markers would contribute to the patient's risk of death assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hyperglycemia/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Complications/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Oxygen/blood , Partial Pressure , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 128-133, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess COVID-19 impact on the morbidity and mortality of vasooclusive crisis (VOC) in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 100 SCA patients; 50 with COVID-19 (COVID group) and 50 without (non-COVID group). All patients signed written informed consent. RESULTS: The COVID group had a significantly higher VOC episode median per year; 3 (IQR,1-6) vs 2 (IQR,2-12) (P < 0.05). The need for hospitalisation was similar in both groups. The non-COVID group had more history of culture-proven infection (P = 0.05). The COVID-group had more osteonecrosis (P < 0.05), splenic sequestration, splenomegaly and hepatic crisis (P = 0.05, 0.006, 0.02; respectively) and significantly higher (P < 0.05) symptoms of fever, cough, fatigue, abdominal pain and anosmia. Mean haemoglobin, lymphocyte subset, platelets, and reticulocytes were reduced in both groups, while lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin levels were significantly elevated. In the COVID group, the rise in white blood cell count, reticulocyte percentage, platelets and ferritin was subdued (P < 0.05). Two patients in the COVID group and 3 in the non-COVID group died; there was no statistically significant difference in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 may have triggered the onset of VOC, it did not significantly influence VOC-related morbidity or mortality in this SCA cohort.


Subject(s)
Acute Chest Syndrome/blood , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Chest Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Anemia, Sickle Cell/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Platelet Count , Prospective Studies , Reticulocytes
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e241, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263436

ABSTRACT

A recently developed pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has quickly spread across the world. Unfortunately, a simplified risk score that could easily be used in primary care or general practice settings has not been developed. The objective of this study is to identify a simplified risk score that could easily be used to quickly triage severe COVID-19 patients. All severe and critical adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 on the West campus of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, from 28 January 2020 to 29 February 2020 were included in this study. Clinical data and laboratory results were obtained. CURB-65 pneumonia score was calculated. Univariate logistic regressions were applied to explore risk factors associated with in-hospital death. We used the receiver operating characteristic curve and multivariate COX-PH model to analyse risk factors for in-hospital death. A total of 74 patients (31 died, 43 survived) were finally included in the study. We observed that compared with survivors, non-survivors were older and illustrated higher respiratory rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but lower SpO2 as well as impaired liver function, especially synthesis function. CURB-65 showed good performance for predicting in-hospital death (area under curve 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.91). CURB-65 ⩾ 2 may serve as a cut-off value for prediction of in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19 (sensitivity 68%, specificity 81%, F1 score 0.7). CURB-65 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.61; 95% CI 1.05-2.46), LDH (HR 1.003; 95% CI 1.001-1.004) and albumin (HR 0.9; 95% CI 0.81-1) were risk factors for in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19. Our study indicates CURB-65 may serve as a useful prognostic marker in COVID-19 patients, which could be used to quickly triage severe patients in primary care or general practice settings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25917, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262274

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Invasive mechanical ventilation is recommended for the management of patients with COVID-19 who have severe respiratory symptoms. However, various complications can develop after its use. The efficient and appropriate management of patients requires the identification of factors associated with an aggravation of COVID-19 respiratory symptoms to a degree where invasive mechanical ventilation becomes necessary, thereby enabling clinicians to prevent such ventilation. This retrospective study included 138 inpatients with COVID-19 at a tertiary hospital. We evaluated the differences in the demographic and clinical data between 27 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation and 111 patients who did not. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the duration of fever, national early warning score (NEWS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on admission were significantly associated with invasive mechanical ventilation in this cohort. The optimal cut-off values were: fever duration ≥1 day (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 54.95%), NEWS ≥7 (sensitivity 72.73%, specificity 92.52%), and LDH >810 mg/dL (sensitivity 56.0%, specificity 90.29%). These findings can assist in the early identification of patients who will require invasive mechanical ventilation. Further studies in larger patient populations are recommended to validate our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Early Warning Score , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e25988, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection and intervention are the key factors for improving outcomes in patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this observational longitudinal study was to identify nonoverlapping severity subgroups (ie, clusters) among patients with COVID-19, based exclusively on clinical data and standard laboratory tests obtained during patient assessment in the emergency department. METHODS: We applied unsupervised machine learning to a data set of 853 patients with COVID-19 from the HM group of hospitals (HM Hospitales) in Madrid, Spain. Age and sex were not considered while building the clusters, as these variables could introduce biases in machine learning algorithms and raise ethical implications or enable discrimination in triage protocols. RESULTS: From 850 clinical and laboratory variables, four tests-the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the number of neutrophils-were enough to segregate the entire patient pool into three separate clusters. Further, the percentage of monocytes and lymphocytes and the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) distinguished cluster 3 patients from the other two clusters. The highest proportion of deceased patients; the highest levels of AST, ALT, LDH, and CRP; the highest number of neutrophils; and the lowest percentages of monocytes and lymphocytes characterized cluster 1. Cluster 2 included a lower proportion of deceased patients and intermediate levels of the previous laboratory tests. The lowest proportion of deceased patients; the lowest levels of AST, ALT, LDH, and CRP; the lowest number of neutrophils; and the highest percentages of monocytes and lymphocytes characterized cluster 3. CONCLUSIONS: A few standard laboratory tests, deemed available in all emergency departments, have shown good discriminative power for the characterization of severity subgroups among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Unsupervised Machine Learning , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Cell Count , Cluster Analysis , Datasets as Topic , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocytes , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Prognosis , Spain/epidemiology , Triage
20.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 73: 86-96, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the outcome of vascular procedures performed in patients with COVID-19 infection during the 2020 pandemic. METHODS: This is a multicenter, prospective observational cohort study. We analyzed data from 75 patients with COVID-19 infection undergoing vascular surgery procedures in 17 hospitals across Spain and Andorra between March and May 2020. The primary end point was 30-day mortality. Clinical Trials registry number NCT04333693. RESULTS: The mean age was 70.9 (45-94) and 58 (77.0%) patients were male. Around 70.7% had postoperative complications, 36.0% of patients experienced respiratory failure, 22.7% acute renal failure, and 22.7% acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). All-cause 30-days mortality rate was 37.3%. Multivariate analysis identified age >65 years (P = 0.009), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification IV (P = 0.004), preoperative lymphocyte count <0.6 (×109/L) (P = 0.001) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) >500 (UI/L) (P = 0.004), need for invasive ventilation (P = 0.043), postoperative acute renal failure (P = 0.001), ARDS (P = 0.003) and major amputation (P = 0.009) as independent variables associated with mortality. Preoperative coma (P = 0.001), quick Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score ≥2 (P = 0.043), lymphocytes <0.6 (×109/L) (P = 0.019) leucocytes >11.5 (×109/L) (P = 0.007) and serum ferritin >1800 mg/dL (P = 0.004), bilateral lung infiltrates on thorax computed tomography (P = 0.025), and postoperative acute renal failure (P = 0.009) increased the risk of postoperative ARDS. qSOFA score ≥2 was the only risk factor associated with postoperative sepsis (P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 infection undergoing vascular surgery procedures showed poor 30-days survival. Age >65 years, preoperative lymphocytes <0.6 (x109/L) and LDH >500 (UI/L), and postoperative acute renal failure, ARDS and need for major amputation were identified as prognostic factors of 30-days mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , Andorra/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
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