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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263750, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674021

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify meanings of and challenges to enacting equitable diversification of genomics research, and specifically precision medicine research (PMR), teams. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with 102 individuals involved in three U.S.-based precision medicine research consortia and conducted over 400 observation hours of their working group meetings, consortium-wide meetings, and conference presentations. We also reviewed published reports on genomic workforce diversity (WFD), particularly those relevant to the PMR community. RESULTS: Our study finds that many PMR teams encounter challenges as they strive to achieve equitable diversification on scientific teams. Interviewees articulated that underrepresented team members were often hired to increase the study's capacity to recruit diverse research participants, but are limited to on-the-ground staff positions with little influence over study design. We find existing hierarchies and power structures in the academic research ecosystem compound challenges for equitable diversification. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that meaningful diversification of PMR teams will only be possible when team equity is prioritized as a core value in academic research communities.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/ethics , Cultural Diversity , Laboratory Personnel/ethics , Precision Medicine/ethics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Genomics/ethics , Health Workforce/ethics , Humans , Laboratory Personnel/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Care Team/ethics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , United States , Young Adult
2.
Nurs Outlook ; 70(1): 119-126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670976

ABSTRACT

The pandemics of COVID-19 and systemic racism highlighted health inequities that have existed for decades among Black communities. Nurses are positioned to address these health inequities through innovative ideas and research. More specifically, Black nurses, because of their shared lived experience, understand sociostructural factors underpinning health inequities and how to best engage with Black communities. However, only 8% of Black nurses make up the overall nursing workforce and far fewer are nurse scientists. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) can offer critically important options for success in addressing the dearth of Black nurse scientists working across sectors and contributing to rich academic milieu, informing innovative national policy, and creating impactful practice. We discuss challenges and strategies to promoting research careers at HBCUs to attract Black nurse scientists as the next leaders in health inequities research.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Education, Nursing , Laboratory Personnel/supply & distribution , Leadership , Nurses/supply & distribution , Universities , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Humans , Racism
3.
Immunity ; 54(10): 2169-2171, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461102

ABSTRACT

For new principal investigators, the first years are key to getting a laboratory off the ground and running. COVID-19 has changed the world, bringing on unforeseen difficulties and challenges at every level. We asked these investigators to share their experiences in navigating the unique environment since the start of the pandemic-what has changed in their vision for their laboratory, how they have adapted, and what advice they can share with others in a similar situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Laboratories , Adaptation, Psychological , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Humans , Laboratories/trends , Laboratory Personnel/psychology , Laboratory Personnel/trends , SARS-CoV-2
6.
7.
Rom J Morphol Embryol ; 61(4): 1067-1076, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282837

ABSTRACT

In the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, healthcare workers are at high risk to be infected with this new coronavirus, particularly when they handle not only patients, but also their body fluids. In Romania, even though the protective measures to be used by medical staff in emergency departments, clinical departments, radiology departments, clinical laboratories and morgues services are well known, there is little information about the protection of medical staff in the laboratories of cytopathology and histopathology. In this article, we will discuss the transmission routes of the new coronavirus, the surfaces it could contaminate in a hospital, as well as the modalities of its inactivation. We will present some guidelines for preparing the pathology departments to face the pandemic situation like the present one. Also, we will point out some possible recommendations/suggestions for protective measures to be taken by laboratory staff during the cytological and histopathological procedures when they manipulate body fluids or surgical samples of patients with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Laboratory personnel should be aware that any body fluid or surgical specimen that arrives in the laboratory may contain SARS-CoV-2 and, as such, they should act after new working procedures. We recommend restraint from performing extemporaneous examination (smear and frozen section) and cytopathological examination in laboratories that do not have adequate condition for handling and processing Hazard Group 3 (HG3) pathogens, as SARS-CoV-2. Also, laboratory personnel should pay attention to instruments, technical equipment, or environmental surfaces as these also can be contaminated with the new coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laboratory Personnel , Pathology/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics , Pathology/standards , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0244529, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280615

ABSTRACT

Attitudes towards open peer review, open data and use of preprints influence scientists' engagement with those practices. Yet there is a lack of validated questionnaires that measure these attitudes. The goal of our study was to construct and validate such a questionnaire and use it to assess attitudes of Croatian scientists. We first developed a 21-item questionnaire called Attitudes towards Open data sharing, preprinting, and peer-review (ATOPP), which had a reliable four-factor structure, and measured attitudes towards open data, preprint servers, open peer-review and open peer-review in small scientific communities. We then used the ATOPP to explore attitudes of Croatian scientists (n = 541) towards these topics, and to assess the association of their attitudes with their open science practices and demographic information. Overall, Croatian scientists' attitudes towards these topics were generally neutral, with a median (Md) score of 3.3 out of max 5 on the scale score. We also found no gender (P = 0.995) or field differences (P = 0.523) in their attitudes. However, attitudes of scientist who previously engaged in open peer-review or preprinting were higher than of scientists that did not (Md 3.5 vs. 3.3, P<0.001, and Md 3.6 vs 3.3, P<0.001, respectively). Further research is needed to determine optimal ways of increasing scientists' attitudes and their open science practices.


Subject(s)
Peer Review, Research/trends , Preprints as Topic/trends , Scholarly Communication/trends , Adult , Aged , Attitude , Croatia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Faculty , Female , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Laboratory Personnel , Male , Middle Aged , Peer Review, Research/methods , Physicians , Psychometrics/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 227: 254-264, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252396

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize clinician-scientists in ophthalmology and identify factors associated with successful research funding, income, and career satisfaction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A survey was conducted of clinician-scientists in ophthalmology at US academic institutions between April 17, 2019, and May 19, 2019. Collected information including 1) demographic data; 2) amount, type, and source of startup funding; first extramural grant; and first R01-equivalent independent grant; 3) starting and current salaries; and 4) Likert-scale measurements of career satisfaction were analyzed using multivariate regression. RESULTS: Ninety-eight clinician-scientists in ophthalmology were surveyed across different ages (mean: 48 ± 11 years), research categories, institutional types, geographic regions, and academic ranks. Median startup funding ranged from $50-99k, and median starting salaries ranged from $150-199k. A majority of investigators (67%) received their first extramural award from the National Eye Institute, mainly through K-award mechanisms (82%). The median time to receiving their first independent grant was 8 years, mainly through an R01 award (70%). Greater institutional startup support (P = .027) and earlier extramural grant success (P = .022) were associated with earlier independent funding. Male investigators (P = .001) and MD degreed participants (P = .008) were associated with higher current salaries but not starting salaries. Overall career satisfaction increased with career duration (P = .011) but not with earlier independent funding (P = .746) or higher income (P = .300). CONCLUSIONS: Success in research funding by clinician-scientists in ophthalmology may be linked to institutional support and earlier acquisition of extramural grants but does not impact academic salaries. Nevertheless, career satisfaction among clinician-scientists improves with time, which is not necessarily influenced by research or financial success.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Job Satisfaction , Laboratory Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Ophthalmology/statistics & numerical data , Research Support as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States
11.
Cell ; 184(9): 2263-2270, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207011

ABSTRACT

Parent scientists lead a journey to bring surveillance severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing to public schools across the state of Massachusetts and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Laboratory Personnel , Parents , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Cooperative Behavior , Education , Humans , Massachusetts , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(4): 407-414, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194781

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Autopsy pathologists, including medical examiners, provide valuable public health support for infectious disease deaths through surveillance for deaths of public health concern including emerging infections, identifying causative organisms for unexplained deaths, and providing insights into the pathology and pathogenesis of novel or unusual infections. However, autopsy poses biosafety risks to workers within and outside the laboratory. The highest rates of laboratory-acquired infections occur in autopsy workers. OBJECTIVE.­: To design and construct an appropriately biosafe autopsy laboratory. DESIGN.­: We conducted a biosafety risk assessment for autopsy workers using the process developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health and applied these findings as the basis of laboratory design and construction. RESULTS.­: Autopsy workers are unpredictably exposed to a variety of infectious organisms, including hepatitis C virus, HIV, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Hazardous autopsy procedures include using and encountering sharp objects and the generation of aerosols from dissection, fluid aspiration, rinsing tissues, and dividing bone with an oscillating saw. CONCLUSIONS.­: Exposure to blood-borne and airborne pathogens from procedures that can cause cutaneous inoculation and inhalation of aerosols indicates that human autopsies should be performed at biosafety level 3. We designed a large, entirely biosafety level 3 medical examiner autopsy laboratory using design principles and characteristics that can be scaled to accommodate smaller academic or other hospital-based autopsy spaces. Containment was achieved through a concentric ring design, with access control at interface zones. As new autopsy laboratories are planned, we strongly recommend that they be designed to function uniformly at biosafety level 3.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Containment of Biohazards , Facility Design and Construction , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laboratories , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Coroners and Medical Examiners , Humans , Laboratory Personnel , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Safety Management
13.
Cytometry A ; 99(1): 81-89, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086343

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought biosafety to the forefront of many life sciences. The outbreak has compelled research institutions to re-evaluate biosafety practices and potential at-risk areas within research laboratories and more specifically within Shared Resource Laboratories (SRLs). In flow cytometry facilities, biological safety assessment encompasses known hazards based on the biological sample and associated risk group, as well as potential or unknown hazards, such as aerosol generation and instrument "failure modes." Cell sorting procedures undergo clearly defined biological safety assessments and adhere to well-established biosafety guidelines that help to protect SRL staff and users against aerosol exposure. Conversely, benchtop analyzers are considered low risk due to their low sample pressure and enclosed fluidic systems, although there is little empirical evidence to support this assumption of low risk. To investigate this, we evaluated several regions on analyzers using the Cyclex-d microsphere assay, a recently established method for cell sorter aerosol containment testing. We found that aerosol and/or droplet hazards were detected on all benchtop analyzers predominantly during operation in "failure modes." These results indicate that benchtop analytical cytometers present a more complicated set of risks than are commonly appreciated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Separation/instrumentation , Containment of Biohazards , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Laboratory Personnel , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 22, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, there is dearth of trained laboratorians and strengthened laboratory systems to provide adequate and quality laboratory services for enhanced HIV control. In response to this challenge, in 2007, the African Centre for Integrated Laboratory Training (ACILT) was established in South Africa with a mission to train staffs from countries with high burdens of diseases in skills needed to strengthen sustainable laboratory systems. This study was undertaken to assess the transference of newly gained knowledge and skills to other laboratory staff, and to identify enabling and obstructive factors to their implementation. METHODS: We used Kirkpatrick model to determine training effectiveness by assessing the transference of newly gained knowledge and skills to participant's work environment, along with measuring enabling and obstructive factors. In addition to regular course evaluations at ACILT (pre and post training), in 2015 we sent e-questionnaires to 867 participants in 43 countries for course participation between 2008 and 2014. Diagnostics courses included Viral Load, and systems strengthening included strategic planning and Biosafety and Biosecurity. SAS v9.44 and Excel were used to analyze retrospective de-identified data collected at six months pre and post-training. RESULTS: Of the 867 participants, 203 (23.4%) responded and reported average improvements in accuracy and timeliness in Viral Load programs and to systems strengthening. For Viral Load testing, frequency of corrective action for unsatisfactory proficiency scores improved from 57 to 91%, testing error rates reduced from 12.9% to 4.9%; 88% responders contributed to the first national strategic plan development and 91% developed strategies to mitigate biosafety risks in their institutions. Key enabling factors were team and management support, and key obstructive factors included insufficient resources and staff's resistance to change. CONCLUSIONS: Training at ACILT had a documented positive impact on strengthening the laboratory capacity and laboratory workforce and substantial cost savings. ACILT's investment produced a multiplier effect whereby national laboratory systems, personnel and leadership reaped training benefits. This laboratory training centre with a global clientele contributed to improve existing laboratory services, systems and networks for the HIV epidemic and is now being leveraged for COVID-19 testing that has infected 41,332,899 people globally.


Subject(s)
Epidemics/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Laboratories/organization & administration , Laboratory Personnel/education , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Services , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Testing , Health Services Research , Humans , Retrospective Studies
15.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(2): 92-97, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957434

ABSTRACT

Despite the international guidelines on the containment of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the European scientific community was not sufficiently prepared to coordinate scientific efforts. To improve preparedness for future pandemics, we have initiated a network of nine European-funded Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Actions that can help facilitate inter-, multi-, and trans-disciplinary communication and collaboration.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Communication , Europe , Humans , Laboratory Personnel , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(7): 1053-1062, 2020 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937252

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the third coronavirus outbreak that has emerged in the past 20 years, after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). One important aspect, highlighted by many global health organizations, is that this novel coronavirus outbreak may be especially hazardous to healthcare personnel, including laboratory professionals. Therefore, the aim of this document, prepared by the COVID-19 taskforce of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), is to provide a set of recommendations, adapted from official documents of international and national health agencies, on biosafety measures for routine clinical chemistry laboratories that operate at biosafety levels 1 (BSL-1; work with agents posing minimal threat to laboratory workers) and 2 (BSL-2; work with agents associated with human disease which pose moderate hazard). We believe that the interim measures proposed in this document for best practice will help minimazing the risk of developing COVID-19 while working in clinical laboratories.


Subject(s)
Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Services , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Laboratories , Laboratory Personnel , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(11): e1008313, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937215

ABSTRACT

When running a lab we do not think about calamities, since they are rare events for which we cannot plan while we are busy with the day-to-day management and intellectual challenges of a research lab. No lab team can be prepared for something like a pandemic such as COVID-19, which has led to shuttered labs around the globe. But many other types of crises can also arise that labs may have to weather during their lifetime. What can researchers do to make a lab more resilient in the face of such exterior forces? What systems or behaviors could we adjust in 'normal' times that promote lab success, and increase the chances that the lab will stay on its trajectory? We offer 10 rules, based on our current experiences as a lab group adapting to crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Laboratory Personnel/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cooperative Behavior , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Pandemics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Media , Uncertainty
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8397053, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841506

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Portuguese healthcare system had to adapt at short notice to the COVID-19 pandemic. We implemented workflow changes to our molecular pathology laboratory, a national reference center, to maximize safety and productivity. We assess the impact this situation had on our caseload and what conclusions can be drawn about the wider impact of the pandemic in oncological therapy in Portugal. Material and Methods. We reviewed our database for all oncological molecular tests requested between March and April of 2019 and 2020. For each case, we recorded age, sex, region of the country, requesting institution, sample type, testing method, and turnaround time (TAT). A comparison between years was made. RESULTS: The total number of tests decreased from 421 in 2019 to 319 in 2020 (p = 0.0027). The greatest reduction was in clinical trial-related cases. Routine cases were similar between years (267 vs. 256). TAT was higher in 2019 (mean 15 days vs. 12.3 days; p = 0.0003). Medium- to large-sized public hospitals in the north of the country were mostly responsible for the reduction in cases (p = 0.0153). CONCLUSIONS: Case reduction was observed at hospitals that have mostly been involved in the treatment of COVID-19 and in the north of the country, the region worst-hit by the pandemic. Similar to other studies, our TAT decreased, even with a similar number of routine cases. Thus, we conclude that it is possible to successfully adapt the workflow of a molecular pathology laboratory to new safety standards without losing efficiency.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Medical Oncology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pathology, Molecular , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Laboratories , Laboratory Personnel , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs , Pandemics , Portugal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Workflow
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